Indo-Aryan languages

Indo-AryanIndo-Aryan languageIndicEasternIndic languagesWesternWestern Indo-AryanOld IndicOld Indo-AryanNorth-Western
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are a major language family of South Asia (or the Indian subcontinent).wikipedia
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Bengali language

BengaliBanglaBengali-language
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia.

Punjabi language

PunjabiPanjabiPunjabi-language
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
Punjabi (, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ, undefined) is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 125 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world.

Bhojpuri language

Bhojpuri Bhojpuri Bhojpuri, Hindi & English
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.
Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the northern-eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.

Odia language

OdiaOriyaOriya language
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ; formerly romanized as Oriya) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Indian state of Odisha.

Maithili language

MaithiliMaithaliBhojpuri
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent, mainly spoken in India and Nepal.

Hindustani language

HindustaniHindi-UrduHindi
The largest in terms of speakers are Hindustani (Hindi-Urdu, about 329 million), Bengali (242 million), Punjabi (about 120 million), Marathi, (112 million), Gujarati (60 million), Bhojpuri (51 million), Odia (34 million), Maithili (about 34 million), Sindhi (25 million) and other languages, with a 2005 estimate placing the total number of native speakers at nearly 900 million. The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi. In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals.
It is an Indo-Aryan language, deriving its base primarily from the Khariboli dialect of Delhi.

Vedic Sanskrit

VedicSanskritRigvedic Sanskrit
Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan.
Vedic Sanskrit was an ancient language of the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European languages.

Sanskrit

Sanskrit languageClassical SanskritSkt.
Modern Indo-Aryan languages are descended from Sanskrit through Prakrit. What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals.
Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language.

Middle Indo-Aryan languages

Middle Indo-AryanMiddle IndicMiddle Indo-Aryan language
By medieval times, the Prakrits had diversified into various Middle Indo-Aryan languages.
The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

Dakhini

DakhaniDeccani UrduDakhni
It is not clear if Dakhini (Deccani, Southern Urdu) is part of Hindustani along with Standard Urdu, or a separate Persian-influenced development from Marathi.
Dakhini or Dakkhani, also spelled Dakkani, Dakhni and Deccani (dec-ca-ni), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in southern India.

Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language family
They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family.
In the 16th century, European visitors to the Indian subcontinent began to notice similarities among Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and European languages.

Mitanni-Aryan

Indo-Aryan superstrate in MitanniAncient Mitannidocuments
Proto-Indo-Aryan is meant to be the predecessor of Old Indo-Aryan (1500–300 BCE) which is directly attested as Vedic and Mitanni-Aryan.
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni are considered to form (part of) an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggesting that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrian population in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.

Assamese language

AssameseAssamese:language
The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
Assamese, also Asamiya (/ɔxomia/), is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.

Gujarati language

GujaratiGujratiGujarati-language
The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
Gujarati is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat and spoken predominantly by the Gujarati people.

Marathi language

MarathiMarathi-languageMarāthi
The two largest languages that formed from Apabhraṃśa were Bengali and Hindustani; others include Assamese, Sindhi, Gujarati, Odia, Marathi, and Punjabi.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī; ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by around 83.1 million Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.

Dialect continuum

dialect clusterdialect chaincontinuum
The Indo-Aryan languages of North India and Pakistan form a dialect continuum.
That happens, for example, across large parts of India (the Indo-Aryan languages), Iran and its neighbors such as Afghanistan and Tajikistan (the Persian language), or the Arab world (Arabic).

Khariboli dialect

Khari boliKhariboliKhadi boli
In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani.
As a base for the medieval Hindustani language, Khariboli is a part of the Western group of the Central Zone (Hindi Zone) of Indo-Aryan languages.

Hindi

Hindi languageHindi-languageStandard Hindi
What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Hindī) or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST/ISO 15919: Mānak Hindī), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and across the Indian subcontinent.

Abahattha

AbahattaApabhramsa Avahatta
Abahaṭ‌ṭha (Prakrit: abasaṭ‌ṭa, অবহট্‌ঠ ôbôhôṭ‌ṭhô, ultimately from Sanskrit apaśabda; "meaningless sound") is a stage in the evolution of the Eastern group of Indo-Aryan languages.

Proto-Indo-Aryan language

Proto-Indo-Aryanarchaic features lost in VedicIndo-Aryan
Despite the great archaicity of Vedic, however, the other Indo-Aryan languages preserve a small number of archaic features lost in Vedic.
Proto-Indo-Aryan (sometimes Proto-Indic) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Indo-Aryan languages.

Central Indo-Aryan languages

HindiWestern HindiCentral Zone
In the Central Zone Hindi-speaking areas, for a long time the prestige dialect was Braj Bhasha, but this was replaced in the 19th century by the Khariboli-based Hindustani.
These language varieties form the central part of the Indo-Aryan language family, itself a part of the Indo-European language family.

Indo-Aryan migration

Indo-Aryan migration theoryAryan invasion theoryIndo-Aryan migration hypothesis
Some theonyms, proper names and other terminology of the Mitanni exhibit an Indo-Aryan superstrate, suggest that an Indo-Aryan elite imposed itself over the Hurrians in the course of the Indo-Aryan expansion.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside the Indian subcontinent of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of today's North India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and the Maldives.

Delhi

Delhi, IndiaNational Capital Territory of DelhiNational Capital Territory
What is called "Hindi" in India is frequently Standard Hindi, the Sanskritized version of the colloquial Hindustani spoken in the Delhi area since the Mughals.

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian languageIndo-Iranian branch
They constitute a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, itself a branch of the Indo-European language family.
The three branches of the modern Indo-Iranian languages are Indo-Aryan, Iranian, and Nuristani.

Domari language

DomariDomari-speakingHelebi language
Domari is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East.
Domari is an endangered Indo-Aryan language, spoken by older Dom people scattered across the Middle East and North Africa.