A report on Indigenous peoples

A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993
Colorized photograph of an Amis couple in traditional clothing. Taken in pre-World War II Japanese-ruled Taiwan.
Guatemalan girls in their traditional clothing from the town of Santa Catarina Palopó on Lake Atitlán
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Map with the main travels of the Age of Discovery (began in 15th century).
Depiction of a Spaniard entering Chalco with three Tlaxcalan soldiers and an Indigenous porter in the Lienzo de Tlaxcala (pre-1585)
The arrival of Jan van Riebeeck in Table Bay, South Africa in 1652. Painting by Charles Davidson Bell (1813–1882)
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Starting fire by hand, San people in Botswana.
African Pygmies in Congo
Inuit on a traditional qamutik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada.
A girl wears the traditional Nahua headdress in Yohualichan, Veracruz.
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Andes, Peru
Kalash girls in Pakistan
Naga people in Northeast India
Marina A. Temina, a native speaker and teacher of the Nivkh language
Ainu man performing a traditional Ainu dance
Dayak people in Kalimantan
Sámi family in Lapland, 1936
Aboriginal Australian dancers
Dani people from the central highlands of western New Guinea
The New Zealand delegation, including Māori members, endorses the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in 2010.
Indigenous peoples march for their right to self-determination in Davao City (2008).
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
"Savages of Mokka and Their House in Formosa", pre-1945, Taiwan under Japanese rule
Helena Gualinga, an indigenous environmental and human rights activist
Native American dancer of the Save Our Ancestors Remains and Resources Indigenous Network Group (SOARRING) Foundation, a not-for-profit organization whose mission is to educate people about indigenous ways of life

Indigenous peoples, also referred to as First peoples, First nations, Aboriginal peoples, Native peoples, Indigenous natives, or Autochthonous peoples (these terms are often capitalized when referring to specific indigenous peoples as ethnic groups, nations, and the members of these groups ), are culturally distinct ethnic groups whose members are directly descended from the earliest known inhabitants of a particular geographic region and, to some extent, maintain the language and culture of those original peoples.

- Indigenous peoples
A Maya family in the hamlet of Patzun, Guatemala, 1993

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Overall

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

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The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples.

The Indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples.

Current distribution of the indigenous peoples of the Americas (not including mixed people like mestizos, métis, zambos and pardos)
Diné boy, in the desert of Monument Valley, AZ, United States of America. The Three Sisters buttes are visible in the background.
Mapuche man, in Chile
Mayan women in Antigua Guatemala, Central America.
Language families of Indigenous peoples in North America: shown across present-day Canada, Greenland, the United States, and northern Mexico
The Kogi, descendants of the Tairona, are a culturally-intact, largely pre-Columbian society. The Tairona were one of the few indigenous American civilizations that were not fully conquered.
"The Maiden", one of the discovered Llullaillaco mummies. A Preserved Inca human sacrifice from around the year 1500.
Cultural areas of North America at time of European contact
Eight Crow Nation prisoners under guard at Crow agency, Montana, 1887
Drawing accompanying text in Book XII of the 16th-century Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585), showing Nahuas of conquest-era central Mexico suffering from smallpox
Indigenous people at a Brazilian farm plantation in Minas Gerais ca. 1824
A bison hunt depicted by George Catlin
Ancient mesoamerican engraving of maize, National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico
Main indigenous language families of South America (except Quechua, Aymaran, and Mapuche).
Maya glyphs in stucco at the Museo de sitio in Palenque, Mexico
Textile art by Julia Pingushat (Inuk, Arviat, Nunavut, Canada), wool, embroidery floss, 1995
Chimu culture feather pectoral, feathers, reed, copper, silver, hide, cordage, ca. 1350–1450 CE
Indigenous man playing a panpipe, antara or siku
Indigenous protesters from Vale do Javari, one of the largest indigenous territories in Brazil
A map of uncontacted peoples, around the start of the 21st century
Bill Reid's sculpture The Raven and the First Men (collection of the Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver). The Raven represents the Trickster figure common to many mythologies.
Some Inuit people on a traditional qamutiik (dog sled) in Cape Dorset, Nunavut, Canada
Tunumiit Inuit couple from Kulusuk, Greenland
Wixarika (Huichol) woman from Zacatecas
Tenejapa Carnival with Tzeltal people, Chiapas
Rarámuri marathon in Urique.
Choctaw artist from Oklahoma
A Navajo man on horseback in Monument Valley, Arizona
Indigenous Salvadoran Pipil women dancing in the traditional Procession of Palms, Panchimalco in El Salvador
Maya women from Guatemala
A Mayan woman
Owners of a roadside cafe near Cachi, Argentina
Indigenous woman in traditional dress, near Cochabamba, Bolivia
Indigenous man of Terena tribe from Brazil
Mapuche man and woman. The Mapuche make up about 85% of Indigenous population that live in Chile.
Guambía people relaxing in Colombia
Shaman of the Cofán people from the Ecuadorian Amazon Ecuador Amazonian forest
Quechua woman and child in the Sacred Valley, Cuzco Region, Peru
A Warao family from Venezuela traveling in their canoe
Evo Morales (Aymara), former President of Bolivia
Schematic illustration of maternal (mtDNA) gene-flow in and out of Beringia, from 25,000 years ago to present
Wayúu artisan women, in the Colombian-Venezuelan Guajira.
Quechua women in festive dress, on the island of Taquile (Lake Titicaca).

Many Indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are, but many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture.

New Zealand delegation at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. New Zealand endorsed the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in April 2010.

Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

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Legally non-binding resolution passed by the United Nations in 2007.

Legally non-binding resolution passed by the United Nations in 2007.

New Zealand delegation at the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. New Zealand endorsed the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples in April 2010.

According to a UN press release it does "represent the dynamic development of international legal norms and it reflects the commitment of the UN's member states to move in certain directions"; the UN describes it as setting "an important standard for the treatment of Indigenous Peoples that will undoubtedly be a significant tool toward eliminating human rights violations against the planet's 370 million Indigenous people, and assisting them in combating discrimination and marginalisation."

United Nations

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Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Intergovernmental organization whose purposes are to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations.

Members of the United Nations
1943 sketch by Franklin Roosevelt of the UN original three branches: The Four Policemen, an executive branch, and an international assembly of forty UN member states
The UN in 1945: founding members in light blue, protectorates and territories of the founding members in dark blue
Dag Hammarskjöld was a particularly active secretary-general from 1953 until his death in 1961.
Kofi Annan, secretary-general from 1997 to 2006
Flags of member nations at the United Nations Headquarters, seen in 2007
Mikhail Gorbachev, Soviet general secretary, addressing the UN General Assembly in December 1988
Colin Powell, the US Secretary of State, demonstrates a vial with alleged Iraq chemical weapon probes to the UN Security Council on Iraq war hearings, 5 February 2003
Current secretary-general, António Guterres
The ICJ ruled that Kosovo's unilateral declaration of independence from Serbia in 2008 did not violate international law.
Under Sukarno, Indonesia became the first and only country to leave the United Nations.
A Nepalese soldier on a peacekeeping deployment providing security at a rice distribution site in Haiti during 2010
The UN Buffer Zone in Cyprus was established in 1974 following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
Eleanor Roosevelt with the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1949
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme reading the news that smallpox has been globally eradicated in 1980
In Jordan, UNHCR remains responsible for the Syrian refugees and the Zaatari refugee camp.
The 2001 Nobel Peace Prize to the UN—diploma in the lobby of the UN Headquarters in New York City
Marking of the UN's 70th anniversary – Budapest, 2015

Its work is carried out primarily by subsidiary bodies focused on a wide variety of topics; these include the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, which advises UN agencies on issues relating to indigenous peoples; the United Nations Forum on Forests, which coordinates and promotes sustainable forest management; the United Nations Statistical Commission, which co-ordinates information-gathering efforts between agencies; and the Commission on Sustainable Development, which co-ordinates efforts between UN agencies and NGOs working towards sustainable development.

New Zealand

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Island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

Island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

Detail from a 1657 map showing the western coastline of Nova Zeelandia (in this map, North is at the bottom).
The Māori people descend from Polynesians whose ancestors emigrated from Taiwan to Melanesia between 3000 and 1000 BCE and then travelled east, reaching the Society Islands c. 1000 CE. After a pause of 200 to 300 years, a new wave of exploration led to the discovery and settlement of New Zealand.
Map of the New Zealand coastline as Cook charted it on his first visit in 1769–70. The track of the Endeavour is also shown.
The Waitangi sheet from the Treaty of Waitangi
A meeting of European and Māori inhabitants of Hawke's Bay Province. Engraving, 1863.
A statue of Richard Seddon, the "Beehive" (Executive Wing), and Parliament House (right), in Parliament Grounds, Wellington.
Māori Battalion haka in Egypt, 1941
Anzac Day service at the National War Memorial
Map of regions (coloured) and territorial authorities (outlined) in New Zealand.
The snow-capped Southern Alps dominate the South Island, while the North Island's Northland Peninsula stretches towards the subtropics.
The endemic flightless kiwi is a national icon.
The giant Haast's eagle died out when humans hunted its main prey, the moa, to extinction.
Waterfront along Auckland CBD, a major hub of economic activity
Milford Sound / Piopiotahi is one of New Zealand's most famous tourist destinations.
Wool has historically been one of New Zealand's major exports.
A Boeing 787–9 Dreamliner of Air New Zealand, the flag carrier of New Zealand
Population pyramid (2017)
Pedestrians on Queen Street in Auckland, an ethnically diverse city
A Rātana church on a hill near Raetihi. The two-tower construction is characteristic of Rātana buildings.
Portrait of Hinepare of Ngāti Kahungunu by Gottfried Lindauer, showing chin moko, pounamu hei-tiki and woven cloak
The Hobbiton Movie Set, located near Matamata, was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.
A haka performed by the national rugby union team ("All Blacks") before a game. The haka is a challenge with vigorous movements and stamping of the feet.
Ingredients to be prepared for a hāngi
Rural scene near Queenstown
Hokitika Gorge, West Coast
The Emerald Lakes, Mt Tongariro
Lake Gunn
Pencarrow Head, Wellington
Speakers of Māori according to the 2013 census 
Less than 5%
More than 5%
More than 10%
More than 20%
More than 30%
More than 40%
More than 50%

In 1856 the colony effectively became self-governing, gaining responsibility over all domestic matters (except native policy, which was granted in the mid-1860s).

Indigenous rights

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Indigenous rights are those rights that exist in recognition of the specific condition of the Indigenous peoples.

Statue of Tegueste at Candelaria, Tenerife

Guanches

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Statue of Tegueste at Candelaria, Tenerife
Guanche rock carvings in La Palma
Guanche pottery (Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre, Tenerife).
Guanche kings of Tenerife surrendering to Alonso Fernández de Lugo.
Alonso Fernández de Lugo presenting the captured Guanche kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Guanche idol.
Guatimac idol in the Archaeological Museum of Puerto de la Cruz (Tenerife).
Mount Teide on Tenerife.
Mummy of San Andrés, in the Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre (Tenerife, Canary Islands).
Tenerife prior to the Castilian invasion.
A statue of the Guanche mencey Añaterve. Candelaria, Tenerife.
Reconstruction of a Guanche settlement of Tenerife.
The Guanches on Tenerife.
Painting of Guanche warriors of Grand Canaria by Leonardo Torriani, 1592.
Painting of Guanches of Grand Canaria by Leonardo Torriani, 1592.
Painting of Gomeros of La Gomera by Leonardo Torriani, 1592.
Painting of Bimbache of El Hierro by Leonardo Torriani, 1592.
Zanata Stone.

The Guanches were the indigenous inhabitants of the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean some 100 km west of Africa.

Tenerife

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Largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands.

Largest and most populous island of the Canary Islands.

Altitude map of Tenerife, with the highest altitude (Mount Teide) in blue and the lowest (sea level) in black
Guanche mummy in Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre of Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Territorial map of Tenerife before the conquest
Alonso Fernandez de Lugo presenting the native kings of Tenerife to Ferdinand and Isabella
Amaro Pargo (1678-1741), corsair and merchant from Tenerife who participated in the Spanish treasure fleet (the Spanish-American trade route)
Admiral Nelson wounded at Tenerife
Palm tree canyon in inland Tenerife
Map of Tenerife
Tenerife formation
The uneven contours of the Anaga massif
Teno massif—Cliffs of the Giants area
Panorama of Valle de La Orotava
Chamorga, in the Macizo de Anaga.
Forested areas populated by Pinus in El Chinyero Special Nature Reserve
Gallotia galloti, a wall lizard species endemic to Tenerife.
Skull of Canariomys bravoi.
Map showing the classification of protected areas in Tenerife
Building of the Presidency of the Canaries Autonomous Government in Santa Cruz
Map of Municipalities in the island of Tenerife
Flag of Tenerife
Coat-of-arms of Tenerife
Demographic evolution of Tenerife
Harbour
Puerto de la Cruz, in the North, during winter, featuring background snowy mountains
Sunset at the beach Playa De Las Americas, Tenerife
Banana plantations in the western coastline (Guía de Isora)
Castle of San Andrés, declared of National Tourist Interest Center.
Tomás de Iriarte y Oropesa
Canarian timple
Pyramids of Güímar
Architecture in Santa Cruz (Plaza de España)
Auditorio de Tenerife, icon of architecture in Canary Islands
Traditional costume
Annual performance to honour "Our Lady of Candelaria" at Socorro Beach, Güímar
Soil Tapestry in the Plaza del Ayuntamiento (Town Square) in La Orotava
Basilica of Candelaria, sanctuary of the Virgin of Candelaria, patron saint of the Canary Islands
Peter of Saint Joseph de Betancur, franciscan missionary in Guatemala born in Tenerife. It was the first canary to be canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. This saint is very venerated in Tenerife.
Cathedral of La Laguna
University of La Laguna, the oldest and largest university in the Canary Islands
Teide Observatory, part of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Astrophysics Institute of the Canaries)
Guanche mummy in the Museo de la Naturaleza y el Hombre
Guanche figures at Pueblo Chico in La Oratava
Santa Cruz de Tenerife
Teno, the westernmost point in the island
TF5 motorway approaching Santa Cruz
Tenerife North Airport
Tramway servicing between Santa Cruz and La Laguna
Teide cableway
Hospital Universitario de Canarias
Canarian wrinkly potatoes, with red mojo
Gofio escaldado
Panorama of the La Orotava Valley with Teide in the background.
Teide and Roque Cinchado.
Fringilla teydea
Dracaena draco

The island's indigenous people, the Guanche Berbers, referred to the island as Achinet or Chenet in their language (variant spellings are found in the literature).

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Uncontacted peoples

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Uncontacted peoples in the Acre region of Brazil
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Uncontacted peoples are communities or groups of indigenous peoples living without sustained contact to neighbouring communities and the world community; groups who decide to remain uncontacted are referred to as indigenous peoples in voluntary isolation.

Distribution of major languages of Europe

Ethnic groups in Europe

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Distribution of major languages of Europe
Simplified model for the demographic history of Europeans during the Neolithic period and the introduction of agriculture.
Map of the Roman Empire and barbarian tribes in 125 AD.
The Great Migrations of Late Antiquity.
Map showing the distribution of Slavic tribes between the 7th–9th centuries AD.
Europa Regina (Representation of Europe printed by Sebastian Munster'' (1570).
Ethnographic map of Europe, The Times Atlas (1896).
Gagauz people in Moldova
Sámi family in Lapland of Finland, 1936.
Expulsions of Jews in Europe from 1100 to 1600
Personifications of Sclavinia, Germania, Gallia, and Roma, bringing offerings to Otto III; from a gospel book dated 990.
Eurobarometer Poll 2005 chart results
Native nationals as a proportion of the total population among European countries

Europeans are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the states of Europe.

Territories in the Americas claimed by a European great power in 1750

Settler colonialism

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Territories in the Americas claimed by a European great power in 1750
U.S. territorial acquisitionsportions of each territory were granted statehood since the 18th century.
Map showing the southward migration of the Han Chinese (in blue)
The expansion of the Qing Dynasty of China
Expansion of Russia 1500–1900
"Areas of European settlement". Censuses, articles quoted in description. .)

Settler colonialism is a structure that perpetuates the elimination of indigenous people and cultures to replace them with a settler society.