Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginalnativenativesautochthonousAboriginal peopleindigenous communitiesindigenous cultureaboriginal peoples
Indigenous peoples, also known as First peoples, Aboriginal peoples or Native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.wikipedia
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Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous PeoplesUN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous PeoplesUnited Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity, language and access to employment, health, education and natural resources.
According to a UN press release it does "represent the dynamic development of international legal norms and it reflects the commitment of the UN's member states to move in certain directions"; the UN describes it as setting "an important standard for the treatment of indigenous peoples that will undoubtedly be a significant tool toward eliminating human rights violations against the planet's 370 million indigenous people, and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalisation."

Colonization

colonisationcolonizecolonial
During the late twentieth century, the term Indigenous people began to be used to describe a legal category in indigenous law created in international and national legislation; it refers to culturally distinct groups affected by colonization.
Colonization refers strictly to migration, for example, to settler colonies in America or Australia, trading posts, and plantations, while colonialism to the existing indigenous peoples of styled "new territories".

Ethnic group

ethnicityethnicethnic groups
Indigenous peoples, also known as First peoples, Aboriginal peoples or Native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the original or earliest known inhabitants of an area, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The largest ethnic groups in modern times comprise hundreds of millions of individuals (Han Chinese being the largest), while the smallest are limited to a few dozen individuals (numerous indigenous peoples worldwide).

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
Other terms used to refer to indigenous populations are aboriginal, original, autochthonous or first (as in Canada's First Peoples (First Nations, Inuit and Métis)).
Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763, also known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations.

Ainu people

AinuAinu cultureAinus
In a ground-breaking 1997 decision involving the Ainu people of Japan, the Japanese courts recognized their claim in law, stating that "If one minority group lived in an area prior to being ruled over by a majority group and preserved its distinct ethnic culture even after being ruled over by the majority group, while another came to live in an area ruled over by a majority after consenting to the majority rule, it must be recognized that it is only natural that the distinct ethnic culture of the former group requires greater consideration."
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu: アィヌ, Аину, Aynu; Japanese: アイヌ, Áìnù; Russian: Áйны, Áĭny) or the Ezo in the historical Japanese texts, are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaidō and formerly North-Eastern Honshū) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, Khabarovsk Krai and the Kamchatka Peninsula).

United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues

UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous IssuesPermanent Forum on Indigenous IssuesInternational Decade of the World's Indigenous Peoples
In May 2016, the Fifteenth Session of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) affirmed that indigenous people (also termed aboriginal people, native people, or autochthonous people) are distinctive groups protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their linguistic and historical ties to a particular territory, prior to later settlement, development, and or occupation of a region.
The United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII or PFII) is the UN's central coordinating body for matters relating to the concerns and rights of the world's indigenous peoples.

Pelasgians

PelasgianPelasgiPelasgic
Greek sources of the Classical period acknowledge the prior existence of indigenous people(s), whom they referred to as "Pelasgians".
In general, "Pelasgian" has come to mean more broadly all the indigenous inhabitants of the Aegean Sea region and their cultures, "a hold-all term for any ancient, primitive and presumably indigenous people in the Greek world".

Guanches

GuanchemenceyGuanche mythology
The Canary Islands had an indigenous population called the Guanches whose origin is still the subject of discussion among historians and linguists.
The Guanches were the aboriginal inhabitants of the Canary Islands.

Sentinelese

Sentinelese peopleJohn Allen ChauSunder Raj
Indigenous societies range from those who have been significantly exposed to the colonizing or expansionary activities of other societies (such as the Maya peoples of Mexico and Central America) through to those who as yet remain in comparative isolation from any external influence (such as the Sentinelese and Jarawa of the Andaman Islands).
The Sentinelese, also known as the Sentineli and the North Sentinel Islanders, are an indigenous people who inhabit North Sentinel Island in the Bay of Bengal in India.

International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples

International Day of the World's Indigenous PeopleInternational Day of the World’s Indigenous Peoples
International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples is celebrated on 9 August each year.
This event also recognizes the achievements and contributions that indigenous people make to improve world issues such as environmental protection.

James Anaya

S. James AnayaS. James, Anaya
James Anaya, former Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, has defined indigenous peoples as "living descendants of pre-invasion inhabitants of lands now dominated by others. They are culturally distinct groups that find themselves engulfed by other settler societies born of forces of empire and conquest".
2008, he was appointed by the United Nations as its Special Rapporteur on the situation of the human rights and fundamental freedoms of indigenous people, replacing Rodolfo Stavenhagen.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian, which until recently was commonly applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas.
Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture.

Urarina people

UrarinaKacháShimaco
In Spanish or Portuguese speaking countries one finds the use of terms such as pueblos indígenas, amerindios, povos nativos, povos indígenas, and, in Peru, Comunidades Nativas (Native Communities), particularly among Amazonian societies like the Urarina and Matsés.
The Urarina are an indigenous people of the Peruvian Amazon Basin (Loreto) who inhabit the valleys of the Chambira, Urituyacu, and Corrientes Rivers.

Arctic

Arctic regionThe Arcticcircumpolar
Indigenous peoples who maintain, or seek to maintain, traditional ways of life are found from the high Arctic north to the southern extremities of Tierra del Fuego.
The cultures in the region and the Arctic indigenous peoples have adapted to its cold and extreme conditions.

Eskimo

EskimosEsquimauxInuit
The descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have fallen into disuse in Canada.
Eskimo or Eskimos are the indigenous circumpolar peoples who have traditionally inhabited the northern circumpolar region from eastern Siberia (Russia) to Alaska (of the United States), Canada, and Greenland.

Canary Islands

Canary IslandCanariesCanarian
The Canary Islands had an indigenous population called the Guanches whose origin is still the subject of discussion among historians and linguists.
When the Europeans began to explore the islands in the late Middle Ages, they encountered several indigenous peoples living at a Neolithic level of technology.

United Nations

UNU.N.the United Nations
The United Nations has issued a Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) to guide member-state national policies to the collective rights of indigenous peoples, such as culture, identity, language and access to employment, health, education and natural resources. Since indigenous peoples are often faced with threats to their sovereignty, economic well-being and their access to the resources on which their cultures depend, political rights have been set forth in international law by international organizations such as the United Nations, the International Labour Organization and the World Bank.
ECOSOC's subsidiary bodies include the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which advises UN agencies on issues relating to indigenous peoples; the United Nations Forum on Forests, which co-ordinates and promotes sustainable forest management; the United Nations Statistical Commission, which co-ordinates information-gathering efforts between agencies; and the Commission on Sustainable Development, which co-ordinates efforts between UN agencies and NGOs working towards sustainable development.

Land law

land rightslandland use rights
This situation can persist even in the case where the indigenous population outnumbers that of the other inhabitants of the region or state; the defining notion here is one of separation from decision and regulatory processes that have some, at least titular, influence over aspects of their community and land rights.
In common law jurisdictions, the land rights of indigenous peoples are referred to as aboriginal title.

Oaxaca

Oaxaca, MexicoState of OaxacaOaxaca State
In the southern states of Chiapas, Yucatán and Oaxaca they constitute 26.1%, 33.5% and 35.3%, respectively, of the population.
The state is best known for its indigenous peoples and cultures.

Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Population history of American indigenous peoplesNative American populationpopulations
The impact of European colonization of the Americas on the indigenous communities has been in general quite severe, with many authorities estimating ranges of significant population decline primarily due to disease but also violence.
Genetic diversity and population structure in the American land mass using DNA micro-satellite markers (genotype) sampled from North, Central, and South America have been analyzed against similar data available from other indigenous populations worldwide.

Yazidis

YazidiYezidiYezidis
The Yazidis are indigenous to the Sinjar mountain range in northern Iraq.
Yazidis (also written as Yezidis) are an endogamous and mostly Kurmanji-speaking group of contested ethnic origin, indigenous to Iraq, Syria, and Turkey.

Assyria

Assyrian EmpireAssyriansAssyrian
They claim descent from the ancient Neo-Assyrian Empire and Akkadians, and lived in what was Assyria, their original homeland.
The Arab Islamic conquest of the area in the mid-seventh century finally dissolved Assyria (Assuristan) as a single entity, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people (by now Christians) gradually became an ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious minority in the Assyrian homeland, surviving there to this day as an indigenous people of the region.

Uncontacted peoples

uncontacteduncontacted peopleuncontacted tribes
On 18 January 2007, FUNAI reported that it had confirmed the presence of 67 different uncontacted tribes in Brazil, up from 40 in 2005.
Knowledge of the existence of these groups comes mostly from infrequent and sometimes conflictive encounters with neighbouring indigenous peoples, and from aerial footage.

Mapuche

AraucanianMapuche peopleMapuches
In Chile there are indigenous tribes like the Mapuches in the Center-South and the Aymaras in the North; also the Rapa Nui indigenous to Easter Island are a Polynesian tribe.
Today, many Mapuche and Mapuche communities are engaged in the so-called Mapuche conflict over land and indigenous rights in both Argentina and in Chile.

Greenland

Kalaallit NunaatGreenlandicGL
The autonomous Danish territory of Greenland is also home to a majority population of indigenous Inuit (about 85%).
The Kalaallit are the indigenous Greenlandic Inuit people who inhabit the country's western region.