Indo-Greek Kingdom

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong "Yona" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria" around 130 BC.
Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum, Bactria, 2nd century BC
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Urumqi.
Greco-Bactria and the city of Ai-Khanoum were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Apollodotus I (180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom.
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The coinage of Agathocles (circa 180 BC) incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities from India, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Balarama or the Buddha.
Kharoshthi legend on the reverse of a coin of Indo-Greek king Artemidoros Aniketos.
Menander I (155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
King Hippostratos riding a horse, circa 100 BC (coin detail).
The Yavanarajya inscription discovered in Mathura, mentions its carving on "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony" (Yavanarajya), or 116th year if the Yavana era, suggesting the Greeks ruled over Mathura as late as 60 BC. Mathura Museum.
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion from Mathura. Today in the Kolkota Indian Museum.
Possible statue of a Yavana/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton, from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription was also found. 2nd or 1st century BC.
Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria.
Coin of Antialcidas (105–95 BC).
Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).
Coin of Zoilos I (130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian bow, inside a victory wreath.
The Heliodorus pillar, commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, is the first known inscription related to Vaishnavism in India. Heliodurus was one of the earliest recorded Indo-Greek converts to Hinduism.
Heliodorus travelled from Taxila to Vidisha as an ambassador of king Antialkidas, and erected the Heliodorus pillar.
The Bharhut Yavana, a possible Indian depiction of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 100 BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balusters
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I at Sanchi.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Hermaeus (90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek king in the Western territories (Paropamisadae).
Hermaeus posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians near Kabul, circa 80–75 BC.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek king in Western Punjab.
Hippostratos was replaced by the Indo-Scythian king Azes I (r. c. 35–12 BC).
Approximate region of East Punjab and Strato II's capital Sagala.
The last known Indo-Greek kings Strato II and Strato III, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab.
Pillar of the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, mentioning its donation by a Yavana. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa AD 120.
The Buddhist symbols of the triratna and of the swastika (reversed) around the word "Ya-va-ṇa-sa" in Brahmi (Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpg Brahmi v 2nd century CE.gif Brahmi nn.svg Brahmi s.svg). Shivneri Caves 1st century AD.
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 143.
Piedestal of the Hashtnagar Buddha statue, with Year 384 inscription, probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 209.
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman-style coat with fibula, and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa, National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome.
Evolution of the Butkara stupa, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic architectural elements.
Coin of Menander II (90–85 BC). "King Menander, follower of the Dharma" in Kharoshthi script, with Zeus holding Nike, who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel.
Greek Buddhist devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, Buner relief, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras, wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Gandhara, 1st century AD).
Intaglio gems engraved in the northwest of India (2nd century BCE-2nd century CE).
Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)
Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.
Cupro-nickel coins of king Pantaleon point to a Chinese origin of the metal.
Athena in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Strato I in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BC.
The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).
Hellenistic couple from Taxila (Guimet Museum)
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. (British Museum).
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Exterior
Entrance pillars
Pillar capital
Interior
Standing Buddha
Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture.
Nicias making a blessing gesture.
Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

- Indo-Greek Kingdom
Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.

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Taxila

City in Punjab, Pakistan.

City in Punjab, Pakistan.

The name for the city of Taxila (Pāli Brahmi:, Takhkhasilā), as it appears on the Heliodorus Pillar inscription, circa 100 BCE.
Eastern border of the Achaemenid Empire
A map of Alexander's campaign in ancient India.
A view over the ruins of Sirkap.
Panorama of the Jaulian monastery
Taxila's ruins, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, date from as early as 1000 BCE, and are a major tourist draw.
The M-1 Motorway, pictured near Taxila, links the city to Islamabad and Peshawar.
University of Engineering and Technology, Taxila is a local branch of the University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore.
A coin from 2nd century BCE Taxila.
The Indo-Greek king Antialcidas ruled in Taxila around 100 BCE, according to the Heliodorus pillar inscription.
Jaulian, a World Heritage Site at Taxila.
Jaulian silver Buddhist reliquary, with contents. British Museum.
Stupa base at Sirkap, decorated with Hindu, Buddhist and Greek temple fronts.
Stupa in Taxila.
A Taxila coin, 200–100 BCE. British Museum.
Reliquary in the form of a crystal goose dating to the 1st Century AD in the British Museum.
Jain Temple at Sirkap
Stupa base at Sirkap, decorated with Hindu, Buddhist and Greek temple fronts.
Archaeological artifacts from the Indo-Greek strata at Taxila from John Marshall "Taxila Archeological excavations").

Some ruins at Taxila date to the time of the Achaemenid Persian Empire in the 6th century BCE, followed successively by the Maurya Empire, the Indo-Greek Kingdom, the Indo-Scythians, and the Kushan Empire.

Coin of Demetrius wearing an elephant skin headdress (in spirit of Alexander), on the reverse, Heracles is shown crowning himself and holding lion skin.

Demetrius I of Bactria

Coin of Demetrius wearing an elephant skin headdress (in spirit of Alexander), on the reverse, Heracles is shown crowning himself and holding lion skin.
Demetrius, with Greek legend ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ ΑΝΙΚΗΤΟΥ "Demetrius Invincible" (Pedigree coin minted by Agathocles). British Museum.
Silver tetradrachm of Demetrius I. British Museum.
Taxila single-die coin with Lakshmi and arched-hill symbol (185–160 BCE).
Silver obol of Demetrius. Extremely small (12 millimeters in diameter), but beautifully crafted.
Greco-Buddhist representation of Gautama Buddha, Gandhara, 1st-2nd century CE.
Demetrios I trident detail of Gorgon-trident coin.
Coin of Demetrius I with elephant and Nike.
Coin of Demetrius I with elephant raising trunk and caduceus.
Caduceus symbol on a punch-marked coin of the Maurya Empire in India, in the 3rd-2nd century BCE.

Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄), also called Damaytra was a Greco-Bactrian and later Indo-Greek king (Yona in Pali language, "Yavana" in Sanskrit) (reigned c. 200–167 BCE), who ruled areas from Bactria to ancient northwestern India.

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.

Indo-Scythians

Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into northern and western regions of ancient India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into northern and western regions of ancient India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.
Head of a Saka warrior, as a defeated enemy of the Yuezhi, from Khalchayan, northern Bactria, 1st century BCE.
The treasure of the royal burial Tillya Tepe is attributed to 1st century BC Sakas in Bactria.
Detail of one of the Orlat plaques seemingly representing Scythian soldiers.
Map of Sakastan around 100 BC
Asia in 100 BC, showing the Sakas and their neighbors
Coin of Maues depicting Balarama, 1st century BC. British Museum.
A coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes
A toilet tray of the type found in the Early Saka layer at Sirkap
A bronze coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes. Obverse: BASILEWS BASILEWN MEGALOU AZOU, Humped Brahman bull (zebu) walking right, Whitehead symbol 15 (Z in square) above; Reverse: Kharosthi "jha" to right / Kharosthi legend, Lion or leopard standing right, Whitehead symbol 26 above; Reference: Whitehead 259; BMC p. 86, 141.
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right) was found inside a stupa with coins of Azes inside. British Museum.
The Mathura lion capital is an important Indo-Scythian monument dedicated to the Buddhist religion (British Museum).
Silver coin of Vijayamitra in the name of Azes. Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Profile of the Indo-Scythian King Azes on one of his coins.
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (c. AD 175 to 197), a descendant of the Indo-Scythians
Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Scythian king Maues (85–60 BC).
Azilises on horse, wearing a tunic
Scythian devotee, Butkara Stupa
Gandhara stone palette with Scythians playing music.
The Bajaur casket was dedicated by Indravarman, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Buddhist stupas during the late Indo-Greek/Indo-Scythian period were highly decorated structures with columns, flights of stairs, and decorative Acanthus leaf friezes. Butkara stupa, Swat, 1st century BC.
Possible Scythian devotee couple (extreme left and right, often described as "Scytho-Parthian"), around the Buddha, Brahma and Indra.
"Scythia" appears around the mouth of the river Indus in the Roman period Tabula Peutingeriana.
Coin of Azes, with king seated, holding a drawn sword and a whip.
"Scythian" soldier, Nagarjunakonda.
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One of the Buner reliefs showing Scythian soldiers dancing. Cleveland Museum of Art.
Indo-Scythians pushing along the Greek god Dionysos with Ariadne.<ref>Photographic reference here {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070310211016/http://kunst.zeit.de/uploads/pics/WK_09_06_L__we_400.jpg |date=10 March 2007 }}.</ref>
Hunting scene.
Hunting scene.
Indo-Corinthian capital from Butkara Stupa, dated to 20 BC, during the reign of Azes II. Turin City Museum of Ancient Art.
Dancing Indo-Scythians (top) and hunting scene (bottom). Buddhist relief from Swat, Gandhara.
Butkara doorjamb, with Indo-Scythians dancing and reveling. On the back side is a relief of a standing Buddha<ref>Faccenna, "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", plate CCCLXXII</ref>
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably 143 CE.<ref name = "PC">Problems of Chronology in Gandharan Art pp.35-51, 2017</ref> The two devotees on the right side of the pedestal are in Indo-Scythian suit (loose trousers, tunic, and hood).<ref>Greco-Buddhist Art of Gandhara p.491</ref>

The Indo-Scythians extended their supremacy over north-western India, conquering the Indo-Greeks and other local kingdoms.

The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art.

Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

The Hellenistic period spans the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire, as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

The Nike of Samothrace is considered one of the greatest masterpieces of Hellenistic art.
Hellenistic period. Sculpture of Dionysus from the Ancient Art Collection at Yale.
Alexander fighting the Persian king Darius III. From the Alexander Mosaic, Naples National Archaeological Museum.
Alexander's empire at the time of its maximum expansion.
The distribution of satrapies in the Macedonian Empire after the Settlement in Babylon (323 BC).
The Kingdoms of Antigonos and his rivals c. 303 BC.
The major Hellenistic kingdoms in 240 BC, including territories controlled by the Seleucid dynasty, the Ptolemaic dynasty, the Attalid dynasty, the Antigonid dynasty, and independent poleis of Hellenistic Greece
Philip V, "the darling of Hellas", wearing the royal diadem.
Greece and the Aegean World c. 200 BC.
Painting of a groom and bride from the Hellenistic Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak, near the ancient city of Seuthopolis, 4th century BC.
Gallo-Greek inscription: "Segomaros, son of Uillū, citizen (toutious) of Namausos, dedicated this sanctuary to Belesama"
A silver drachma from Massalia (modern Marseille, France), dated 375–200 BC, with the head of the goddess Artemis on the obverse and a lion on the reverse
Seleucus I Nicator founded the Seleucid Empire.
The Hellenistic world c. 200 BC.
The Dying Gaul is a Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic work of the late 3rd century BC. Capitoline Museums, Rome.
Bust of Mithridates VI sporting a lion pelt headdress, a symbol of Herakles.
Tigranes the Great's Armenian Empire
Coin of Phraates IV with Hellenistic titles such as Euergetes, Epiphanes and Philhellene (fond of Greek [culture])
A sculpted head (broken off from a larger statue) of a Parthian wearing a Hellenistic-style helmet, from the Parthian royal residence and necropolis of Nisa, Turkmenistan, 2nd century BC
Al-Khazneh in Petra shows the Hellenistic influences on the Nabatean capital city
Model of Herod's Temple (renovation of the Second Temple) in the Israel Museum
The Greco-Bactrian kingdom at its maximum extent (c. 180 BC).
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in the northwest of South Asia, where Afghanistan and Pakistan are today.
Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC.
Heracles as protector of Buddha, Vajrapani, 2nd-century Gandhara.
Greco-Scythian golden comb, from Solokha, early 4th century, Hermitage Museum
Statuette of Nike, Greek goddess of victory, from Vani, Georgia (country)
Carthaginian hoplite (Sacred Band, end of the 4th century BC)
Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century BC.
Perseus of Macedon surrenders to Paullus. Painting by Jean-François Pierre Peyron from 1802. Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest.
The Library of Alexandria in the Ptolemaic Kingdom, here shown in an artist's impression, was the largest and most significant library of the ancient world.
The Rosetta Stone, a trilingual Ptolemaic decree establishing the religious cult of Ptolemy V
One of the first representations of the Buddha, and an example of Greco-Buddhist art, 1st-2nd century AD, Gandhara: Standing Buddha (Tokyo National Museum).
Bull capital from Rampurva, one of the Pillars of Ashoka, Maurya Empire, 3rd century BC. Located in the Presidential Palace of Rashtrapati Bhavan, New Delhi. The subject matter is Indian (zebu), the global shape is influenced by Achaemenid styles, and the floral band incorporates Hellenistic designs (flame palmettes).
Bust of Zeus-Ammon, a deity with attributes from Greek and Egyptian gods.
Cybele, a Phrygian mother Goddess, enthroned, with lion, cornucopia and Mural crown.
Relief with Menander and New Comedy Masks (Roman, AD 40–60). The masks show three New Comedy stock characters: youth, false maiden, old man. Princeton University Art Museum
Zeno of Citium founded Stoic philosophy.
One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid's Elements, found at Oxyrhynchus and dated to c. AD 100 (P. Oxy. 29). The diagram accompanies Book II, Proposition 5.
The Antikythera mechanism was an ancient analog computer designed to calculate astronomical positions.
Ancient mechanical artillery: Catapults (standing), the chain drive of Polybolos (bottom center), Gastraphetes (on wall)
Head of an old woman, a good example of realism.
Sculpture of Cupid and Psyche, an example of the sensualism of Hellenistic art. 2nd-century AD Roman copy of a 2nd-century BC Greek original.

After Alexander the Great's invasion of the Achaemenid Empire in 330 BC and its disintegration shortly after, the Hellenistic kingdoms were established throughout south-west Asia (Seleucid Empire, Kingdom of Pergamon), north-east Africa (Ptolemaic Kingdom) and South Asia (Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Indo-Greek Kingdom).

Gandharan Buddha, 1st-2nd century AD

Greco-Buddhist art

Style of Buddhist visual art that developed in modern northwestern Pakistan in the ancient Gandhara civilization of the northwestern Indian subcontinent, It is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between Ancient Greek art and Buddhism.

Style of Buddhist visual art that developed in modern northwestern Pakistan in the ancient Gandhara civilization of the northwestern Indian subcontinent, It is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between Ancient Greek art and Buddhism.

Gandharan Buddha, 1st-2nd century AD
The Buddha and a naked Vajrapani in a frieze at Jamal Garhi, Gandhara.
Buddhist expansion in Asia: Mahayana Buddhism first entered the Chinese Empire (Han dynasty) through Silk Road during the Kushan Era. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
The Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC.
Silver coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I (200–180 BC) wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquest of India. Back: Herakles, holding a lion skin and a club resting over the arm. The text reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟΥ – BASILÉŌS DĒMĒTRÍOU "of King Demetrius".
Wine-drinking and music (Detail from Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, 1st–2nd century AD).
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks, while the railings were made by masons exclusively using marks in the local Brahmi script, now in Indian Museum. 150-100 BC.
Statues on the architraves of the torana gateway, associated with Kharosthi marks. 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the ballusters
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. British Museum.
The Titan Atlas, supporting a Buddhist monument, Hadda.
Seated Buddha in Hellenistic style, Tapa Shotor, 2nd century AD.
The Seated Buddha, dating from 300 to 500 AD, was found near Jamal Garhi, Pakistan, and is now on display at the Asian Art Museum in San Francisco.
The Buddha teaching. Kushan period. National Museum, Delhi. 2004
An Indo-Corinthian capital from the Butkara Stupa under which a coin of Azes II was found. Dated to 20 BC or earlier (Turin City Museum of Ancient Art).
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha, is dated to around 30–10 BC. British Museum.
Fresco describing Emperor Han Wudi (156–87 BC) worshipping two statues of the Buddha, Mogao Caves, Dunhuang, c. 8th century AD
Heracles depiction of Vajrapani as the protector of the Buddha, 2nd century AD, Gandhara, British Museum.
The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century AD, Gandhara.
The Buddhist gods Pancika (left) and Hariti (right), 3rd century, Takht-i Bahi, Gandhara, British Museum.
Winged Cupids holding a wreath over the Buddha (left:detail), Hadda, 3rd century. Musée Guimet.
Gandhara frieze with devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, 1st-2nd century AD. Buner, Swat, Pakistan. Victoria and Albert Museum.
An Ichthyo-Centaur, 2nd century Gandhara, Victoria and Albert Museum.
An early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, the Bodhisattva Maitreya, the Buddha, the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd-3rd century AD, Gandhara.
A Buddhist coin of Kanishka I, with "Boddo" (=Buddha) in Greek script.
Balustrade-holding Yaksa with Corinthian columns, Madhya Pradesh (?), Shunga period (2nd-1st century BC). Musee Guimet.
Indian relief of probable Indo-Greek king, with Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 2nd century BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The Bodhisattva Maitreya, 2nd century, Mathura, 2nd-century AD.
A Bodhisattva, 2nd century, Mathura
Greek scroll supported by Indian Yaksas, Amaravati, 3rd century AD
A terracotta head of Buddha Shakyamuni, inspired by Greco-Buddhist art, Devnimori, Gujarat (375-400 AD).
The Buddha in long, heavy robe, a design derived from the art of Gandhara, Ajanta Caves, 5th century AD.
Buddha of the Gupta period, 5th century, Mathura.
Head of a Buddha, Gupta period, 6th century.
Head of a Bodhisattva, 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).
"Heroic gesture of the Bodhisattva", 6th-7th century terracotta, Tumshuq (Xinjiang).
Northern Wei Buddha Maitreya, AD 443.
The Buddha, Asuka period, 7th century.
A Buddha in Kamakura (1252), reminiscent of Greco-Buddhist influences.
Temple tiles from Nara, 7th century.
Vine and grape scrolls from Nara, 7th century.
Bodhisattva Lokesvara, Cambodia 12th century.
Avalokiteshvara on the wall of Plaosan temple (Indonesia), Javanese Sailendran art, 9th century.
Nereid goddess riding a Ketos sea-monster, 2nd century BC, Sirkap.
Apollo and Daphne.
Couple with sea serpent.
Mythological scene with Athena and Herakles.
Poseidon with attendants. Ancient Orient Museum.
Aphrodite at her bath.
Man with cup in hand, riding a Ketos sea-monster.
Female triton, Tokyo National Museum
Friendly animals.
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p.171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Fragment of the wind god Boreas, Hadda, Afghanistan.
Gandharan Atalanta
Winged Atalante.
The Buddha, flanked by Herakles/ Vajrapani and Tyche/ Hariti.
Gandhara Poseidon (Ancient Orient Museum)
Triton
"Laughing boy" from Hadda
Head of a bodhisattva, Gandhara ca. 4th century
Maitreya, with Kushan devotee couple. 2nd century Gandhara.
Maitreya, with Kushan devotees, left and right. 2nd century Gandhara.
Maitreya, with Indian (left) and Kushan (right) devotees.
Kushans worshipping the Buddha's bowl. 2nd century Gandhara.
Kushan devotee couple, around the Buddha, Brahma and Indra.
The "Kanishka casket," with the Buddha surrounded by Brahma and Indra, and Kanishka on the lower part, AD 127.
Buddha triad and kneeling Kushan devotee couple. 3rd century.
Seated Buddha with halo and mandorla 5th-6th century Gandhara.
The Buddha with a radiate mandorla, Gandhara, 6th century
Last stages of Greco-Buddhist art. 7th century, Ghorband District, Afghanistan.

Buddhism became the prominent religion in the Indo-Greek Kingdoms.

Punjab

Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Chandigarh
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

The land was later invaded and contested by the Persians, Mauryans, Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Kushans, Macedonians, Ghaznavids, Turkic, Mongols, Timurids, Mughals, Marathas, Arabs, Pashtuns, British, and other peoples.

Rendering of Eucratides on a 20-stater gold coin, found in Bukhara and later acquired by Napoleon III. Now held at the Paris Cabinet des Médailles.

Eucratides I

One of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings.

One of the most important Greco-Bactrian kings.

Rendering of Eucratides on a 20-stater gold coin, found in Bukhara and later acquired by Napoleon III. Now held at the Paris Cabinet des Médailles.
Tetradrachm Eukratides I, obverse; NMAT RN474-1
The coinage of Eucratides has been used in the design of some Afghanistan banknotes between 1979-2002, and is now in the emblem of the Bank of Afghanistan.
thumb|upright=1.5|The Gold 20-stater coin of Eucratides weighs 169.2 grams, and has a diameter of 58 millimeters. It was originally found in Bukhara, and later acquired by Napoleon III. Cabinet des Médailles, Paris.<ref>{{cite magazine|url=http://www.coinbooks.org/esylum_v17n48a28.html|first=Wayne|last=Homren|title=The Biggest Ancient Coins|publisher=Numismatic Bibliomania Society|volume=17|issue=48|date=2014-11-23|access-date=2018-04-13|df=dmy-all}}</ref>
thumb|Silver tetradrachm of King Eucratides I (171&ndash;145 BC). Obv: Bust of Eucratides, helmet decorated with a bull's horn and ear, within bead and reel border. Rev: Depiction of the Dioscuri, each holding palm in left hand, spear in righthand. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ (BASILEŌS MEGALOU EUKRATIDOU) "Of Great King Eucratides". Mint monogram below. Characteristics: Diameter 34 mm, weight 16.96 g, Attic standard.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Monnaie|first1=Eucratide I. (roi de Bactriane) Autorité émettrice de|title=[Monnaie : 20 Statères, Or, Incertain, Bactriane, Eucratide I]|url=https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b8510709q|language=EN}}</ref>
Bilingual coin of Eucratides in the Indian standard (Greek on the obverse ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΟΥ "Of Great King Eucratides", Pali in the Kharoshthi script on the reverse)
Coin of Eucratides with parents Heliokles and Laodike. Greek legends: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΜΕΓΑΣ ΕΥΚΡΑΤΙΔΗΣ "Great King Eucratides" and ΗΛΙΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ ΚΑΙ ΛΑΟΔΙΚΗΣ "Son of Heliokles and Laodike".
Coin of Eucratides, holding a spear
Eukratides I, imitation by the Scythians of Merv
Eucratides I, Scythian imitation, end of 2nd century BC

Eucratides fought against the easternmost Hellenistic and Indian rulers in India, holding territory in the Indus and as far as Barigaza until he was finally defeated by Menander and pushed back to Bactria.

Sagala in the Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great (c. 250 B.C.)

Sagala

City in ancient India, which was the predecessor of the modern city of Sialkot that is located in what is now Pakistan's northern Punjab province.

City in ancient India, which was the predecessor of the modern city of Sialkot that is located in what is now Pakistan's northern Punjab province.

Sagala in the Maurya Empire under Ashoka the Great (c. 250 B.C.)
Sagala in the Indo-Scythian kingdom (150 BCE–400 CE)
Sagala was included in Alexander's campaign in ancient India.
Sagala as a part of the Shunga Empire c. 185 to 73 BC.

In the 2nd century BC, Sagala was made capital of the Indo-Greek kingdom by Menander I.

The "Yona" Greek king of India Menander (160–135 BCE). Inscription in Greek: Bασιλέως Σωτῆρος Μενάνδρου, lit. "of Saviour King Menander".

Yona

The word Yona in Pali and the Prakrits, and the analogue "Yavana" in Sanskrit, are words used in Ancient India to designate Greek speakers.

The word Yona in Pali and the Prakrits, and the analogue "Yavana" in Sanskrit, are words used in Ancient India to designate Greek speakers.

The "Yona" Greek king of India Menander (160–135 BCE). Inscription in Greek: Bασιλέως Σωτῆρος Μενάνδρου, lit. "of Saviour King Menander".
The Achaemenid name for Ionian Greeks: Yauna (Old Persian cuneiform: 𐎹𐎢𐎴) in the DNa inscription of Darius the Great, circa 490 BC.
Territories "conquered by the Dharma" according to Major Rock Edict No.13 of Ashoka (260–218 BCE).
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name (underlined in color). Here the Greek rulers are described as "Yona" (Brahmi: Brahmi yo 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi n.svg, third and fourth letters after the first occurrence of Antigonus in red).
Dedication by a man of Greek descent on a wall of Cave 17 in the Nasik Caves (photograph and rubbing). Detail of the "Yo-ṇa-ka-sa" word (adjectival form of "Yoṇaka", Brahmi: Brahmi yo 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi nn.svgBrahmi letter Ka.svgBrahmi s.svg), with Nasik/Karla-period Brahmi script for reference. Circa 120 CE.
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I.
Left pillar No.9 of the Great Chatya at Karla Caves. This pillar was donated by a Yavana circa 120 CE, like five other pillars. The inscription of this pillar reads: "Dhenukakata Yavanasa/ Yasavadhanana[m]/ thabo dana[m]" i.e. "(This) pillar (is) the gift of the Yavana Yasavadhana from Denukakata". Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" (adjectival form of "Yavana", old Brahmi script Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg).
Vedika pillar with possible Greek warrior (headband of a king, tunic etc...) from Bharhut. Bharhut, Madhya Pradesh, Shunga Period, c.100-80BC. Reddish brown sandstone. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
The façade of the Chaitya Hall at Manmodi Caves was donated by a Yavana, according to the inscription on the central flat surface of the lotus. Detail of the "Ya-va-na-sa" circular inscription in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa 120 CE.

In general, the words "Yoṇa" or "Yoṇaka" were the current Greek Hellenistic forms, while the term "Yavana" was the Indian word to designate the Greeks or the Indo-Greeks.

Along the Ghats of Mathura (circa 1880)

Mathura

City and the administrative headquarters of Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

City and the administrative headquarters of Mathura district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

Along the Ghats of Mathura (circa 1880)
General view of the excavations in January 1889 at Kankali Tila, Mathura
Gate of Shet Lukhmeechund's Temple, a photo by Eugene Clutterbuck Impey, 1860s.
Statue of Kanishka I, second century CE, Mathura Museum.
Sculpture of woman from ancient Braj-Mathura ca. second century CE.
Entrance to the Shri Krishna Janmabhoomi temple complex.

The Indo-Greeks may have taken control, direct or indirect, of Mathura some time between 180 BCE and 100 BCE, and remained so as late as 70 BCE according to the Yavanarajya inscription, which was found in Maghera, a town 17 km from Mathura.