Individual participant data

Individual participant data (also known as individual patient data, often abbreviated IPD) is raw data from individual participants, and is often used in the context of meta-analysis.wikipedia
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Meta-analysis

meta-analysesmeta analysismeta-analytic
Individual participant data (also known as individual patient data, often abbreviated IPD) is raw data from individual participants, and is often used in the context of meta-analysis.
In general, two types of evidence can be distinguished when performing a meta-analysis: individual participant data (IPD), and aggregate data (AD).

ICMJE recommendations

International Committee of Medical Journal EditorsUniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical JournalsICMJE
The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has stated that sharing of deidentified individual participant data is an ethical obligation.

Homogeneity and heterogeneity

heterogeneoushomogeneousheterogeneity
Due to the high level of precision and consistency this approach allows for (which in turn makes it easier for researchers to minimize heterogeneity), it is considered the gold standard of evidence synthesis.

Saturated fat and cardiovascular disease

widely held belief that the high consumption of such fats is a risk factor for CHDdisputed health risksquestions around the effect of saturated fat on cardiovascular disease