Indium

InIn 2 111 InIn(?)In-115
Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49.wikipedia
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Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
It is a silvery-white metal that resembles tin in appearance. Like tin, a high-pitched cry is heard when indium is bent – a crackling sound due to crystal twinning.
Tin, like indium, is soft enough to be cut without much force.

Gallium

GaGa 2 67 Ga
Indium has a melting point higher than sodium and gallium, but lower than lithium and tin. Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. It is a member of group 13 on the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between its vertical neighbours gallium and thallium.
It is in group 13 of the periodic table, and thus has similarities to the other metals of the group, aluminium, indium, and thallium.

Post-transition metal

other metalPost-transition metalsB metals
It is a post-transition metal that makes up 0.21 parts per million of the Earth's crust.
All proposals include gallium, indium, tin, thallium, lead, and bismuth.

Thallium

Tl 201 Tlthallium(I)
Chemically, indium is similar to gallium and thallium, and it is largely intermediate between the two in terms of its properties. It is a member of group 13 on the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between its vertical neighbours gallium and thallium.
The +3 state resembles that of the other elements in group 13 (boron, aluminium, gallium, indium).

Indium tin oxide

ITOindium tin oxide (ITO)InSnO
It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass.
Indium tin oxide (ITO) is a ternary composition of indium, tin and oxygen in varying proportions.

Boron group

group 1313group III
It is a member of group 13 on the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between its vertical neighbours gallium and thallium.
The boron group are the chemical elements in group 13 of the periodic table, comprising boron (B), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized nihonium (Nh).

Solder

lead-free soldersilver soldersoldered
It is most notably used in the semiconductor industry, in low-melting-point metal alloys such as solders, in soft-metal high-vacuum seals, and in the production of transparent conductive coatings of indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass.
Lead-free solders in commercial use may contain tin, copper, silver, bismuth, indium, zinc, antimony, and traces of other metals.

Ferdinand Reich

ReichF. ReichReich, Ferdinand
Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods.
Ferdinand Reich (19 February 1799 – 27 April 1882) was a German chemist who co-discovered indium in 1863 with Hieronymous Theodor Richter.

Symbol (chemistry)

symbolchemical symbolchemical symbols
Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49.

Mohs scale of mineral hardness

Mohs hardnessMohs scalehardness
It is so soft (Mohs hardness 1.2) that like sodium, it can be cut with a knife.

Alkali metal

alkali metalsalkaligroup 1
Indium is the softest metal that is not an alkali metal.
The intermetallic compounds of the alkali metals with the heavier group 13 elements (aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium), such as NaTl, are poor conductors or semiconductors, unlike the normal alloys with the preceding elements, implying that the alkali metal involved has lost an electron to the Zintl anions involved.

Hieronymous Theodor Richter

Hieronymus Theodor RichterRichterRichter, Hieronymus Theodor
Indium was discovered in 1863 by Ferdinand Reich and Hieronymous Theodor Richter by spectroscopic methods.
In 1863, while working at the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology, he co-discovered indium with Ferdinand Reich.

Indium(III) oxide

indium oxideIn 2 O 3 oxide
Indium(III) oxide, In 2 O 3, forms when indium metal is burned in air or when the hydroxide or nitrate is heated.
Indium(III) oxide (In 2 O 3 ) is a chemical compound, an amphoteric oxide of indium.

Melting point

freezing pointmelting temperaturemelting
Like both, indium has a low melting point, 156.60 °C (313.88 °F); higher than its lighter homologue, gallium, but lower than its heavier homologue, thallium, and lower than tin.

Indium halides

indium(I) chlorideInClindium
Indium forms the expected trihalides.
There are three sets of Indium halides, the trihalides, the monohalides, and several intermediate halides.

Indium(III) chloride

InCl 3 Indium trichloride
Chlorination, bromination, and iodination of In produce colorless InCl 3, InBr 3, and yellow InI 3.
Indium(III) chloride is the chemical compound with the formula InCl 3.

Cyclopentadienylindium(I)

Most are In(III) derivatives, but cyclopentadienylindium(I) is an exception.
Cyclopentadienylindium(I), C 5 H 5 In, is an organoindium compound containing indium in the +1 oxidation state.

Trimethylindium

In(CH 3 ) 3
Perhaps the best-known organoindium compound is trimethylindium, In(CH 3 ) 3, used to prepare certain semiconducting materials.
This colorless, volatile solid is the preferred organometallic source of indium for metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of indium-containing compound semiconductors, such as InP, InAs, InN, InSb, GaInAs, InGaN, AlGaInP, AlInP, AlInGaNP, etc.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
Direct reaction of indium with the pnictogens produces the gray or semimetallic III–V semiconductors.
The conductivity of silicon is increased by adding a small amount (of the order of 1 in 10 8 ) of pentavalent (antimony, phosphorus, or arsenic) or trivalent (boron, gallium, indium) atoms.

Indium(III) bromide

InBr 3
Chlorination, bromination, and iodination of In produce colorless InCl 3, InBr 3, and yellow InI 3.
Indium(III) bromide, (indium tribromide), InBr 3, is a chemical compound of indium and bromine.

Tin cry

cry
Like tin, a high-pitched cry is heard when indium is bent – a crackling sound due to crystal twinning.
Although the cry is most typical of tin, a similar effect occurs in other metals, such as niobium, indium, zinc, cadmium, gallium, and mercury.

Cadmium

CdCd 2+ cadmium compounds
The indium isotopes lighter than 115 In predominantly decay through electron capture or positron emission to form cadmium isotopes, while the other indium isotopes from 115 In and greater predominantly decay through beta-minus decay to form tin isotopes.
Heavier isotopes decay mostly through beta emission producing element 49 (indium).

Indium(I) bromide

bromideInBrindium monobromide
The chloride, bromide, and iodide are deeply colored, unlike the parent trihalides from which they are prepared.
Indium(I) bromide is a chemical compound of indium and bromine.

Rhenium

ReNipponiumRe 2
Indium is one of three known elements (the others being tellurium and rhenium) of which the stable isotope is less abundant in nature than the long-lived primordial radioisotopes.
Rhenium has one stable isotope, rhenium-185, which nevertheless occurs in minority abundance, a situation found only in two other elements (indium and tellurium).

Technology-critical element

Indium is considered a technology-critical element.
platinum group elements (platinum, palladium, rhodium, iridium, osmium, and ruthenium) as well as beryllium, cobalt, gallium, germanium, indium, lithium, niobium, tantalum, tellurium, antimony, and tungsten.