A report on IndonesiaMalaysia and Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Population pyramid 2016
Population pyramid 2016
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
A traditional house being built in Sabah
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
An Indonesian batik
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Topographic map of Malaysia; Mount Kinabalu is the highest summit in the country.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Köppen climate classification of Malaysia. The country is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Kuala Lumpur, the financial centre of Malaysia
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
Bornean
Aslian
Land Dayak
Sama–Bajaw
Philippine
Chinese
Areas with multiple languages
Asia in the early 14th century
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

- Malaysia

According to the Nagarakretagama (Desawarñana) written in 1365, Majapahit was an empire of 98 tributaries, stretching from Sumatra to New Guinea; consisting of present-day Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Brunei, southern Thailand, Timor Leste, southwestern Philippines (in particular the Sulu Archipelago) although the scope of Majapahit sphere of influence is still the subject of debate among historians.

- Majapahit

Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern part of Malaysia, as well as maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India (Andaman and Nicobar Islands).

- Indonesia

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

By the 13th and the 14th century, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya.

- Malaysia

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Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator.

They arrived in the northern Philippines between 7,000 BC to 2,200 BC and rapidly spread further into the Northern Mariana Islands and Borneo by 1500 BC; Island Melanesia by 1300 BC; and to the rest of Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and Palau by 1000 BC.

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293.

Philippines

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Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest.

Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.

Austronesian peoples

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The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

Skulls representing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's "five races" in De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1795). The Tahitian skull labelled "O-taheitae" represented what he called the "Malay race"
The New Physiognomy map (1889) printed by the Fowler & Wells Company depicting Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's five human races. The region inhabited by the "Malay race" is shown enclosed in dotted lines. Like in most 19th century sources, Islander Melanesians are excluded. Taiwan, which was annexed by the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century is also excluded.
Distribution of the Austronesian languages (Blust, 1999)
Paraw sailboats from Boracay, Philippines. Outrigger canoes and crab claw sails are hallmarks of the Austronesian maritime culture.
Coconuts in Rangiroa island in the Tuamotus, French Polynesia, a typical island landscape in Austronesia. Coconuts are native to tropical Asia, and were spread as canoe plants to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar by Austronesians.
Extent of contemporary Austronesia and possible further migrations and contact (Blench, 2009)
Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light rose pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of all the Austronesian peoples.
Samoan man carrying two containers over his shoulder
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
Representation of the coastal migration model, with the indication of the later development of mitochondrial haplogroups
Coastlines of Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia during the last glacial period
Aeta fishermen in an outrigger canoe in Luzon, Philippines (c. 1899)
Possible language family homelands and the spread of rice into Southeast Asia (ca. 5,500–2,500 BP). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue.
Yue statue of a tattooed Baiyue man in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum (c. 3rd century BCE)
Suggested early migration route of early Austronesians into and out of Taiwan based on ancient and modern mtDNA data. This hypothesis assumes the Sino-Austronesian grouping, a minority view among linguists. (Ko et al., 2014)
Proposed routes of Austroasiatic and Austronesian migrations into Indonesia (Simanjuntak, 2017)
Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesians (Blench, 2018)
Early waves of migration to Taiwan proposed by Roger Blench (2014)
Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior from Taiwan wearing traditional clothing (pre-World War II)
Map showing the migration of the Austronesians
Hōkūlea, a modern replica of a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe, is an example of a catamaran, another of the early sailing innovations of Austronesians
Proposed migration waves from Sundaland in the Late Pleistocene based on mtDNA data; and later "back-migrations" into Island Southeast Asia during the early to mid-Holocene expansion of rice-farming Austronesians from mainland southern China. The extent of the coastlines of Sundaland during the last ice age is presented in light shading; while modern coastlines after the rise of sea levels in the Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene is in dark shading. (Brandão et al., 2016)
Queen Liliuokalani, the last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Aboriginal Taiwanese Architecture
Sama-Bajau villages are typically built directly on shallow water
The raised bale houses of the Ifugao people with capped house posts are believed to be derived from the designs of traditional granaries
Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people with the distinctive saddleback roofs reminiscent of boats
Bai meeting house of the Palauan people with colourfully decorated gables
Māori pataka storehouses
Cast of a Lapita red-slipped earthenware shard from the Santa Cruz Islands (c. 1000 BCE), showing dentate-stamped, circle-stamped, and cross-in-circle decorations. The latter two are shared elements from Neolithic red-slipped pottery from the Nagsabaran Site in the Philippines.
Māori hei matau jade pendant
Hand stencils in the "Tree of Life" cave painting in Gua Tewet, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Watu Molindo ("the entertainer stone"), one of the megaliths in Bada Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually found near megalithic stone vats known as kalamba.
Toraja megaliths memorializing the deceased in Sulawesi, Indonesia
Boats and human figures in a cave painting in the Niah National Park of Sarawak, Malaysia; an example of the Austronesian Painting Traditions (APT)
Petroglyphs in Vanuatu with the concentric circles and swirling designs characteristic of the Austronesian Engraving Style (AES)
Haligi pillars from the Latte period of Guam, these served as supports for raised buildings
The ruins of Nan Madol, a stone city built on artificial islets in Pohnpei
A rai stone, large stone discs used as currency in Yap
A marae sacred site in Raiatea, French Polynesia
Hawaiian petroglyph depicting a poi dog (īlio)
Carving of Rongo, the Māori deity (atua) of kūmara, from Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
A 1782 illustration of a heiau temple in Hawaii
Elder Tayal women from Taiwan with facial tattoos
Teeth filing on a Mentawai man in the Mentawai Islands, Dutch East Indies, c. 1938
Tablet B of rongorongo, an undeciphered system of glyphs from Rapa Nui
An example of the abundant petroglyphs in Orongo, Rapa Nui associated with the tangata manu cult of Makemake. Rongorongo does not appear in any of these petroglyphs.
The Talang Tuo inscription, a 7th-century Srivijaya stele featuring Old Malay written in a derivative of the Pallava script
Page from Doctrina Cristiana Española Y Tagala (1593) featuring the Baybayin script alongside the Latin alphabet
Wharenui meeting house of the Māori people
Besakana of the Merina people
Bahay kubo of the Filipinos. Also known as Payag in Visayan.
Bure of the Fijian people
Uma mbatangu of the Sumba people
Jabu of the Toba Batak people
Rumoh of the Acehnese people
Rumah gadang of the Minangkabau people
Torogan of the Maranao people
Kubing jaw harps, flutes, and a kagul slit drum from the Philippines
Karinding jaw harps of the Sundanese people, Indonesia
Sapeh, traditional lutes of the Orang Ulu people of Malaysia
Atingting kon, wooden slit drums from Vanuatu
An Indonesian gamelan ensemble
A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii performing the hula
Kapa haka of the Māori people
Traditional song and dance at a funeral in Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet, traditional theatre dance from Java, Indonesia
Gending Sriwijaya, traditional dance from Palembang, Indonesia
A Minahasan Kabasaran war dancer from Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kecak dancers from Bali, Indonesia
Hudoq, traditional dance from Kalimantan, Indonesia
Aloalo funerary pole of the Sakalava people of Madagascar
Adu zatua ancestor carvings of the Nias people of western Indonesia
Taotao carvings of anito ancestor spirits from the Ifugao people, Philippines
Stone tiki from Hiva Oa, Marquesas
Ki'i carving at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau, Hawaii
Māori poupou from the Ruato tomb of Rotorua
Moai in Ahu Tongariki, Rapa Nui
Toraja tau tau (wooden statue of the deceased) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestors in Bali, Indonesia

In Indonesia, the nationalistic term Nusantara from the Old Javanese is also popularly used for their islands.

They include Taiwanese indigenous peoples, the majority of ethnic groups in Brunei, East Timor, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Micronesia, the Philippines, and Polynesia.

The adoption of Hindu statecraft model allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Tarumanagara, Champa, Butuan, Langkasuka, Melayu, Srivijaya, Medang Mataram, Majapahit, and Bali.

Singapore

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Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Sovereign island country and city-state in maritime Southeast Asia.

Letter from William Farquhar to Sultan Muhammad Kanzul Alam, the 21st Sultan of Brunei, dated 28 November 1819. In the first line, Farquhar mentions that Sultan Hussein Shah and Temenggong Abdul Rahman allowed the British East India Company to establish a factory in Singapore on 6 February 1819.
1825 survey map. Singapore's free port trade was at Singapore River for 150 years. Fort Canning hill (centre) was home to its ancient and early colonial rulers.
British evacuation in 1945 after the Japanese surrender. Kallang Airport's control tower near the city has been conserved.
Singapore thrived as an entrepôt. In the 1960s, bumboats were used to transport cargoes and supplies between nearshore ships and Singapore River.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Istana is the official residence and office of the President, as well as the working office of the Prime Minister.
The Supreme Court (left) and the Parliament House (right) where the Singapore Parliament convenes.
Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong at the 2017 G20 meeting in Germany. Since 2010, Singapore has often been invited to participate in G20 processes.
In 2007, Singaporean troopers were deployed in Afghanistan as part of a multinational coalition.
Republic of Singapore Air Force Black Knights perform at the Singapore Air Show.
Speakers' Corner in Chinatown provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area usually restricted in other parts of the island.
An outline of Singapore and the surrounding islands and waterways
Singapore Botanic Gardens is a UNESCO World Heritage Site – one of three gardens in the world, and the only tropical garden, to be recognised as such.
Singapore Airlines, the country's flag carrier, celebrated the nation's 2015 Golden Jubilee with a flag livery on its Airbus A380.
A proportional representation of Singapore exports, 2019
The Merlion, the official mascot of Singapore
The world's first urban congestion-pricing scheme started in the city centre in 1975 and was fully automated by Electronic Road Pricing in 1998.
Chinese (East Asian), Malay (Southeast Asian), and Indian (South Asian) women in Singapore, circa 1890. To promote racial harmony among the three races, a unique Racial Harmony Day is celebrated on 21 July every year.
Singapore Management University is one of six autonomous universities in the city-state
National University Hospital is the second largest hospital in the city, serving one million patients yearly.
Ornate details on top of Sri Mariamman Temple in Chinatown district, Singapore's oldest Hindu temple since 1827
The National Gallery Singapore oversees the world's largest public collection of Singapore and Southeast Asian art
Lau Pa Sat hawker centre in the financial district. Satay cart-stalls roll in after dusk, on a side street.
Joseph Schooling is a gold medalist and Olympic record holder at the Rio 2016 Games – 100 m butterfly.
The Ministry of Communications and Information oversees the development of Infocomm, Media and the arts.
Lee Kuan Yew, the first prime minister of Singapore
The Speakers' Corner at Hong Lim Park provides a public demonstration and "free speech" area for Singaporeans often restricted in other parts of the country.

Singapore gained self-governance in 1959 and in 1963 became part of the new federation of Malaysia, alongside Malaya, North Borneo, and Sarawak.

Parameswara declared independence from Majapahit and mounted a Lion Throne, thus claiming the Srivijaya Empire.

Another informal name, the "Little Red Dot," was adopted after an article in the Asian Wall Street Journal of 4 August 1998 said that Indonesian President B. J. Habibie referred to Singapore as a red dot on a map.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

Srivijaya

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The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

Srivijaya (Sriwijaya, ; Srivijaya, ) was a Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

Even today the Chola rule is remembered in Malaysia as many Malaysian princes have names ending with Cholan or Chulan, one such was the Raja of Perak called Raja Chulan.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.

Borneo

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Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

The island is politically divided: Brunei, Indonesia, Sarawak, and Sabah.

The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom.

In 1961, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman of the independent Federation of Malaya desired to unite Malaya, the British colonies of Sarawak, North Borneo, Singapore and the protectorate of Brunei under the proposed Federation of Malaysia.