Indo-European languages

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European languageIndo-European language familyIndo-European familyIndo-GermanicIndo-EuropeansIndo-European-speakingIndoeuropeanIEIndo-European family of languages
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.wikipedia
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List of Indo-European languages

languages and dialectsIndo-European language family
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The Indo-European languages include some 449 (SIL estimate, 2018 edition ) languages and dialects spoken by about or more than 3.5 billion people (roughly half of the world population).

Indo-Iranian languages

Indo-IranianIndo-Iranian languageIndo-Iranian branch
There are about 445 living Indo-European languages, according to the estimate by Ethnologue, with over two thirds (313) of them belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch.
The Indo-Iranian languages (Indo-Iranic languages ), or Aryan languages constitute the largest and southeasternmost extant branch of the Indo-European language family.

French language

FrenchfrancophoneFrench-language
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.
French (le français, or la langue française ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

Italian language

ItalianItalian-languageit
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.
Italian (italiano or lingua italiana ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family.

Languages of Europe

European languagesLatin EuropeEuropean language
The Indo-European family includes most of the modern languages of Europe.
Most languages of Europe belong to the '''Indo-European language family.

Persian language

PersianNew PersianFarsi
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.
Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch.

Punjabi language

PunjabiPanjabiPunjabi-language
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.
Punjabi is unusual among Indo-European languages in its use of lexical tone; see below for examples.

German language

GermanGerman-languageGerman-speaking
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.
It derives the majority of its vocabulary from the ancient Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

Anatolian languages

AnatolianAnatolian languageAnatolian branch
With written evidence appearing from the Bronze Age in the form of Mycenaean Greek and the Anatolian languages Hittite and Luwian, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afroasiatic family in the form of the Egyptian language and the Semitic languages of the Near East.
The Anatolian languages are an extinct family of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Asia Minor (ancient Anatolia), the best attested of them being the Hittite language.

Hittite language

HittiteHitt.Old Hittite
With written evidence appearing from the Bronze Age in the form of Mycenaean Greek and the Anatolian languages Hittite and Luwian, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afroasiatic family in the form of the Egyptian language and the Semitic languages of the Near East.
Hittite (natively "[in the language] of Neša"), also known as Nesite and Neshite, was an Indo-European language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire, centred on Hattusa, as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.

Turkey

TurkishRepublic of TurkeyTUR
It was prominent (alongside non-Indo-European languages) in ancient Anatolia (present-day Turkey), the ancient Tarim Basin (present-day Northwest China) and most of Central Asia until the medieval Turkic and Mongol invasions.
Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family.

Afroasiatic languages

Afro-AsiaticAfroasiaticAfro-Asiatic languages
With written evidence appearing from the Bronze Age in the form of Mycenaean Greek and the Anatolian languages Hittite and Luwian, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afroasiatic family in the form of the Egyptian language and the Semitic languages of the Near East.
Afroasiatic languages have over 495 million native speakers, the fourth largest number of any language family (after Indo-European, Sino-Tibetan and Niger–Congo).

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The Indo-European languages with the greatest numbers of native speakers are Spanish, English, Hindustani (Hindi/Urdu), Portuguese, Bengali, Punjabi, and Russian, each with over 100 million speakers, with German, French, Marathi, Italian, and Persian also having more than 50 million.
English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages.

Americas

Americathe AmericasAmerican
Outside Eurasia, Indo-European languages are dominant in the Americas and much of Oceania and Africa, having reached there through colonialism during the Age of Discovery and later periods.
Currently, almost all of the population of the Americas resides in independent countries; however, the legacy of the colonization and settlement by Europeans is that the Americas share many common cultural traits, most notably Christianity and the use of Indo-European languages: primarily Spanish, English, Portuguese, French, and, to a lesser extent, Dutch.

Language isolate

isolateisolateslanguage isolates
In addition, certain extinct language isolates of the Near East and Anatolia, such as Sumerian, Elamite, Hurrian, Hattian, Gutian and Kassite are also recorded earlier than any Indo-European tongue.
While part of the Indo-European family, they do not belong to any established branch (such as the Romance, Indo-Iranian, Celtic, Slavic or Germanic branches), but instead form independent branches.

Hattic language

HatticHattiancivilization
In addition, certain extinct language isolates of the Near East and Anatolia, such as Sumerian, Elamite, Hurrian, Hattian, Gutian and Kassite are also recorded earlier than any Indo-European tongue.
Hattic (Hattian) was a non-Indo-European agglutinative language spoken by the Hattians in Asia Minor between the 3rd and the 2nd millennia BC.

Indo-European migrations

Indo-EuropeanIndo-European expansionIndo-Europeans
Although no written records remain, aspects of the culture and religion of the Proto-Indo-Europeans can be reconstructed from the related cultures of ancient and modern Indo-European speakers who continue to live in areas where the Proto-Indo-Europeans migrated from their original homeland.
The Indo-European migrations were the migrations of Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) speakers, as proposed by contemporary scholarship, and the subsequent migrations of people speaking further developed Indo-European languages, which explains why the Indo-European languages are spoken in a large area from India and Iran to Europe.

Proto-Indo-Europeans

Indo-EuropeanIndo-EuropeansIndo-European people
Although no written records remain, aspects of the culture and religion of the Proto-Indo-Europeans can be reconstructed from the related cultures of ancient and modern Indo-European speakers who continue to live in areas where the Proto-Indo-Europeans migrated from their original homeland.
The Proto-Indo-Europeans were a hypothetical prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

Turkic migration

Turkic migrationsTurkicearlier Turks
It was prominent (alongside non-Indo-European languages) in ancient Anatolia (present-day Turkey), the ancient Tarim Basin (present-day Northwest China) and most of Central Asia until the medieval Turkic and Mongol invasions.
During and after the migration into Central-Asia, these tribes mixed partially with Indo-European nomads.

Historical linguistics

diachronichistorical linguistshistorical linguist
With written evidence appearing from the Bronze Age in the form of Mycenaean Greek and the Anatolian languages Hittite and Luwian, the Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as possessing the second-longest recorded history, after the Afroasiatic family in the form of the Egyptian language and the Semitic languages of the Near East.
The focus was initially on the well-known Indo-European languages, many of which had long written histories; the scholars also studied the Uralic languages, another European language family for which less early written material exists.

Greek language

GreekAncient GreekModern Greek
In 1583, English Jesuit missionary and Konkani scholar Thomas Stephens wrote a letter from Goa to his brother (not published until the 20th century) in which he noted similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká) is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

Hurrian language

Hurrianancient HurrianHurrianized
In addition, certain extinct language isolates of the Near East and Anatolia, such as Sumerian, Elamite, Hurrian, Hattian, Gutian and Kassite are also recorded earlier than any Indo-European tongue.
There exist various proposals for a genetic relationship to other language families (e.g. the Northeast Caucasian languages, Indo-European languages, or Kartvelian languages), but none of these are generally accepted.

Slavic languages

SlavicSlavonicSlavic language
He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
In 1583, English Jesuit missionary and Konkani scholar Thomas Stephens wrote a letter from Goa to his brother (not published until the 20th century) in which he noted similarities between Indian languages and Greek and Latin. He included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna, ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.