Indirect speech

indirect discoursereported speechindirectindirect statementoratio recta
Indirect speech is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.wikipedia
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Sequence of tenses

consecutio temporumprimary tensethe sequence of tense
In some languages, including English, the tense of verbs is often changed – this is often called sequence of tenses.
A typical context in which rules of sequence of tenses apply is that of indirect speech.

Direct speech

directquoted speechdirect discourse
Indirect speech is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.
Reported or normal indirect speech:

Content clause

indirect questiondeclarative content clausedirect question
In grammar, indirect speech often makes use of certain syntactic structures such as content clauses ("that" clauses, such as (that) he was coming), and sometimes infinitive phrases.
Reported questions (as in the last of the examples) are also subject to the tense and other changes that apply generally in indirect speech.

Utterance

utterancesexpressionexpressions
Indirect speech is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.

Quotation

quotationsquotesquote
Indirect speech is a means of expressing the content of statements, questions or other utterances, without quoting them explicitly as is done in direct speech.

Speech act

speech actsspeech act theoryIndirect speech act
Indirect speech should not be confused with indirect speech acts.

Grammar

grammaticalgrammaticallyrules of language
In grammar, indirect speech often makes use of certain syntactic structures such as content clauses ("that" clauses, such as (that) he was coming), and sometimes infinitive phrases.

Syntax

syntacticsyntacticalsyntactically
In grammar, indirect speech often makes use of certain syntactic structures such as content clauses ("that" clauses, such as (that) he was coming), and sometimes infinitive phrases.

Grammatical category

grammatical categoriescategoriescategory
In indirect speech certain grammatical categories are changed relative to the words of the original sentence.

Grammatical person

personthird personfirst person
For example, person may change as a result of a change of speaker or listener (as I changes to he in the example above).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
In some languages, including English, the tense of verbs is often changed – this is often called sequence of tenses.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
In some languages, including English, the tense of verbs is often changed – this is often called sequence of tenses.

Latin

Lat.Latin languagelat
Some languages have a change of mood: Latin switches from indicative to the infinitive (for statements) or the subjunctive (for questions).

Realis mood

indicativeindicative moodrealis
Some languages have a change of mood: Latin switches from indicative to the infinitive (for statements) or the subjunctive (for questions).

Infinitive

to''-infinitivebare infinitiveinfinitival
In grammar, indirect speech often makes use of certain syntactic structures such as content clauses ("that" clauses, such as (that) he was coming), and sometimes infinitive phrases. Some languages have a change of mood: Latin switches from indicative to the infinitive (for statements) or the subjunctive (for questions).

Quotation mark

quotation marksdouble quotes
When written, indirect speech is not normally enclosed in quotation marks or any similar typographical devices for indicating that a direct quotation is being made.

Bracket

parenthesesbracketsparenthesis
However such devices are sometimes used to indicate that the indirect speech is a faithful quotation of someone's words (with additional devices such as square brackets and ellipses to indicate deviations or omissions from those words), as in He informed us that "after dinner [he] would like to make an announcement".

Ellipsis

ellipses...elliptical
However such devices are sometimes used to indicate that the indirect speech is a faithful quotation of someone's words (with additional devices such as square brackets and ellipses to indicate deviations or omissions from those words), as in He informed us that "after dinner [he] would like to make an announcement".

Referent

referentsco-referreference
In indirect speech, words generally have referents appropriate to the context in which the act of reporting takes place, rather than that in which the speech act being reported took place (or is conceived as taking place).

Origo (pragmatics)

origo
The two acts often differ in reference point (origo) – the point in time and place and the person speaking – and also in the person being addressed and the linguistic context.

Grammatical mood

moodmoodsmode
Some languages have a change of mood: Latin switches from indicative to the infinitive (for statements) or the subjunctive (for questions).

Personal pronoun

personal pronounspersonalpronoun paradigms
personal pronouns, such as I, you, he, we, and the corresponding verb forms (in pro-drop languages the meaning of the pronoun may be conveyed solely by verb inflection).

Pro-drop language

pro-dropPro-drop languagesdropped
personal pronouns, such as I, you, he, we, and the corresponding verb forms (in pro-drop languages the meaning of the pronoun may be conveyed solely by verb inflection).

Demonstrative

demonstrative pronoundemonstrativesdemonstrative pronouns
demonstratives, such as this and that.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
However, in many Slavic languages, there is no change of tense in indirect speech and so there is no ambiguity.