Indigenous peoples of the Americas

Native AmericanNative AmericansindigenousIndiansIndianAmerican Indianindigenous peoplesAmerindiansindigenous peopleAmerican Indians
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.wikipedia
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Pre-Columbian era

pre-Columbianpre-Hispanicprehispanic
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of North, Central and South America and their descendants.
While the phrase "pre-Columbian era" literally refers only to the time preceding Christopher Columbus's voyages of 1492, in practice the phrase is usually used to denote the entire history of indigenous American cultures until those cultures were extinguished, diminished, or extensively altered by Europeans, even if this happened long after Columbus.

Indigenous peoples

indigenousindigenous peopleaboriginal
Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture.
Notably, the origins of the term indigenous is not related in any way to the origins of the term Indian, which until recently was commonly applied to indigenous peoples of the Americas.

Native Americans in the United States

Native AmericanNative AmericansAmerican Indian
Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii and territories of the United States.

Native American name controversy

AmerindianRed IndianIndian
Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies.
The Native American name controversy is an ongoing discussion about the changing terminology used by the indigenous peoples of the Americas to describe themselves, as well as how they prefer to be referred to by others.

Alaska Natives

Alaska NativeNative AlaskanAlaskan Native
Indigenous peoples of the United States are commonly known as Native Americans or American Indians and Alaska Natives.
Alaska Natives or Alaskan Natives are indigenous peoples of Alaska, United States and include: Iñupiat, Yupik, Aleut, Eyak, Tlingit, Haida, Tsimshian, and a number of Northern Athabaskan cultures.

Bolivia

BOLBolivianPlurinational State of Bolivia
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the United States.
The country's population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, Mestizos, Europeans, Asians and Africans.

Inuit

InukInuit peopleEskimos
Even though the term "Indian" generally does not include the culturally and linguistically distinct indigenous peoples of the Arctic regions of the Americas—such as the Aleuts, Inuit or Yupik peoples, who entered the continent as a second more recent wave of migration several thousand years before and have much more recent genetic and cultural commonalities with the aboriginal peoples of the Asiatic Arctic Russian Far East—these groups are nonetheless considered "indigenous peoples of the Americas". Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but also the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood.
Inuit (syllabics:, "the people", singular: Inuk ᐃᓄᒃ, dual: Inuuk ᐃᓅᒃ) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

Indigenous peoples in Canada

AboriginalIndigenousAboriginal peoples in Canada
Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but also the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood.
Indigenous peoples in Canada, also known as Aboriginal Canadians are the indigenous peoples within the boundaries of Canada.

Chile

Republic of ChileChileanCHI
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the United States.
Other theories say Chile may derive its name from a Native American word meaning either "ends of the earth" or "sea gulls"; from the Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends;" or from the Quechua chiri, "cold", or tchili, meaning either "snow" or "the deepest point of the Earth".

Genetic history of indigenous peoples of the Americas

Indigenous Amerindian geneticsIndigenous American genetic studiesAncestral Native American
According to archaeological and genetic evidence, North and South America were the last continents in the world to gain human habitation.
The genetic history of Indigenous peoples of the Americas (also named Amerindians or Amerinds in physical anthropology) is divided into two sharply distinct episodes:

Panama

PanamáRepublic of PanamaPAN
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the United States.
The earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points.

Christopher Columbus

ColumbusCristoforo ColomboColón
Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies.
He continued to seek a passage to the East Indies, and the extent to which he was aware that the Americas were a wholly separate landmass is uncertain; he gave the name indios ("Indians") to the indigenous peoples he encountered.

First Nations

First NationNorth American IndianIndian
Indigenous peoples are commonly known in Canada as Aboriginal peoples, which includes not only First Nations and Arctic Inuit, but also the minority population of First Nations-European mixed race Métis people who identify culturally and ethnically with indigenous peoplehood.
Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis.

Paleo-Indians

Paleo-IndianPaleoindianPaleoindians
The Clovis culture, the earliest definitively-dated Paleo-Indians in the Americas, appears around 11,500 RCBP (radiocarbon years Before Present ), equivalent to 13,500 to 13,000 calendar years ago.
Paleo-Indians, Paleoindians or Paleoamericans were the first peoples who entered, and subsequently inhabited, the Americas during the final glacial episodes of the late Pleistocene period.

Pacific Northwest

northwestNorthwest CoastPacific Northwest Coast
Another route proposed involves migration – either on foot or using primitive boats – along the Pacific Northwest coast to the south, including as far as South America.
The culture of the Pacific Northwest is influenced by the Canada–United States border, which the United States and the United Kingdom established at a time when the region's inhabitants were composed mostly of indigenous peoples.

History of the Americas

AmericasDiscoverer of the AmericasEuropean discovery of the Americas
The Pre-Columbian era refers to all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original arrival in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early modern period.
The ancestors of today's American Indigenous peoples were the Paleo-Indians; they were hunter-gatherers who migrated into North America.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and the United States.
Many Mexican cultural features including tequila, first distilled in the 16th century, charreria (17th), mariachi (18th) and Mexican cuisine, a fusion of American and European (particularly Spanish) cuisine, arose during the colonial era.

European colonization of the Americas

European colonizationwhite settlersEuropean settlement
The Pre-Columbian era refers to all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original arrival in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early modern period.
The North and South American mainland fell to the conquistadors precipitating an estimated 8,000,000 deaths of indigenous populations primarily through the spread of Afro-Eurasian diseases.

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
The domestication of maize or corn required thousands of years of selective breeding, and continued cultivation of multiple varieties was done with planning and selection, generally by women.
mays, from maíz after ), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

Archaeology of the Americas

American archaeologyperiod subdivisionsNorth American archaeology
The Pre-Columbian era refers to all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European and African influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original arrival in the Upper Paleolithic to European colonization during the early modern period.
This includes the study of pre-historic/Pre-Columbian and historic indigenous American peoples, as well as historical archaeology of more recent eras.

East Indies

IndiesEastEast Indian
Application of the term "Indian" originated with Christopher Columbus, who, in his search for India, thought that he had arrived in the East Indies.
The inhabitants of the East Indies are almost never called East Indians, distinguishing them both from inhabitants of the Caribbean (which is also called the West Indies) and from the indigenous peoples of the Americas who are often called American Indians.

Arawak

ArawaksArawak peoplesArawak people
Colonization of the Caribbean led to the destruction of the Arawaks of the Lesser Antilles.
The Arawak are a group of indigenous peoples of South America and of the Caribbean.

Hispaniola

San DomingoSanto DomingoIsland of Hispaniola
The first indigenous group encountered by Columbus, the 250,000 Taínos of Hispaniola, represented the dominant culture in the Greater Antilles and the Bahamas.
The island was called by various names by its native people, the Taíno Amerindians.

Laws of Burgos

Leyes de BurgosLaws of Burgos, 1512–1513Burgos' Laws
The Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513, were the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spanish settlers in America, particularly with regard to native Indians.
The Laws of Burgos (Leyes de Burgos), promulgated on 27 December 1512 in Burgos, Crown of Castile (Spain), was the first codified set of laws governing the behavior of Spaniards in the Americas, particularly with regard to the Indigenous people of the Americas ('native Caribbean Indians').

Hernán Cortés

CortésHernan CortesCortez
Unintentionally introduced at Veracruz with the arrival of Pánfilo de Narváez on April 23, 1520, smallpox ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, possibly killing over 150,000 in Tenochtitlán (the heartland of the Aztec Empire) alone, and aiding in the victory of Hernán Cortés over the Aztec Empire at Tenochtitlan (present-day Mexico City) in 1521.
Arriving on the continent, Cortés executed a successful strategy of allying with some indigenous people against others.