Indigenous languages of the Americas

Native American languagesindigenous languagesNative American languageNative AmericanAmerindian languagesIndian Languagesindigenous languageAmerican Indian languagesAmerindian languageAmerindian
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska, Nunavut, and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.wikipedia
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Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska, Nunavut, and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas.

Quechuan languages

QuechuaQuechua languageQuechuan
The indigenous languages of the Americas had widely varying demographics, from the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guarani, and Nahuatl, which had millions of active speakers, to many languages with only several hundred speakers.
Quechua (, US also ; ), usually called Runasimi ("people's language") in Quechuan languages, is an indigenous language family spoken by the Quechua peoples, primarily living in the Peruvian Andes and highlands of South America.

Aymara language

AymaraAymaráAimara
The indigenous languages of the Americas had widely varying demographics, from the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guarani, and Nahuatl, which had millions of active speakers, to many languages with only several hundred speakers.
It is one of only a handful of Native American languages with over one million speakers.

Navajo language

NavajoNavajo alphabetMode and Aspect
In the United States, the Navajo language is the most spoken Native American language, with more than 200,000 speakers in the Southwestern United States. Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers (1.95 million) if the languages in Mexico are considered (mostly due to 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl); Na-Dené comes in second with approximately 200,000 speakers (nearly 180,000 of these are speakers of Navajo), and Algic in third with about 180,000 speakers (mainly Cree and Ojibwe).
It is one of the most widely spoken Native American languages and is the most widely spoken north of the Mexico–United States border, with almost 170,000 Americans speaking Navajo at home as of 2011.

Guarani language

GuaraníGuaraniGuaraní language
The indigenous languages of the Americas had widely varying demographics, from the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guarani, and Nahuatl, which had millions of active speakers, to many languages with only several hundred speakers.
Guarani is one of the most-widely spoken indigenous languages of the Americas and the only one whose speakers include a large proportion of non-indigenous people.

Ojibwe language

OjibweOjibwaAnishinaabe language
Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers (1.95 million) if the languages in Mexico are considered (mostly due to 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl); Na-Dené comes in second with approximately 200,000 speakers (nearly 180,000 of these are speakers of Navajo), and Algic in third with about 180,000 speakers (mainly Cree and Ojibwe).
Ojibwe, also known as Ojibwa, Ojibway or Otchipwe, is an indigenous language of North America of the Algonquian language family.

Uto-Aztecan languages

Uto-AztecanUto-Aztecan languageUto-Aztecan language family
The Na-Dené, Algic, and Uto-Aztecan families are the largest in terms of number of languages.
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages.

Lyle Campbell

Campbell, LyleCampbell
In American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America (1997), Lyle Campbell lists several hypotheses for the historical origins of Amerindian languages.
Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.

Edward Sapir

SapirSapir, EdwardSapir tradition
Other proposals are more controversial with many linguists believing that some genetic relationships of a proposal may be demonstrated but much of it undemonstrated (for example, Hokan–Siouan, which, incidentally, Edward Sapir called his "wastepaper basket stock").
He studied Germanic linguistics at Columbia, where he came under the influence of Franz Boas who inspired him to work on Native American languages.

Americas

Americathe AmericasAmerican
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska, Nunavut, and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
Linguists and biologists have reached a similar conclusion based on analysis of Amerindian language groups and ABO blood group system distributions.

Extinct language

extinctdead languageextinct languages
For example, many Native American languages were replaced by English, French, Portuguese, Spanish or Dutch as a result of colonization.

Cree language

Creelanguagecre
Uto-Aztecan has the most speakers (1.95 million) if the languages in Mexico are considered (mostly due to 1.5 million speakers of Nahuatl); Na-Dené comes in second with approximately 200,000 speakers (nearly 180,000 of these are speakers of Navajo), and Algic in third with about 180,000 speakers (mainly Cree and Ojibwe).
If classified as one language, it is the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada.

Indigenous peoples of the Southeastern Woodlands

Southeastern Woodlandsindigenous people of the Southeastern WoodlandsSoutheastern tribes
Another area of considerable diversity appears to have been the Southeastern Woodlands; however, many of these languages became extinct from European contact and as a result they are, for the most part, absent from the historical record.
The area was linguistically diverse, major language groups were Caddoan and Muskogean, besides a number of language isolates.

Marianne Mithun

Mithun, MarianneMithunMarianne Mithun Williams
The classification below is a composite of Goddard (1996), Campbell (1997), and Mithun (1999).
Marianne Mithun (born 1946) is an American linguist specializing in American Indian languages and language typology.

Keres language

KeresanKeresKeresan languages
Keresan, also Keres, is a Native American language, spoken by the Keres Pueblo people in New Mexico.

Eskimo–Aleut languages

Eskimo–AleutEskimoEskimo-Aleut
Many languages throughout North America are polysynthetic (Eskimo–Aleut languages are extreme examples), although this is not characteristic of all North American languages (contrary to what was believed by 19th-century linguists).
The Eskimo–Aleut languages are among the native languages of the Americas.

Alaska

CityAKAlaskan
Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska, Nunavut, and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.
A total of 5.2% of Alaskans speak one of the state's 20 indigenous languages, known locally as "native languages".

Na-Dene languages

Na-DenéNa-DeneNa-Dené languages
The Na-Dené, Algic, and Uto-Aztecan families are the largest in terms of number of languages.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.

Creole language

creolecreolescreole languages
After pre-Columbian times, several indigenous creole languages developed in the Americas, based on European, indigenous and African languages.
Atlantic Creole languages are based on European languages with elements from African and possibly Amerindian languages.

Mayan languages

MayanMayan languageMaya
Ejective consonants are also common in western North America, although they are rare elsewhere (except, again, for the Caucasus region, parts of Africa, and the Mayan family).
During the Spanish colonization of Central America, all indigenous languages were eclipsed by Spanish, which became the new prestige language.

Natchez language

Natcheznczspeaking
The language is considered to be either unrelated to other indigenous languages of the Americas or distantly related to the Muskogean languages.

Polysynthetic language

polysyntheticpolysynthesispolysynthetic languages
Many languages throughout North America are polysynthetic (Eskimo–Aleut languages are extreme examples), although this is not characteristic of all North American languages (contrary to what was believed by 19th-century linguists).
The term was invented by Peter Stephen Du Ponceau, who considered polysynthesis, as characterized by sentence words and noun incorporation, a defining feature of all Native American languages.

Utian languages

UtianUtian familyUtian language
Utian (also Miwok–Costanoan, previously Mutsun) is a family of indigenous languages spoken in Northern California, United States.

Writing system

scriptwriting systemsscripts
Several indigenous cultures of the Americas had also developed their own writing systems, the best known being the Maya script.
Other languages that use true syllabaries include Mycenaean Greek (Linear B) and Indigenous languages of the Americas such as Cherokee.

Oto-Manguean languages

Oto-MangueanOto-MangueOto-Manguean language family
Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.