Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples in CanadaAboriginal CanadianAboriginal peoplesIndigenous peoplesAboriginal peopleAboriginalsNative CanadianAboriginal Canadians
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Aboriginal Canadians are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of Canada.wikipedia
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First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, or by the initialism FNIM (First Nations, Inuit, Métis), Although "Indian" is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and some consider them to be pejorative.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations ) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.

Inuit

InukInuit peopleEskimos
They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, or by the initialism FNIM (First Nations, Inuit, Métis), Although "Indian" is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and some consider them to be pejorative. In Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982, "Aboriginal peoples of Canada" includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples.
Since the late 20th century, Indigenous peoples in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit consider "Eskimo" to be a pejorative term, and they more frequently identify as "Inuit" for an autonym.

Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative Americansindigenous
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Aboriginal Canadians are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of Canada.
Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but also the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood.

History of Canada

Canadian historyCanadahistory
National Indigenous Peoples Day recognizes the cultures and contributions of Indigenous peoples to the history of Canada.
Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization.

Culture of Canada

Canadian culturecultureCanadian
First Nations, Inuit and Métis peoples of all backgrounds have become prominent figures and have served as role models in the Indigenous community and help to shape the Canadian cultural identity.
Throughout Canada's history, its culture has been influenced by European culture and traditions, especially British and French, and by its own indigenous cultures. Over time, elements of the cultures of Canada's immigrant populations have become incorporated to form a Canadian cultural mosaic.

Eskimo

EskimosEsquimauxInuit
They comprise the First Nations, Inuit and Métis, or by the initialism FNIM (First Nations, Inuit, Métis), Although "Indian" is a term still commonly used in legal documents, the descriptors "Indian" and "Eskimo" have somewhat fallen into disuse in Canada and some consider them to be pejorative.
Section 25 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and section 35 of the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982, recognized the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

Indian Act

Bill C-31Indian Act of CanadaCanadian Indian Act
The Indian Act ( R.S.C., 1985, c. I-5) sets the legal term Indian and "means a person who pursuant to this Act is registered as an Indian or is entitled to be registered as an Indian".

Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982

section 35Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982section 35(1)
In Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982, "Aboriginal peoples of Canada" includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples.
Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 provides constitutional protection to the indigenous and treaty rights of indigenous peoples in Canada.

National Indigenous Peoples Day

National Aboriginal Day
National Indigenous Peoples Day recognizes the cultures and contributions of Indigenous peoples to the history of Canada.
National Indigenous Peoples Day (French: Journée nationale des peuples autochtones) is a day recognising and celebrating the cultures and contributions of the First Nations, Inuit and Métis Indigenous peoples of Canada.

Southern Ontario

SouthernGreat LakesOntario
The Wendat peoples settled into Southern Ontario along the Eramosa River around 8,000–7,000 BCE (10,000–9,000 years ago).
For thousands of years, Ontario has been home to indigenous aboriginal communities, with numerous nations with differing languages at the time of European contact.

Slavey

Slavey peopleSouth SlaveyAwokanak
In the northwest were the Athapaskan, Slavey, Dogrib, Tutchone, and Tlingit.
The Slavey (also Slave and South Slavey) are a First Nations indigenous peoples of the Dene group, indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canada's Northwest Territories, and extending into northeastern British Columbia and northwestern Alberta.

Gitxsan

GitksanGitsxanGitxsan First Nation
Along the Pacific coast were the Tsimshian; Haida; Salish; Kwakiutl; Heiltsuk; Nootka; Nisga'a; Senakw and Gitxsan.
Gitxsan (also spelled Gitksan) are an indigenous people of Canada whose home territory comprises most of the area known as the Skeena Country in English (Git: means "people of" and Xsan: means "the River of Mist").

Chipewyan

DenesulineChipewyan peopleChipewyans
In the northern woodlands were the Cree and Chipewyan.
The Chipewyan (Denésoliné or Dënesųłı̨né or Dënë Sųłınë́, meaning "the original/real people") are an aboriginal Dene ethnolinguistic group of the Athabaskan language family, whose ancestors are identified with the Taltheilei Shale archaeological tradition.

Innu

MontagnaisInnu peopleInnu Nation
Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Maliseet, Innu, Abenaki and Mi'kmaq.
The Innu (or Montagnais) are the Indigenous inhabitants of an area in Canada they refer to as Nitassinan ("Our Land"), which comprises most of the northeastern portion of the present-day province of Quebec and some eastern portions of Labrador.

Beothuk

BeothuksBeothuk peopleBeothuck
Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Maliseet, Innu, Abenaki and Mi'kmaq.
The Beothuk ( or ; also spelled Beothuck) were a group of indigenous people living on the island of Newfoundland.

Constitution Act, 1982

Constitution Act 1982Constitution Act of 1982Constitution Act
Similarly, "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act, 1982, though in some circles that word is also falling into disfavour.
Section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982 "recognizes and affirms" the "existing" aboriginal and treaty rights in Canada.

Constitution of Canada

Canadian ConstitutionConstitutionconstitutional
Indian remains in place as the legal term used in the Canadian Constitution.
Part II addresses the rights of Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

Saskatchewan

SKSaskatchewan, CanadaProvince of Saskatchewan
The Métis homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Ontario, as well as the Northwest Territories (NWT).
Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups.

Ovide Mercredi

Prominent First Nations people include Joe Capilano, who met with King of the United Kingdom, Edward VII, to speak of the need to settle land claims and Ovide Mercredi, a leader at both the Meech Lake Accord constitutional reform discussions and Oka Crisis.
While a student he became President of the first native students' association formed in Canada.

Saulteaux

Plains OjibweSalteauxBungi
The Métis are people descended from marriages between Europeans (mainly French) and Cree, Ojibway, Algonquin, Saulteaux, Menominee, Mi'kmaq, Maliseet, and other First Nations.
The Saulteaux are a branch of the Ojibwe Aboriginal Canadians.

Lethbridge

Lethbridge, AlbertaLethbridge, ABLeth.
Head-Smashed-In Buffalo Jump, near Lethbridge, Alberta, is a hunting grounds that was in use for about 5,000 years.

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
The Métis homeland consists of the Canadian provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Ontario, as well as the Northwest Territories (NWT).
In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples.

Georgian Bay

Georgian Bay areaHuroniaMain Channel of Georgian Bay
They were concentrated between Lake Simcoe and Georgian Bay.
Archaeological records reveal an Aboriginal presence in the southern regions of the Canadian Shield dating from 11,000 years ago.

Canadian Indian residential school system

residential schoolresidential schoolsIndian residential school
The final government strategy of assimilation, made possible by the Indian Act was the Canadian residential school system:
In Canada, the Indian residential school system was a network of boarding schools for Indigenous peoples.

National Historic Sites of Canada

National Historic Site of CanadaNational Historic SiteHistoric Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
In July 1992, the Federal Government officially designated X̲á:ytem (near Mission, British Columbia) as a National Historic Site, one of the first Indigenous spiritual sites in Canada to be formally recognized in this manner.
By the 1990s, three groups were identified as being underrepresented among National Historic Sites: Aboriginal peoples, women, and ethnic groups other than the French and the English.