A report on IndonesiaJavanese people and Majapahit

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Javanese abugida.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
Javanese temple.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Traditional Javanese house.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
A Javanese sailor.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Varieties of Javanese keris
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Population pyramid 2016
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
Weapon of Java: Keris
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Javanese weapons and standards
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
Javanese agricultural tools
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
An Indonesian batik
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Javanese masks
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Javanese temple.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Asia in the early 14th century
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

- Javanese people

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

Indonesia consists of thousands of distinct native ethnic and hundreds of linguistic groups, with Javanese being the largest.

- Indonesia

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

- Javanese people

13 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

6 links

Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Java (Jawa, ; ꦗꦮ; ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

The ethnic groups native to the island are the Javanese in the central and eastern parts and Sundanese in the western parts.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

5 links

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

Evidence suggests that Borobudur was constructed in the 9th century and subsequently abandoned following the 14th-century decline of Hindu kingdoms in Java and the Javanese conversion to Islam.

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods

Mataram Kingdom

4 links

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
220x220px
220x220px
220x220px
The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Bubrah temple
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Plaosan twin temples
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.

The Mataram Kingdom (, ꦩꦠꦫꦩ꧀, ) was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.

It was the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia, evidence of the immense wealth and cultural achievement of the kingdom.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

Srivijaya

3 links

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

Srivijaya (Sriwijaya, ; Srivijaya, ) was a Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

Southeast Asia

3 links

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator.

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293.

In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than 100 million people, mostly concentrated in Java, Indonesia.

Gamelan musical instrument

Gamelan

3 links

Gamelan musical instrument
Musicians performing musical ensemble, The 8th century bas-relief of Borobudur Temple, Central Java, Indonesia
A gamelan player playing bonang. Gamelan Yogyakarta style during a Javanese wedding.
Gamelan is mentioned in the Kakawin Nagarakertagama in a palm-leaf manuscript called lontar that was written by Mpu Prapanca in 1365 AD. A collection of National Library of Indonesia in Jakarta
The court of the Sultan of Yogyakarta, c. 1876. Performance of Bedhaya Sacred Dance accompanied by Javanese Gamelan Ensemble
Various Javanese musical instrument in Gamelan Salindro, The History of Java by Thomas Stamford Raffles (1781-1826).
Javanese Gamelan Munggang (one of sacred gamelans) being played (as part of ritual) in Surakarta Sunanate, Central Java, Indonesia, 2000
A sindhen is singing a Javanese song accompanied by Gamelan ensemble
Javanese Gamelan in Asian Civilisations Museum, Singapore
Balinese Gamelan in Museu de la Música de Barcelona, Spain
K.P.H. Notoprojo, a famous Indonesian Javanese Gamelan and Rebab player, between 1945 and 1955
The three major indigenous genres of gong-chime music prevalent in Southeast Asia: this includes the Gamelan of western Indonesia; the kulintang of the southern Philippines, eastern Indonesia, and eastern Malaysia; and the piphat of Thailand, Cambodia, Laos and Burma
Pande (Gamelan Maker) is burning Gong in Besalen in Central Java, Indonesia
Pandes (Gamelan Makers) are forging a gamelan instrument called Kempul (small hanging gong) after burning it, Central Java, Indonesia
Gamelan is used by patients at Sumber Porong Mental Hospital in Java, between 1902 and 1922
Michael Tenzer played Balinese Gamelan in 1992
Gamelan Degung Ensemble performance for the recording at the Radio Republik Indonesia studio, Jakarta, on 24 April 1966
K.R.T. Rahayu Supanggah, one of gamelan maestros. He introduced gamelan to almost the entire world, actively researching, writing, training, creating compositions, teaching, and performing
Kempul
Gong Ageng
Kenong
Bonang
Demung
Saron
Peking
Gendèr
Slenthem
Kendang
thumb|Bedug
thumb|Gambang
Kethuk/Kempyang
thumb|Celempung
thumb|Siter
thumb|Rebab
thumb|Suling or Seruling
thumb|Kemanak
thumb|Kecer
thumb|Keprak
Gong Lanang
Gong Wadon
Gong Klentong
Trompong
Reyong
Ugal
Kantilan
Pemade
Kenyur
Jegogan
Jublag
Klenang
Kendhang Semaradana
Ceng-ceng Kepyak
Ceng-ceng Ricik
Gentora
Suling gambuh
Gender wayang
Rindhik
Curing
Javanese gamelan being played in Keraton Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 25 October 2009
thumb|Wayang Kulit performance with Gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A gamelan ensemble with a group of singers (Sindhen (Female) and Gerong (Male) at the Mangkunegaran Royal Palace in Surakarta, Central Java, between 1870 and 1892
A Gamelan Ensemble was played to accompany the inauguration of the Prince of the late Paku Alam VII at Pakualaman Palace, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, before 1949
A Dalang (Puppeteer), Sindhen (singer) and Wiyaga (gamelan musicians) with Javanese Gamelan at Keraton Yogyakarta the Sultan's Palace in Yogyakarta - Around 1885
Gamelan orchestra in East Java, late 19th century
Balinese Gamelan Performance (part of the ritual) in a Temple, Bali, Circa 1920
A balinese dancer performed Kebyar duduk dance accompanied by a Balinese gamelan Ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1952
Barong dance performance accompanied by a gamelan ensemble, Bali, Indonesia, before 1959
Balinese girls practiced legong dance accompanied by gamelan in Ubud, Bali, Dutch east Indies, between 1910 and 1930
Balinese Gamelan in a village near Sukawati, Bali after the Cremation Ceremony on 21 September 1922
Balinese gamelan being played in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, on 23 September 2010
Sundanese Gamelan with a dancer and Wayang Golek in a hut in Cibodas Botanical Garden, West Java on 28 September 1904
A Gamelan Ensemble and Dance show party for the Regent of Preanger (Now Parahyangan) West Java, between 1880 and 1920
Sundanese Gamelan ensemble of Bandung's Regent, West Java, Dutch east Indies, between 1857 and 1890
A gamelan laras slendro Si Ketuyung (sacred gamelan), a set of gamelan instruments made in 1748, a legacy of Sultan Sepuh IV, Keraton Kasepuhan, Cirebon, Indonesia
Gamelan Degung Ensemble, This photo was taken at Annual Exhibition in Java. between 1910 and 1930
Sundanese Gamelan Degung Performance from West Java, Indonesia, on 6 November 2007
Sekaten, Gamelan Sekaten Kanjeng Kiai Guntur Madu (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan) is usually beaten every day for a week during the Sekaten celebration at the Keraton Yogyakarta. The community was very enthusiastic about listening to the strains of the heirloom gamelan, on 26 November 2017
Melasti, a self-purification ceremony to welcome Nyepi by all Hindus in Bali. This ceremony is held on the beach with the aim of purifying oneself from all bad deeds.
Galungan, a Balinese holiday celebrating the victory of dharma over adharma in Besakih temple complex in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia
Tingalan Dalem Jumenengan, The 40th Royal coronations anniversary of Susoehoenan Pakubuwono X in Surakarta Sunanate.
Ngaben, the Hindu funeral ceremony of Bali, Indonesia. It is performed to release the soul of a dead person.
Wedding Ceremony, Javanese Wedding ceremony in Java
Legong, Legong Kraton Dance (Legong of the Palace) in Ubud Palace, Bali, Indonesia. In the background, the Gamelan orchestra accompanies the performance, on 23 August 2008
Bedhaya dance performance at the wedding of Hoesein Djajadiningrat and Partini in the palace of Prang Wedono (Mangkoe Negoro VII), the father of the bride, at Solo, Java, in January 1921
Jaipong, The Sundanese Jaipongan Langit Biru dance performance in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
Balinese Ramayana dance drama, performed in Sarasvati Garden in Ubud, Bali
King Duryodana in Wayang wong performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet Performance near Prambanan Temple complex in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
thumb|Dalang (Puppet master), Sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and Wiyaga (Gamelan musicians) in Wayang Kulit Show in Java
thumb|Wayang Golek Performance in Yogyakarta
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kethoprak (Javanese popular drama depicting legends, historical or pseudo-historical events). Performance by Kethoprak Tobong Kelana Bhakti Budaya, Bantul, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Ludruk performance, East Java, Indonesia
Sandiwara performance, West Java, Indonesia
thumb|javanese poetry, Sindhens performance with Gamelan Ensemble on a ceremony in Java, Indonesia, on 5 November 2015
tembang sunda, Sundanase singer sings Sundanese song in a festival
Campursari performance by Didi kempot
Balinese women gamelan Gong Kebyar in Balinese Cultural Festival, Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, on 17 June 2013
Gamelan performance at Borobudur International Performances and Art Festival 2018
Gamelan players at Balinese art festival 2018
Kyai Barleyan, a Javanese gamelan at Oberlin College in Ohio. Acquired in 1970, it is believed to be the third-oldest gamelan in use in the United States.
Gamelan Son of Lion, a Javanese-style iron American gamelan based in New York City that is devoted to new music, playing in a loft in SoHo, Manhattan, United States in 2007
Sundanese Gamelan Degung being played in Museo Nacional de las Culturas Mexico, Indra Swara Gamelan Group, on 2 April 2018
Golek Ayun-Ayun Dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble at Bangsal Sri Manganti Keraton Yogyakarta.
The Sundanese Jaipongan dance performance accompanied by Gamelan Ensemble in West Java Pavilion, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta.
Gamelan ensemble (or gambelan in Balinese term) accompanying barong performance (Bali lion dance) at Garuda Wisnu Kencana cultural complex, Bali, Indonesia.
Telek (masked) dance accompanied by Gamelan ensemble in Bali, between 1950 and 1957.
Wayang wong performance accompanied by Gamelan in Java, between 1890 and 1916.
A gamelan ensemble consisting of children in a temple complex in Bali, between 1910 and 1920.
Children practiced dance with gamelan at Kebun Dalem Semarang, Dutch east Indies, circa 1867.
A gamelan set in an exhibition at the museum of the Royal Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences (Now, National Museum of Indonesia), Batavia, circa 1896.
Gamelan Kaduk Manis Rengga (sacred gamelan) from Kraton Surakarta, Java, 2003.
A wayang klithik (flat woodden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Gamelan Sekati (One of Some Javanese Sacred Gamelan in the Keraton Yogyakarta) is being played to accompany Sekaten Ceremony in front of Kauman Great Mosque in Yogyakarta, Indonesia, on 27 April 2004.
Gamelan Nyi Asep Mangsa, Indra Swara, México, on 27 March 2015.
A Gamelan Ensemble accompanies Wayang Kulit Show (the Indonesian Shadow Play) in Java, circa 1870.

Gamelan (ꦒꦩꦼꦭꦤ꧀, ᮌᮙᮨᮜᮔ᮪, ) is the traditional ensemble music of the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese peoples of Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.

The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire.

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010

Wayang

3 links

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010
There are three main components of wayang kulit shows including dalang, gamelan (music and sindhen), and wayang kulit itself
Blencong, a Javanese oil lamp in the form of the mythical Garuda bird for wayang kulit performances, before 1924
Palm leaves manuscript of kakawin Arjunawiwaha is written by Mpu Kanwa in 1035 CE
A dalang (puppet master) depicting a fight in a wayang kulit performance
A wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance using kelir (thin fabric) as a border between the puppeteer (dalang) who plays the puppets and the audience
Wayang golek performance (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia
Menak Amir Hamzah manuscripts, before 1792.
Dalang (puppet master), sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and wiyaga (gamelan musicians) in a wayang kulit show in Java
The front view of the Wayang Museum seen from Fatahillah Square (Taman Fatahillah)
Wayang kulit performance with gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A dalang (puppeteer) in a {{Transl|jv|wayang golek}} (wooden puppet) performance, between 1880 and 1910
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta; in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kumbakarna, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Gatot Kaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Wibisana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Princess Shinta, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1983
Yudhishthira, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Princess Tari, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1934
Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, Indonesia
Rahwana, Indonesia in 2004
Ramawijaya, Indonesia in 2004
Gatot kaca, Indonesia in 2015
Kumbakarna, Indonesia before 1976
Dewi Drupadi, Indonesia before 1976
Menak Jingga, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1953
Damar Wulan, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Demon, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1950
Figure of Batara Guru
Duryudhana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Brathasena, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Final fight in alun-alun in Kediri, East Java. Tawang Alun kills Klana. Indonesia 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji, mbok Kili (left), and Ganda Ripa or Panji (right) in the palace in Kediri, 17th century
Radèn Gunung Sari on horse says goodbye to his advisers Tratag and Gimeng before travelling to princess Kumuda Ningrat, 18th century
Princess Sekar Taji and Panji meet in Paluhamba market, 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji in palace garden approached by Klana, 17th century
Competition between Panji Sepuh (left) and Jaya Puspita (right), 18th century
Pandava and Krishna in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
King Duryodana in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Giants in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Punokawan in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Rama and Shinta in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} Ramayana Ballet performance
Opening of {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance, usually showing traditional Javanese dance
Dancing {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} in Malang
Studio portrait of {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} actors
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} Malang
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Anggada, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Jayadrata, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Kendran, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Sangruda, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Duryadana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Gatakaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jayengrana, a collection from Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmaya, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmadi, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jiweng, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Putri Murtinjung, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang Golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, King Maktal (Albania), a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
{{Transl|jv|Kancil}}
{{Transl|jv|Srigala}}
{{Transl|jv|Macan}}
{{Transl|jv|Baya}}
{{Transl|jv|Keong}}
{{Transl|jv|Nenek Petani}}
Wayang glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle.
A wayang kulit set and a gamelan ensemble collection, Indonesia section at the Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
A {{lang|jv|wayang}} show in Java, Indonesia, presenting a {{lang|jv|wayang}} puppet.
Wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Gatot Kaca, Indonesia in 2017.
Sundanese wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia.
A {{lang|jv|wayang klithik}} (flat wooden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet show) accompanied by a gamelan ensemble in Java, circa 1870.
{{lang|jv|Wayang}} (shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
{{lang|jv|Wayang beber}} depiction of a battle.
{{lang|jv|Wayang kulit}} and {{lang|jv|wayang golek}} {{lang|jv|dalang}} (puppeteer), Ki Entus Susmono.
{{lang|jv|Wayang golek}} performance in Yogyakarta.
Wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance.
Kayon (Gunungan).
{{lang|jv|Wayang makassar}}

', also known as ' (ꦮꦪꦁ), is a traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

Indigenous origin (Java): The experts who say that is authentic Indonesian are Brandes, G. A. J. Hazeu, Rentse, Kats and Kruyt. According to Brandes, puppets are native to Java. He presents the results of ancient Indonesian culture, such as gamelan, the monetary system, metric forms, batik, astronomy, how to grow wet rice fields, and government administration. is closely related to Javanese social culture and religious life. Indian puppets are different from Javanese . All technical terms in the are Javanese, not Sanskrit. was not derived from any of the other types of shadow puppet in mainland Asia, but was a creation of the Javanese themselves. This opinion is based on the use of terms related to the stage which are not borrowed from other languages; in other words, these terms are original Javanese terms. Similarly, some of the other technical terms used in the found in Java and Bali are based on local languages, even when the play overlaps with Buddhist or Hindu mythologies. Hazeu said that wayang came from Java. The structure of the puppet is composed according to a very old model (the way of telling the puppeteer, the height of the voice, the language, and the expressions). The technical design, the style, and the composition of the Javanese plays. It grows from the worship of the ancestors. Kats argues that the technical term clearly comes from Java and that was born without the help of India. Before the 9th century, it belonged to the native population. It was closely related to religious practices (incense and night/wandering spirits). Panakawan uses a Javanese name, different from the Indian heroes. Kruyt argues that originates from shamanism, comparing ancient archipelago ceremonial forms which aim to make contact with the spirit world by presenting religious poetry praising the greatness of the soul.

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin

Gajah Mada

2 links

Gajah Mada (c.

Gajah Mada (c.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

He is considered an important national hero in modern Indonesia, as well as a symbol of patriotism and national unity.

Austronesian peoples

2 links

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

Skulls representing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's "five races" in De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1795). The Tahitian skull labelled "O-taheitae" represented what he called the "Malay race"
The New Physiognomy map (1889) printed by the Fowler & Wells Company depicting Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's five human races. The region inhabited by the "Malay race" is shown enclosed in dotted lines. Like in most 19th century sources, Islander Melanesians are excluded. Taiwan, which was annexed by the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century is also excluded.
Distribution of the Austronesian languages (Blust, 1999)
Paraw sailboats from Boracay, Philippines. Outrigger canoes and crab claw sails are hallmarks of the Austronesian maritime culture.
Coconuts in Rangiroa island in the Tuamotus, French Polynesia, a typical island landscape in Austronesia. Coconuts are native to tropical Asia, and were spread as canoe plants to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar by Austronesians.
Extent of contemporary Austronesia and possible further migrations and contact (Blench, 2009)
Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light rose pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of all the Austronesian peoples.
Samoan man carrying two containers over his shoulder
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
Representation of the coastal migration model, with the indication of the later development of mitochondrial haplogroups
Coastlines of Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia during the last glacial period
Aeta fishermen in an outrigger canoe in Luzon, Philippines (c. 1899)
Possible language family homelands and the spread of rice into Southeast Asia (ca. 5,500–2,500 BP). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue.
Yue statue of a tattooed Baiyue man in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum (c. 3rd century BCE)
Suggested early migration route of early Austronesians into and out of Taiwan based on ancient and modern mtDNA data. This hypothesis assumes the Sino-Austronesian grouping, a minority view among linguists. (Ko et al., 2014)
Proposed routes of Austroasiatic and Austronesian migrations into Indonesia (Simanjuntak, 2017)
Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesians (Blench, 2018)
Early waves of migration to Taiwan proposed by Roger Blench (2014)
Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior from Taiwan wearing traditional clothing (pre-World War II)
Map showing the migration of the Austronesians
Hōkūlea, a modern replica of a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe, is an example of a catamaran, another of the early sailing innovations of Austronesians
Proposed migration waves from Sundaland in the Late Pleistocene based on mtDNA data; and later "back-migrations" into Island Southeast Asia during the early to mid-Holocene expansion of rice-farming Austronesians from mainland southern China. The extent of the coastlines of Sundaland during the last ice age is presented in light shading; while modern coastlines after the rise of sea levels in the Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene is in dark shading. (Brandão et al., 2016)
Queen Liliuokalani, the last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Aboriginal Taiwanese Architecture
Sama-Bajau villages are typically built directly on shallow water
The raised bale houses of the Ifugao people with capped house posts are believed to be derived from the designs of traditional granaries
Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people with the distinctive saddleback roofs reminiscent of boats
Bai meeting house of the Palauan people with colourfully decorated gables
Māori pataka storehouses
Cast of a Lapita red-slipped earthenware shard from the Santa Cruz Islands (c. 1000 BCE), showing dentate-stamped, circle-stamped, and cross-in-circle decorations. The latter two are shared elements from Neolithic red-slipped pottery from the Nagsabaran Site in the Philippines.
Māori hei matau jade pendant
Hand stencils in the "Tree of Life" cave painting in Gua Tewet, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Watu Molindo ("the entertainer stone"), one of the megaliths in Bada Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually found near megalithic stone vats known as kalamba.
Toraja megaliths memorializing the deceased in Sulawesi, Indonesia
Boats and human figures in a cave painting in the Niah National Park of Sarawak, Malaysia; an example of the Austronesian Painting Traditions (APT)
Petroglyphs in Vanuatu with the concentric circles and swirling designs characteristic of the Austronesian Engraving Style (AES)
Haligi pillars from the Latte period of Guam, these served as supports for raised buildings
The ruins of Nan Madol, a stone city built on artificial islets in Pohnpei
A rai stone, large stone discs used as currency in Yap
A marae sacred site in Raiatea, French Polynesia
Hawaiian petroglyph depicting a poi dog (īlio)
Carving of Rongo, the Māori deity (atua) of kūmara, from Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
A 1782 illustration of a heiau temple in Hawaii
Elder Tayal women from Taiwan with facial tattoos
Teeth filing on a Mentawai man in the Mentawai Islands, Dutch East Indies, c. 1938
Tablet B of rongorongo, an undeciphered system of glyphs from Rapa Nui
An example of the abundant petroglyphs in Orongo, Rapa Nui associated with the tangata manu cult of Makemake. Rongorongo does not appear in any of these petroglyphs.
The Talang Tuo inscription, a 7th-century Srivijaya stele featuring Old Malay written in a derivative of the Pallava script
Page from Doctrina Cristiana Española Y Tagala (1593) featuring the Baybayin script alongside the Latin alphabet
Wharenui meeting house of the Māori people
Besakana of the Merina people
Bahay kubo of the Filipinos. Also known as Payag in Visayan.
Bure of the Fijian people
Uma mbatangu of the Sumba people
Jabu of the Toba Batak people
Rumoh of the Acehnese people
Rumah gadang of the Minangkabau people
Torogan of the Maranao people
Kubing jaw harps, flutes, and a kagul slit drum from the Philippines
Karinding jaw harps of the Sundanese people, Indonesia
Sapeh, traditional lutes of the Orang Ulu people of Malaysia
Atingting kon, wooden slit drums from Vanuatu
An Indonesian gamelan ensemble
A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii performing the hula
Kapa haka of the Māori people
Traditional song and dance at a funeral in Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet, traditional theatre dance from Java, Indonesia
Gending Sriwijaya, traditional dance from Palembang, Indonesia
A Minahasan Kabasaran war dancer from Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kecak dancers from Bali, Indonesia
Hudoq, traditional dance from Kalimantan, Indonesia
Aloalo funerary pole of the Sakalava people of Madagascar
Adu zatua ancestor carvings of the Nias people of western Indonesia
Taotao carvings of anito ancestor spirits from the Ifugao people, Philippines
Stone tiki from Hiva Oa, Marquesas
Ki'i carving at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau, Hawaii
Māori poupou from the Ruato tomb of Rotorua
Moai in Ahu Tongariki, Rapa Nui
Toraja tau tau (wooden statue of the deceased) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestors in Bali, Indonesia

In Indonesia, the nationalistic term Nusantara from the Old Javanese is also popularly used for their islands.

Sunda–Sulawesi language and ethnic groups including Malay, Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese, Batak (geographically includes Malaysia, Brunei, Pattani, Singapore, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, parts of Sri Lanka, southern Myanmar, and much of western and central Indonesia).

The adoption of Hindu statecraft model allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Tarumanagara, Champa, Butuan, Langkasuka, Melayu, Srivijaya, Medang Mataram, Majapahit, and Bali.

Singapore

1 links

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area for Singaporeans often restricted in other parts of the country.

Parameswara declared independence from Majapahit and mounted a Lion Throne, thus claiming the Srivijaya Empire.

After then being driven into exile by the Javanese, he usurped control over Temasek.

Another informal name, the "Little Red Dot," was adopted after an article in the Asian Wall Street Journal of 4 August 1998 said that Indonesian President B. J. Habibie referred to Singapore as a red dot on a map.