Indo-Scythians

Territories and expansion of the Indo-Scythians at their greatest extent, including territories of the Northern Satraps and Western Satraps.
Head of a Saka warrior, as a defeated enemy of the Yuezhi, from Khalchayan, northern Bactria, 1st century BCE.
The treasure of the royal burial Tillya Tepe is attributed to 1st century BC Sakas in Bactria.
Detail of one of the Orlat plaques seemingly representing Scythian soldiers.
Map of Sakastan around 100 BC
Asia in 100 BC, showing the Sakas and their neighbors
Coin of Maues depicting Balarama, 1st century BC. British Museum.
A coin of the Indo-Scythian king Azes
A toilet tray of the type found in the Early Saka layer at Sirkap
A bronze coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes. Obverse: BASILEWS BASILEWN MEGALOU AZOU, Humped Brahman bull (zebu) walking right, Whitehead symbol 15 (Z in square) above; Reverse: Kharosthi "jha" to right / Kharosthi legend, Lion or leopard standing right, Whitehead symbol 26 above; Reference: Whitehead 259; BMC p. 86, 141.
The Bimaran casket, representing the Buddha surrounded by Brahma (left) and Śakra (right) was found inside a stupa with coins of Azes inside. British Museum.
The Mathura lion capital is an important Indo-Scythian monument dedicated to the Buddhist religion (British Museum).
Silver coin of Vijayamitra in the name of Azes. Buddhist triratna symbol in the left field on the reverse.
Profile of the Indo-Scythian King Azes on one of his coins.
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (c. AD 175 to 197), a descendant of the Indo-Scythians
Silver tetradrachm of the Indo-Scythian king Maues (85–60 BC).
Azilises on horse, wearing a tunic
Scythian devotee, Butkara Stupa
Gandhara stone palette with Scythians playing music.
The Bajaur casket was dedicated by Indravarman, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Buddhist stupas during the late Indo-Greek/Indo-Scythian period were highly decorated structures with columns, flights of stairs, and decorative Acanthus leaf friezes. Butkara stupa, Swat, 1st century BC.
Possible Scythian devotee couple (extreme left and right, often described as "Scytho-Parthian"), around the Buddha, Brahma and Indra.
"Scythia" appears around the mouth of the river Indus in the Roman period Tabula Peutingeriana.
Coin of Azes, with king seated, holding a drawn sword and a whip.
"Scythian" soldier, Nagarjunakonda.
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One of the Buner reliefs showing Scythian soldiers dancing. Cleveland Museum of Art.
Indo-Scythians pushing along the Greek god Dionysos with Ariadne.<ref>Photographic reference here {{webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070310211016/http://kunst.zeit.de/uploads/pics/WK_09_06_L__we_400.jpg |date=10 March 2007 }}.</ref>
Hunting scene.
Hunting scene.
Indo-Corinthian capital from Butkara Stupa, dated to 20 BC, during the reign of Azes II. Turin City Museum of Ancient Art.
Dancing Indo-Scythians (top) and hunting scene (bottom). Buddhist relief from Swat, Gandhara.
Butkara doorjamb, with Indo-Scythians dancing and reveling. On the back side is a relief of a standing Buddha<ref>Faccenna, "Sculptures from the sacred area of Butkara I", plate CCCLXXII</ref>
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably 143 CE.<ref name = "PC">Problems of Chronology in Gandharan Art pp.35-51, 2017</ref> The two devotees on the right side of the pedestal are in Indo-Scythian suit (loose trousers, tunic, and hood).<ref>Greco-Buddhist Art of Gandhara p.491</ref>

Indo-Scythians (also called Indo-Sakas) were a group of nomadic Iranian peoples of Scythian origin who migrated from Central Asia southward into northern and western regions of ancient India from the middle of the 2nd century BCE to the 4th century CE.

- Indo-Scythians

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Indo-Greek Kingdom

Hellenistic-era Greek kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan, the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent, (virtually all of modern Pakistan), and a small part of Iran.

Pataliputra Palace capital, showing Greek and Persian influence, early Mauryan Empire period, 3rd century BC.
Kandahar Bilingual Rock Inscription (Greek and Aramaic) by king Ashoka, from Kandahar, Afghanistan.
According to the Mahavamsa, the Great Stupa in Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka, was dedicated by a 30,000-strong "Yona" (Greek) delegation from "Alexandria" around 130 BC.
Greco-Bactrian statue of an old man or philosopher, Ai Khanoum, Bactria, 2nd century BC
Corinthian capital, found at Ai-Khanoum, 2nd century BC
Coin depicting the Greco-Bactrian king Euthydemus 230–200 BC. The Greek inscription reads: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΕΥΘΥΔΗΜΟΥ – "(of) King Euthydemus".
Possible statuette of a Greek soldier, wearing a version of the Greek Phrygian helmet, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Urumqi.
Greco-Bactria and the city of Ai-Khanoum were located at the very doorstep of Mauryan India.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashoka, which mentions the Greek kings Antiochus, Ptolemy, Antigonus, Magas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
Shunga horseman, Bharhut.
Apollodotus I (180–160 BC) the first king who ruled in the subcontinent only, and therefore the founder of the proper Indo-Greek kingdom.
Silver coin depicting Demetrius I of Bactria (reigned c. 200–180 BC), wearing an elephant scalp, symbol of his conquests of areas in what is now Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The coinage of Agathocles (circa 180 BC) incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities from India, which have been variously interpreted as Vishnu, Shiva, Vasudeva, Balarama or the Buddha.
Kharoshthi legend on the reverse of a coin of Indo-Greek king Artemidoros Aniketos.
Menander I (155–130 BC) is one of the few Indo-Greek kings mentioned in both Graeco-Roman and Indian sources.
The Shinkot casket containing Buddhist relics was dedicated "in the reign of the Great King Menander".
Indian-standard coinage of Menander I. Obv ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ ΜΕΝΑΝΔΡΟΥ "Of Saviour King Menander". Rev Palm of victory, Kharoshthi legend Māhārajasa trātadasa Menandrāsa, British Museum.
King Hippostratos riding a horse, circa 100 BC (coin detail).
The Yavanarajya inscription discovered in Mathura, mentions its carving on "The last day of year 116 of Yavana hegemony" (Yavanarajya), or 116th year if the Yavana era, suggesting the Greeks ruled over Mathura as late as 60 BC. Mathura Museum.
The Mathura Herakles. A statue of Herakles strangling the Nemean lion from Mathura. Today in the Kolkota Indian Museum.
Possible statue of a Yavana/ Indo-Greek warrior with boots and chiton, from the Rani Gumpha or "Cave of the Queen" in the Udayagiri Caves on the east coast of India, where the Hathigumpha inscription was also found. 2nd or 1st century BC.
Heliocles (145–130 BC) was the last Greek king in Bactria.
Coin of Antialcidas (105–95 BC).
Coin of Philoxenos (100–95 BC).
Coin of Zoilos I (130–120 BC) showing on the reverse the Heraklean club with the Scythian bow, inside a victory wreath.
The Heliodorus pillar, commissioned by Indo-Greek ambassador Heliodorus, is the first known inscription related to Vaishnavism in India. Heliodurus was one of the earliest recorded Indo-Greek converts to Hinduism.
Heliodorus travelled from Taxila to Vidisha as an ambassador of king Antialkidas, and erected the Heliodorus pillar.
The Bharhut Yavana, a possible Indian depiction of Menander, with the flowing head band of a Greek king, northern tunic with Hellenistic pleats, and Buddhist triratana symbol on his sword. Bharhut, 100 BC. Indian Museum, Calcutta.
At Bharhut, the gateways were made by northwestern (probably Gandharan) masons using Kharosthi marks 100-75 BC.
the Kharosthi letters were found on the balusters
Foreigners on the Northern Gateway of Stupa I at Sanchi.
Foreigners worshiping Stupa
Greek travelling costume
Hermaeus (90–70 BC) was the last Indo-Greek king in the Western territories (Paropamisadae).
Hermaeus posthumous issue struck by Indo-Scythians near Kabul, circa 80–75 BC.
Tetradrachm of Hippostratos, reigned circa 65–55 BC, was the last Indo-Greek king in Western Punjab.
Hippostratos was replaced by the Indo-Scythian king Azes I (r. c. 35–12 BC).
Approximate region of East Punjab and Strato II's capital Sagala.
The last known Indo-Greek kings Strato II and Strato III, here on a joint coin (25 BC-10 AD), were the last Indo-Greek king in eartern territories of Eastern Punjab.
Pillar of the Great Chaitya at Karla Caves, mentioning its donation by a Yavana. Below: detail of the word "Ya-va-na-sa" in old Brahmi script: Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpgBrahmi v 2nd century CE.gifBrahmi n.svgBrahmi s.svg, circa AD 120.
The Buddhist symbols of the triratna and of the swastika (reversed) around the word "Ya-va-ṇa-sa" in Brahmi (Brahmi y 2nd century CE.jpg Brahmi v 2nd century CE.gif Brahmi nn.svg Brahmi s.svg). Shivneri Caves 1st century AD.
Statue with inscription mentioning "year 318", probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 143.
Piedestal of the Hashtnagar Buddha statue, with Year 384 inscription, probably of the Yavana era, i.e. AD 209.
Evolution of Zeus Nikephoros ("Zeus holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus himself (left, coin of Heliocles I 145–130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas 115–95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism (right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).
Indo-Corinthian capital representing a man wearing a Graeco-Roman-style coat with fibula, and making a blessing gesture. Butkara Stupa, National Museum of Oriental Art, Rome.
Evolution of the Butkara stupa, a large part of which occurred during the Indo-Greek period, through the addition of Hellenistic architectural elements.
Coin of Menander II (90–85 BC). "King Menander, follower of the Dharma" in Kharoshthi script, with Zeus holding Nike, who holds a victory wreath over an Eight-spoked wheel.
Greek Buddhist devotees, holding plantain leaves, in purely Hellenistic style, inside Corinthian columns, Buner relief, Victoria and Albert Museum.
Hellenistic culture in the Indian subcontinent: Greek clothes, amphoras, wine and music (Detail of Chakhil-i-Ghoundi stupa, Hadda, Gandhara, 1st century AD).
Intaglio gems engraved in the northwest of India (2nd century BCE-2nd century CE).
Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century (Ostasiatisches Museum, Berlin)
Stone palette depicting a mythological scene, 2nd–1st century BC.
Cupro-nickel coins of king Pantaleon point to a Chinese origin of the metal.
Athena in the art of Gandhara, displayed at the Lahore Museum, Pakistan
Strato I in combat gear, making a blessing gesture, circa 100 BC.
The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).
Hellenistic couple from Taxila (Guimet Museum)
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. (British Museum).
Foreigner on a horse. The medallions are dated circa 115 BC.
Lakshmi with lotus and two child attendants, probably derived from [[:File:Venus with two cupids 2.jpg|similar images of Venus]]<ref>An Indian Statuette From Pompeii, Mirella Levi D'Ancona, in Artibus Asiae, Vol. 13, No. 3 (1950) p. 171</ref>
Griffin.
Female riding a Centaur.
Lotus within Hellenistic beads and reels motif.
Floral motif.
Exterior
Entrance pillars
Pillar capital
Interior
Standing Buddha
Philoxenus (c. 100 BC), unarmed, making a blessing gesture.
Nicias making a blessing gesture.
Various blessing gestures: divinities (top), kings (bottom).

For example, Artemidoros (80 BC) was supposed to have been of Indo-Scythian ascendency, although he is now seen as a regular Indo-Greek king.

Maues

Maues riding in armour. Like many other Indo-Scythians, Maues did not issue portraits.
Silver tetradrachm of Maues. The obverse shows Zeus standing with a sceptre. The Greek legend reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΜΕΓΑΛΟΥ ΜΑΥΟΥ (Οf the Great King of Kings Maues). The reverse shows Nike standing, holding a wreath. Kharoshthi legend. Taxila mint.
Coin of Maues depicting Balarama, 1st century BCE. British Museum.
Coin of Machene, Queen of Maues. Obv. Tyche, wearing mural crown. Legend ΒΑΣΙΛΙΣΣΗΣ ΘEOTPOΠOY MAXHNHΣ "Godlike Queen Machene". Rev. Zeus with Nike, legend "Rajatirajasa mahatasa Moasa" in Kharoshthi "Great king of kings, Maues".

Maues (Greek: Μαύης Maúēs; ΜΑΥΟΥ Mauou (epigraphic); Kharosthi: 𐨨𐨆𐨀 Mo-a, Moa, called 𐨨𐨆𐨒 Mo-ga, Moga on the Taxila copper plate; also called 𐨨𐨅𐨬𐨐𐨁 𐨨𐨁𐨩𐨁𐨐 Me-va-ki Mi-yi-ka, Mevaki Miyika in the Mathura lion capital inscription, ) was the first Indo-Scythian king, ruling from 98/85 to 60/57 BCE.

Satrap

Governor of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.

The Herakleia head, probable portrait of an Achaemenid Empire Satrap of Asia Minor, end of 6th century BCE, probably under Darius I
A dignitary of Asia Minor in Achaemenid style, circa 475 BC. Karaburun tomb near Elmalı, Lycia
Coin of Themistocles, a former Athenian general, as Achaemenid Empire Satrap of Magnesia, circa 465–459 BC
Coinage of Tiribazos, Satrap of Achaemenid Lydia, 388–380 BC
Achaemenid Satrap Autophradates receiving visitors, on the Tomb of Payava, circa 380 BC
Banquet scene of a Satrap, on the "Sarcophagus of the Satrap", Sidon, 4th century BC
The satraps appointed by Alexander the Great during his campaign
Bagadates I (Minted 290–280 BC), the first indigenous satrap to be appointed by the Seleucid Empire
Coin of "Western Satrap" Nahapana, circa 120 CE

The Western Satraps or Kshatrapas (35–405 CE) of the Indian subcontinent were Saka rulers in the western and central part of the Sindh region of Pakistan, and the Saurashtra and Malwa regions of western India.

Saka

For the land of the Saka under the Sassanid dynasty, see Sakastan.

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For the Achaemenids, there were three types of Sakas: the Sakā tayai paradraya ("beyond the sea", presumably between the Greeks and the Thracians on the Western side of the Black Sea), the Sakā tigraxaudā ("with pointed caps"), the Sakā haumavargā ("Hauma drinkers", furthest East). Soldiers of the Achaemenid army, Xerxes I tomb detail, circa 480 BC.
Head of a Saka warrior, as a defeated enemy of the Yuezhi, from Khalchayan, northern Bactria, 1st century BCE.
A document from Khotan written in Khotanese Saka, part of the Eastern Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages, listing the animals of the Chinese zodiac in the cycle of predictions for people born in that year; ink on paper, early 9th century
Scythia and the Parthian Empire in about 170 BC (before the Yuezhi invaded Bactria).
Silver coin of the Indo-Scythian King Azes II (ruled c. 35–12 BC). Note the royal tamga on the coin.
Simplified admixture analysis of ancient steppe populations, including the Pazyryk culture.
A Pazyryk horseman in a felt painting from a burial around 300 BC. The Pazyryks appear to be closely related to the Scythians.
Pazyryk Carpet
Artifacts found the tombs 2 and 4 of Tillya Tepe and reconstitution of their use on the man and woman found in these tombs
Battle scenes on the Orlat plaques. 1st century CE.
Statuette from the Saka culture in Xinjiang, from a 3rd-century BC burial site north of the Tian Shan, Xinjiang Region Museum, Ürümqi.

In the 2nd century BC, many Sakas were driven by the Yuezhi from the steppe into Sogdia and Bactria and then to the northwest of the Indian subcontinent, where they were known as the Indo-Scythians.

Northern Satraps

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Coins of contemporary Indo-Greek ruler Strato (r.c.25 BCE to 10 CE, top) and Indo-Scythian ruler of Mathura Rajuvula (r.c.10 BCE to 10 CE, bottom) discovered together in a mound in Mathura. The coins of Rajuvula were derived from those of Strato.
Indo-Scythian ruler Rajuvula, from his coinage.
The Mathura lion capital, a dynastic production, advertising the rule of Rajuvula and his relatives, as well as their sponsorship of Buddhism. 2 BCE-6 CE.
Coin of Bhadrayasha, early 1st century CE
Mirzapur stele inscription in the reign Sodasa, circa 15 CE, Mirzapur village (in the vicinity of Mathura). Mathura Museum. The inscription refers to the erection of a water tank by Mulavasu and his consort Kausiki, during the reign of Sodasa, assuming the title of "Svami (Lord) Mahakshatrapa (Great Satrap)".
The names of the Mahakshatrapa ("Great Satrap") Kharapallana and the Kshatrapa ("Satrap") Vanaspara in the year 3 of Kanishka (circa 123 CE) were found on this statue of the Bala Bodhisattva, dedicated by "brother (Bhikshu) Bala".
introduced from the Gandhara area
A sample of the new calligraphic style introduced by the Indo-Scythians: fragment of the Mirzapur stele inscription, in the vicinity of Mathura, circa 15 CE. Gupta ashoka svaa.jpgGupta ashoka mi.jpg ashoka sya.svgGupta ashoka m.svgGupta ashoka h.svgGupta ashoka kss.jpg ashoka tr.jpgGupta ashoka p.svg ashoka sya.svg Gupta ashoka shu.jpgGupta gujarat daa.jpgGupta_ashoka_s.svg ashoka sya.svg Svāmisya Mahakṣatrapasya Śudasasya "Of the Lord and Great Satrap Śudāsa"
The "Isapur Buddha", probably the earliest known representation of the Buddha (possibly together with the [[:File:Butkara I stupa in-situ seated Buddha.jpg|Butkara seated Buddha]] statue at the Butkara Stupa, Swat), on a railing post, dated to circa 15 CE.
The Jina Parsvanatha (detail of an ayagapata), highly similar to the Isapur Buddha, Mathura circa 15 CE, Lucknow Museum. <ref name="books.google.com"/>
Indra attending the Buddha
"Indrasala architrave", detail of the Buddha in Indrasala Cave, attended by the Vedic deity Indra. 50-100 CE.
Buddhist "Indrasala architrave", with Buddha and Bodhi Tree in the center of each side, dated 50-100 CE, before the Kushan period. The Buddha is attended by Vedic deity Indra on the side of the Indrasala Cave.
Yashi with onlookers, dated 20 BCE.<ref>Dated 20 BCE in Fig.200 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.200|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA171|language=en}}</ref>
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
Yashi with onlookers (detail), dated 20 BCE.
1st Jaina Tirthankara Rishabhanatha torso - Circa 1st Century
Four-fold Jain image with Suparshvanath and three other Tirthankaras - Circa 1st Century CE
Goat-headed Jain Mother Goddess, circa 1st Century CE
The Jina Parsvanatha ayagapata, Mathura circa 15 CE, Lucknow Museum.<ref name="SRQ200">{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=200–201|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA201|language=en}}</ref><ref name="books.google.com"/>
"Sihanāṃdikā ayagapata", Jain votive plate, dated 25-50 CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=410, Fig. 156|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA410|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=2000|volume=60|issue=1|pages=79–137 Fig.21|doi=10.2307/3249941|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249941 }}</ref>
Jain votive plaque with Jain stupa, the "Vasu Śilāpaṭa" ayagapata, 1st century CE, excavated from Kankali Tila, Mathura.<ref>{{cite journal|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=Āyāgapaṭas: Characteristics, Symbolism, and Chronology|journal=Artibus Asiae|date=2000|volume=60|issue=1|pages=79–137 Fig.26|doi=10.2307/3249941|issn=0004-3648|jstor=3249941 }}</ref>
thumb|upright=1.5|Jain relief showing monks of the ardhaphalaka sect. Early 1st century CE.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|pages=174–176|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA174|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|Jain decorated tympanum from Kankali Tila, Mathura, 15 CE.<ref>Dated 15 CE in Fig.222 in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig.222|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA201|language=en}}</ref>
thumb|"Persian Achaemenian" style capitals appearing in ayagapatas, Mathura, 15-50 CE.<ref>"the massive pillars in the Persian Achaemenian style" in {{cite book|last1=Shah|first1=Chimanlal Jaichand|title=Jainism in north India, 800 B.C.-A.D. 526|date=1932|publisher=Longmans, Green and co.|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=InkrAAAAIAAJ|language=en}}</ref><ref>"The Ayagapata which had been set up by Simhanddika, anterior to the reign of Kanishka, and which is assignable to a period not later than 1 A.D., is worth notice because of the typical pillars in the Persian-Achaemenian style" in {{cite book|title=Bulletin of the Baroda Museum and Picture Gallery|date=1949|publisher=Baroda Museum|page=18|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=G-moE4Cjv50C|language=en}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|last1=Kumar|first1=Ajit|title=Bharhut Sculptures and their untenable Sunga Association|journal=Heritage: Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies in Archaeology|date=2014|volume=2|pages=223‐241|url=https://www.academia.edu/10237709|language=en}}</ref>
Sivayasa Ayagapata, with Jain stupa fragment, Kankali Tila, 75-100 CE.
The Vasu doorjamb, dedicated to Vāsudeva "in the reign of Sodasa", Mathura, circa 15 CE. Mathura Museum, GMM 13.367
Reliefs of the Mora doorjamb with grapevine design, Mora, near Mathura, circa 15 CE. State Museum Lucknow, SML J.526. Similar scroll designs are known [[:File:Gandhara floral scrolls.jpg|from Gandhara]], [[:File:Pataliputra scroll.jpg|from Pataliputra]], and [[:File:South_Arabian_-_Relief_with_Vines_-_Walters_2167.jpg|from Greco-Roman art]].
Garland bearers and Buddhist "Romaka" Jataka, in which the Buddha in a previous life was a pigeon.<ref>{{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura, ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=978-90-474-1930-3|page=226|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=rtqvCQAAQBAJ&pg=PA226|language=en}}</ref> 25-50 CE.<ref>Dated 25-50 CE in {{cite book|last1=Quintanilla|first1=Sonya Rhie|title=History of Early Stone Sculpture at Mathura: Ca. 150 BCE - 100 CE|date=2007|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9789004155374|page=Fig. 288|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=X7Cb8IkZVSMC&pg=PA199|language=en}}</ref> Similar garland-bearer designs are known [[:File:Peshawar Museum Yakshas and Garlands.jpg|from Gandhara]], [[:File:Amaravati garland bearer.jpg|from Amaravati]] and [[:File:Greco-Roman garland bearers.jpg|from Greco-Roman art]].
Coin of satrap Hagamasha. Obv. Horse to the left. Rev. Standing figure with symbols, legend Khatapasa Hagāmashasa. 1st century BCE.
Joint coin of Hagana and Hagamasha. Obv.: Horse to left. Rev. Thunderbolt, legend Khatapāna Hagānasa Hagāmashasa. 1st century BCE.
Coin of Rajuvula, c. 10 CE
Coin of Sodasa, early 1st century CE

The Northern Satraps (Brahmi: Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Kṣatrapa, "Satraps" or Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps"), or sometimes Satraps of Mathura, or Northern Sakas, are a dynasty of Indo-Scythian rulers who held sway over the area of Eastern Punjab and Mathura after the decline of the Indo-Greeks, from the end of the 1st century BCE to the 2nd century CE.

Saka language

Variety of Eastern Iranian languages, attested from the ancient Buddhist kingdoms of Khotan, Kashgar and Tumshuq in the Tarim Basin, in what is now southern Xinjiang, China.

Khotanese animal zodiac BLI6 OR11252 1R2 1
Khotanese Verses BLE4 IOLKHOT50 4R1 1
Book of Zambasta BLX3542 OR9614 5R1 1
Manuscript in Khotanese from Dandan Oilik, NE of Khotan. Now held in the British Library.

The Saka rulers of Western India, such as the Indo-Scythians and Western Satraps, spoke practically the same language.

Kushan Empire

Syncretic empire, formed by the Yuezhi, in the Bactrian territories in the early 1st century.

A map of India in the 2nd century AD showing the extent of the Kushan Empire (in yellow) during the reign of Kanishka. Most historians consider the empire to have variously extended as far east as the middle Ganges plain, to Varanasi on the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna, or probably even Pataliputra.
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Yuezhi nobleman and priest over a fire altar. Noin-Ula.
The ethnonym "KOϷ ϷANO" (Koshshano, "Kushan") in Greek alphabet (with the addition of the letter Ϸ, "Sh") on a coin of the first known Kushan ruler Heraios (1st century AD).
the famous head of a Yuezhi prince
Greek alphabet (narrow columns) with Kushan script (wide columns)
Early gold coin of Kanishka I with Greek language legend and Hellenistic divinity Helios. (c. AD 120).
Obverse: Kanishka standing, clad in heavy Kushan coat and long boots, flames emanating from shoulders, holding a standard in his left hand, and making a sacrifice over an altar. Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΥΣ ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΝ ΚΑΝΗϷΚΟΥ
Basileus Basileon Kanishkoy
"[Coin] of Kanishka, king of kings". Reverse: Standing Helios in Hellenistic style, forming a benediction gesture with the right hand. Legend in Greek script: ΗΛΙΟΣ Helios Kanishka monogram (tamgha) to the left.
Kushan territories (full line) and maximum extent of Kushan control under Kanishka the Great. The extent of Kushan control is notably documented in the Rabatak inscription. The northern expansion into the Tarim Basin is mainly suggested by coin finds and Chinese chronicles.
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Map showing the four empires of Eurasia in the 2nd century AD. "For a time, the Kushan Empire was the centerpoint of the major civilizations".
Eastern reach as far as Bengal: Samatata coinage of king Vira Jadamarah, in imitation of the Kushan coinage of Kanishka I. The text of the legend is a meaningless imitation. Bengal, circa 2nd-3rd century AD.
Kumara/Kartikeya with a Kushan devotee, 2nd century AD
Kushan prince, said to be Huvishka, making a donation to a Boddhisattva.
Shiva Linga worshipped by Kushan devotees, circa 2nd century AD
The Ahin Posh stupa was dedicated in the 2nd century AD under the Kushans, and contained coins of Kushan and Roman Emperors.
Early Mahayana Buddhist triad. From left to right, a Kushan devotee, Maitreya, the Buddha, Avalokitesvara, and a Buddhist monk. 2nd–3rd century, Gandhara
The head of a Gandhara Bodhisattava said to resemble a Kushan prince, as seen in [[:File:KushanHead.jpg|the portrait of the prince]] from Khalchayan. Philadelphia Museum.
Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century
Mahasena on a coin of Huvishka
Four-faced Oesho
Rishti or Riom<ref>{{cite journal |quote=The reading of the name of the deity on this coin is very much uncertain and disputed (Riom, Riddhi, Rishthi, Rise....) |last1=Fleet |first1=J.F. |title=The Introduction of the Greek Uncial and Cursive Characters into India |journal=The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland |year=1908 |volume=1908 |page=179, note 1 |jstor=25210545}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |quote=The name Riom as read by Gardner, was read by Cunningham as Ride, who equated it with Riddhi, the Indian goddess of fortune. F.W. Thomas has read the name as Rhea |last1=Shrava |first1=Satya |title=The Kushāṇa Numismatics |year=1985 |publisher=Pranava Prakashan |page=29 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=_1EaAAAAYAAJ}}</ref>
Manaobago
Pharro
Ardochsho
Oesho or Shiva
Oesho or Shiva with bull
Skanda and Visakha
Kushan Carnelian seal representing the "ΑΔϷΟ" (adsho Atar), with triratana symbol left, and Kanishka the Great's dynastic mark right
Coin of Kanishka I, with a depiction of the Buddha and legend "Boddo" in Greek script
Herakles.
Buddha
Coin of Vima Kadphises. Deity Oesho on the reverse, thought to be Shiva,<ref name="sino-platonic.org"/>{{sfn|Bopearachchi|2007|pp=41–53}}<ref>Perkins, J. (2007). Three-headed Śiva on the Reverse of Vima Kadphises's Copper Coinage. South Asian Studies, 23(1), 31–37</ref> or the Zoroastrian Vayu.<ref>{{cite book |editor-last1=Errington |editor-first1=Elizabeth |author=Fitzwilliam Museum |title=The Crossroads of Asia: transformation in image and symbol in the art of ancient Afghanistan and Pakistan |date=1992 |publisher=Ancient India and Iran Trust |isbn=9780951839911 |page=87 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=pfLpAAAAMAAJ}}</ref>
<center>Kanishka I:
<center>Kanishka I:
<center>Kanishka I:
<center>Kanishka I:
<center>Vasudeva I:
<center>Vasudeva I:
<center>Kanishka II:

Gradually wresting control of the area from the Scythian tribes, the Kushans expanded south into the region traditionally known as Gandhara (an area primarily in Pakistan's Pothowar and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region) and established twin capitals in Begram.

Chandragupta II

The third ruler of the Gupta Empire in India, and one of the most powerful emperors of the dynasty.

An 8 gram gold coin featuring Chandragupta II astride a caparisoned horse with a bow in his left hand. The name Cha-ndra-gu-pta appears in the upper left quadrant.
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The full name "Chandragupta" in Gupta script (Gupta script: Gupta allahabad c.svg allahabad ndr.jpgGupta allahabad gu.jpg allahabad pt.jpg) Cha-ndra-gu-pta, on coinage.
The pillar inscribed with the Lakulisa Mathura Pillar Inscription, Mathura recording the installation of two Shiva Lingas by Udita Acharya in the "year 61 following the era of the Guptas in the reign of Chandragupta Vikramaditya, son of Samudragupta" (380 CE). Rangeshwar Temple. Mathura Museum. Mathura Museum.
Cave 6 and Cave 8 inscriptions at Udayagiri Caves mention the rule of Chandragupta II.
The iron pillar of Delhi, which features an inscription of king Chandra, identified as Chandragupta II. It was installed as a victory pillar in the Qutb complex by Sultan Iltutmish in the 13th century.
The inscription of king Chandra
Probable image of Chandragupta II, paying homage to Varaha, avatar of Vishnu, in Udayagiri Caves, circa 400 CE.
One of the earliest dated Gupta statues, a Bodhisattva derived from the Kushan style of Mathura art, inscribed "year 64" of the Gupta era, 384 CE, Bodh Gaya.
Chandragupta II is associated with the development of Vaishnavism in India, and the establishment of the Udayagiri Caves with Vaishnava iconography (here Varaha saving the world from chaos). Circa 400 CE.
Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II.
Gold coin of Chandragupta II, with a figure of an archer (obverse), and with a figure of the Indian goddess of good fortune, Shri, seated on a lotus (reverse), Cleveland Museum of Art
Vikramaditya goes forth to war, a modern artist's imagination
Obverse of "Chhatra" type (left) and "Archer" type (right) coins
Coin with the king's name in Brahmi script
Silver coin in Western Satraps style (15mm, 2.1 grams.)<ref name="CIC">"Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type ... for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc.", p.cli</ref><ref>{{cite book |last1=Curta |first1=Florin |last2=Holt |first2=Andrew |title=Great Events in Religion: An Encyclopedia of Pivotal Events in Religious History [3 volumes] |date=2016 |publisher=ABC-CLIO |isbn=978-1-61069-566-4 |page=271 |url=https://books.google.com/books?id=dgF9DQAAQBAJ&pg=PA271 |language=en}}</ref><ref name="ABC-CLIO"/>

In the play, Ramagupta decides to surrender his queen Dhruvadevi to a Shaka enemy when besieged, but Chandragupta goes to the enemy camp disguised as the queen and kills the enemy.

Kujula Kadphises

Kushan prince who united the Yuezhi confederation in Bactria during the 1st century CE, and became the first Kushan emperor.

Tetradrachm of Kujula Kadphises (30-80 CE) in the style of Hermaeus. 
Obv: Hermaios-style diademed bust. Corrupted Greek legend: ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΤΗΡΟΣΣΥ ΕΡΜΑΙΟΥ ("Basileos Sterossy Hermaiou"): "King Hermaeus, the Saviour". 
Rev: Herakles standing with club and lion skin.
Kharoṣṭhī legend: KUJULA KASASA KUSHANA YAVUGASA DHARMATHIDASA "Kujula Kadphises ruler of the Kushans, steadfast in the Law ("Dharma"). British Museum.
Coin of Kujula Kadphises. Circa AD 30/50-80. Obv Laureate Julio-Claudian style head right. Greek legend Greek legend around: ΚΟΖΟΛΑ ΚΑΔΑΦΕϹ XOPANOV ZAOOV. Rev Kujula Kadphises seated right, raising hand; tripartite symbol to left. Legend Khushanasa Yauasa Kuyula Kaphasa Sacha Dhramatidasa.
Kujula Kadphises coin. Obv Helmeted soldier head right. Rev Warrior standing right, holding shield and spear.
Left Silver denarius of Tiberius (14-37 CE) found in India. Center Indian copy of the same, 1st century CE. Right Coin of Kushan king Kujula Kadphises copying a coin of Augustus.
Coin of Kujula Kadphises. Obv Kujula seated cross legged facing, Kharoshti legend: Kuyula Kadaphasa Kushanasa. Rev Zeus on the reverse, Greek legend: ΚΟΖΟΛΑ XOPANOY ZAOOY.
Kujula Kadphises Tetradrachm. Obv Brahma bull standing right, with Buddhist Triratana above. Blundered Greek legend. Rev Camel standing right. Kharoshthi legend Maharayasa Rayatirayasa Kuyula Kara Kapasa.

However, Kujula shares his name (Kushan: Κοζουλου on some of his "Hermaeus" coins, or Κοζολα on his "Augustus" coins) with some of the last Indo-Scythian rulers, such as Liaka Kusulaka (Greek: Λιακα Κοζουλο), or his son Patika Kusulaka, which might suggest some family connection.

Western Satraps

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The rulers of the Western Satraps were called (𑀫𑀳𑀸𑀔𑀢𑀧, "Great Satrap") in their Brahmi script inscriptions, as here in a dedicatory inscription by Prime Minister Ayama in the name of his ruler Nahapana, Manmodi Caves, circa 100 CE. Nahapana was also attributed the titles of ("King") and  ("Lord") conjointly.
Coin of Bhumaka (?–119). Obv: Arrow, pellet, and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi inscription Chaharasada Chatrapasa Bhumakasa: "Ksaharata Satrap Bhumaka". Rev: Capital of a pillar with seated lion with upraised paw, and wheel (dharmachakra). Brahmi inscription: Kshaharatasa Kshatrapasa Bhumakasa.
Coin of Nahapana (whose rule is variously dated to 24-70 CE, 66-71 CE, or 119–124 CE), a direct derivation from Indo-Greek coinage. British Museum.
The Greco-Prakrit title "RANNIO KSAHARATA" ("ΡΑΝΝΙ ω ΞΑΗΑΡΑΤΑ(Ϲ)", Prakrit for "King Kshaharata" rendered in corrupted Greek letters) on the obverse of the coinage of Nahapana.
Karla Caves, inscription of Nahapana.
Nasik Cave inscription No.10. of Nahapana, Cave No.10.
One of the pillars built by Ushavadata, viceroy of Nahapana, circa 120 CE, Nasik Caves, cave No10.
Nahapana coin hoard.
The Western Satraps under Nahapana, with their harbour of Barigaza, were among the main actors of the 1st century CE international trade according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The "Saka-Yavana-Palhava" (Brahmi script: 𑀲𑀓 𑀬𑀯𑀦 𑀧𑀮𑁆𑀳𑀯) defeated by Gautamiputra Satakarni, mentioned in the Nasik cave 3 inscription of Queen Gotami Balasiri (end of line 5 of the inscription).
Coin of Gautamiputra Yajna Satakarni struck over a drachm of Nahapana. Circa 167-196 CE. Ujjain symbol and three arched mountain symbol struck respectively on the obverse and reverse of a drachm of Nahapana.
Coin of the Western Satrap Chastana (c. 130 CE). Obv: King in profile. The legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit Raño Kshatrapasa Castana: "King and Satrap Castana".
Statue of Chastana, with costume details. The belt displays designs of horsemen and tritons/anguipeds, the coat has a highly ornate hem. Inscription "Shastana" (Middle Brahmi script: Gupta ashoka ss.svg ashoka sta.jpgGupta ashoka n.svg Ṣa-sta-na). Mathura Museum.
Silver coin of Rudradaman I (130–150). Obv: Bust of Rudradaman, with corrupted Greek legend "OVONIΛOOCVΛCHΛNO". Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya with river, crescent and sun. Brahmi legend: Rajno Ksatrapasa Jayadamasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamasa: "King and Great Satrap Rudradaman, son of King and Satrap Jayadaman" 16mm, 2.0 grams.
The Junagadh rock contains inscriptions of Ashoka (fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I (the Junagadh rock inscription of Rudradaman)and Skandagupta.
A coin dated to the beginning of the first reign of Jivadaman, in the year 100 (One hundred in the Brahmi script of the Western Satraps.jpg) of the Saka Era (corresponding to 178 CE).
Brāhmī numerals
Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I (178–197).
Obv: Bust of Rudrasimha, with corrupted Greek legend "..OHIIOIH.." (Indo-Greek style).
Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within Prakrit legend in Brahmi script: Rudrasimha_I,_Brahmi_legend_on_coinage.jpg "King and Great Satrap Rudrasimha, son of King and Great Satrap Rudradaman".
Rudrasena II (256-278 CE). Head right, wearing close-fitting cap / Three-arched hill; group of five pellets to right.
Head of Buddha Shakyamuni, Devnimori, Gujarat (375-400). Derived from the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara, an example of the Western Indian art of the Western Satraps.
Location of the Sasanian coinage of Sindh, circa 400 CE, in relation with the other polities of the time.
Coin of the last Western Satrap ruler Rudrasimha III (388–395).
The victorious Sanchi inscription of Chandragupta II (412-413 CE).
Coin of Damasena. The minting date, here 153 (100-50-3 in [[:File:Brahmi numeral signs.svg|Brahmi script numerals]]) of the Saka era, therefore 232 CE, clearly appears behind the head of the king.
An imitation of Western Satrap coinage: silver coin of king Dahrasena (c. 415–455 CE), of the Traikutaka dynasty.
The inscription of Ushavadata, son-in-law of Nahapana, runs the length of the entrance wall of one of the Nasik caves, over the doors, and is here visible in parts between the pillars. Actual image, and corresponding rubbing. Cave No.10, Nasik Caves.
The Junagadh rock inscription, inscribed by Rudradaman I circa 150 CE, is "the first long inscription recorded entirely in more or less standard Sanskrit".
The Western Satraps (orange) and the Kushan Empire (green), in the 2nd century CE
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Genealogical table of the Western Satraps
Hall of the Great Chaitya Cave at Karla (120 CE)
Right row of columns
Chaitya roof
Capitals
Donative inscription by a Yavana ("Indo-Greek") named Vitasamghata.<ref>Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 p.326 Inscription No1</ref>
Front
Veranda
Interior
Chaitya and Umbrellas
Inscription
Coin of Gupta ruler Chandragupta II (r.380–415) in the style of the Western Satraps.
Coin of Gupta ruler Kumaragupta I (r.414–455) (Western territories).
Coin of Gupta ruler Skandagupta (r.455-467), in the style of the Western Satraps.
Coin of Gupta ruler Buddhagupta (r.476–495) in Malwa, derived from the style of the Western Satraps.

The Western Satraps, or Western Kshatrapas (Brahmi:Gupta ashoka tr.jpg, Mahakṣatrapa, "Great Satraps") were Indo-Scythian (Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India (Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh states), between 35 to 415 CE.