Indo-European languages

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.
Indo-European family tree in order of first attestation
Indo-European language family tree based on "Ancestry-constrained phylogenetic analysis of Indo-European languages" by Chang et al
Scheme of Indo-European language dispersals from c. 4000 to 1000 BCE according to the widely held Kurgan hypothesis. – Center: Steppe cultures 1 (black): Anatolian languages (archaic PIE) 2 (black): Afanasievo culture (early PIE) 3 (black) Yamnaya culture expansion (Pontic-Caspian steppe, Danube Valley) (late PIE) 4A (black): Western Corded Ware 4B-C (blue & dark blue): Bell Beaker; adopted by Indo-European speakers 5A-B (red): Eastern Corded ware 5C (red): Sintashta (proto-Indo-Iranian) 6 (magenta): Andronovo 7A (purple): Indo-Aryans (Mittani) 7B (purple): Indo-Aryans (India) [NN] (dark yellow): proto-Balto-Slavic 8 (grey): Greek 9 (yellow):Iranians – [not drawn]: Armenian, expanding from western steppe

The Indo-European languages are a language family native to the overwhelming majority of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and the northern Indian subcontinent.

- Indo-European languages

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German language

The West Germanic languages
The Germanic languages in contemporary Europe
German language area and major dialectal divisions around 1900.
The widespread popularity of the Bible translated into High German by Martin Luther helped establish modern Standard High German.
Ethnolinguistic map of Austria-Hungary, 1910, with German-speaking areas shown in red.
Map shows Austria and South Tyrol, Italy.
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Bilingual German-English sign at a bakery in Namibia, where German is a national language.
Self reported knowledge of German as a foreign language in the EU member states (+Turkey), in per cent of the adult population (+15), 2005
Selfreported knowledge of German within the nations of the European Union
The national and regional standard varieties of German
The Low Franconian dialects
The Central German dialects
The Franconian dialects (Low Franconian, Central- and Rhine Franconian, and High Franconian)
The Upper German and High Franconian (transitional between Central and Upper German)
Volume 1 "German Orthography" of the 25th edition of the Duden dictionary
42nd edition of the Österreichisches Wörterbuch ("Austrian Dictionary")
The Deutsches Wörterbuch (1st vol., 1854) by the Brothers Grimm
Austria's standardized cursive
Germany's standardized cursive
A Russian dictionary from 1931, showing the "German alphabet" – the 3rd and 4th columns of each half are Fraktur and Kurrent respectively, with the footnote explaining ligatures used in Fraktur.

German (Deutsch, ) is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, mainly spoken in Central Europe.

Balto-Slavic languages

Balto-Slavic languages
Various schematic sketches of possible alternative Balto-Slavic language relationships; Van Wijk, 1923.

The Balto-Slavic languages form a branch of the Indo-European family of languages, traditionally comprising the Baltic and Slavic languages.

Italic languages

Main linguistic groups in Iron-Age Italy and the surrounding areas. Some of those languages have left very little evidence, and their classification is quite uncertain. The Punic language brought to Sardinia by the Punics coexisted with the indigenous and non-Italic Paleo-Sardinian, or Nuragic.
Languages of pre-Roman Italy and nearby islands: N1, Rhaetian; N2, Etruscan: N3, North Picene (Picene of Novilara); N4, Ligurian; N5, Nuragic; N6, Elymian; N7, Sicanian; C1, Lepontic; C2, Gaulish; I1, South Picene; I2, Umbrian; I3, Sabine; I4, Faliscan; I5, Latin; I6, Volscian and Hernican; I7, Central Italic (Marsian, Aequian, Paeligni, Marrucinian, Vestinian); I8, Oscan, Sidicini, Pre-Samnite; I9, Sicel; IE1, Venetic; IE2, Messapian; G1-G2-G3, Greek dialects (G1: Ionic, G2: Aeolic, G3: Doric); P1, Punic.
Map showing the approximate extent of the centum (blue) and satem (red) areals.

The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken on the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. The most important of the ancient languages was Latin, the official language of ancient Rome, which conquered the other Italic peoples before the common era.

Persian language

An Old Persian inscription written in Old Persian cuneiform in Persepolis, Iran
Middle Persian text written in Inscriptional Pahlavi on the Paikuli inscription from between 293 and 297. Slemani Museum, Iraqi Kurdistan.
Ferdowsi's Shahnameh
Kalilah va Dimna, an influential work in Persian literature
Persian on an Ottoman miniature
Persian poem, Agra Fort, India, 18th century
Persian poem, Takht-e Shah Jahan, Agra Fort, India
A variant of the Iranian standard ISIRI 9147 keyboard layout for Persian
The vowel phonemes of modern Tehran Persian
Example showing Nastaʿlīq's (Persian) proportion rules
Ali-Akbar Dehkhoda's personal handwriting, a typical cursive Persian script
The word "Persian" in the Book Pahlavi script
Persian typewriter keyboard layout
Tajiki advertisement for an academy

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی, Fārsī, ), is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages.

Proto-Indo-European language

"PIE" and "Proto-Indo-European" redirect here; see PIE (disambiguation) for other uses and Proto-Indo-Europeans for the people.

Classification of Indo-European languages. Red: Extinct languages. White: categories or unattested proto-languages. Left half: centum languages; right half: satem languages

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the reconstructed common ancestor of the Indo-European language family.

Punjabi language

Indo-Aryan language that is natively spoken by the Punjabi people in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.

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The proportion of people with Punjabi as their mother tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
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Punjabi in india
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Punjabi Gurmukhi script
Gurmukhi writing system on a sample logo
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Ghadar di Gunj 1913, newspaper in Punjabi of Ghadar Party, US-based Indian revolutionary party.
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Punjabi Sahit academy, Ludhiana,1954
Punjabi academy, Delhi,1981-1982
Jammu and Kashmir academy of art, culture and literature
Pilac(Punjab Institute of Language, Art and Culture, Lahore,2004
Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi
Punjabi Shahmukhi script
Bulleh Shah poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)
Munir Niazi poetry in Punjabi (Shahmukhi script)
Gurmukhi alphabet
A sign board in Punjabi language along with Hindi at Hanumangarh, Rajasthan, India

Punjabi is unusual among the Indo-Aryan languages and the broader Indo-European language family in its usage of lexical tone.

Hittite language

Indo-European family tree in order of first attestation. Hittite belongs to the family of Anatolian languages and is among the oldest written Indo-European languages.

Hittite (natively nišili / "the language of Neša", or nešumnili / "the language of the people of Neša"), also known as Nesite (Nešite / Neshite, Nessite), was an Indo-European language that was spoken by the Hittites, a people of Bronze Age Anatolia who created an empire centred on Hattusa, as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia.

Anatolian languages

The Hittite Empire at its greatest extent under Suppiluliuma I (c. 1350–1322 BC) and Mursili II (c. 1321–1295 BC)
Area where the 2nd millennium BC Luwian language was spoken
Anatolian languages attested in the mid-1st millennium BC
Inscriptions in Sidetic language, exhibits of the Museum of Side, Turkey

The Anatolian languages are an extinct branch of Indo-European languages that were spoken in Anatolia, part of present-day Turkey.

English language

The West Germanic languages
The opening to the Old English epic poem Beowulf, handwritten in half-uncial script: Hƿæt ƿē Gārde/na ingēar dagum þēod cyninga / þrym ge frunon... "Listen! We of the Spear-Danes from days of yore have heard of the glory of the folk-kings..."
Graphic representation of the Great Vowel Shift, showing how the pronunciation of the long vowels gradually shifted, with the high vowels i: and u: breaking into diphthongs and the lower vowels each shifting their pronunciation up one level
Braj Kachru's Three Circles of English
Countries in which English Language is a Mandatory or an Optional Subject
In the English sentence The cat sat on the mat, the subject is the cat (a noun phrase), the verb is sat, and on the mat is a prepositional phrase (composed of a noun phrase the mat headed by the preposition on). The tree describes the structure of the sentence.
Map showing the main dialect regions in the UK and Ireland
Rhoticity dominates in North American English. The Atlas of North American English found over 50% non-rhoticity, though, in at least one local white speaker in each U.S. metropolitan area designated here by a red dot. Non-rhotic African American Vernacular English pronunciations may be found among African Americans regardless of location.

English is a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by the inhabitants of early medieval England.

Hellenic languages

Franz Bopp was a pioneer in the field of comparative linguistic studies.

Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.