A report on IndonesiaMajapahit and Mataram Kingdom

The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
The Mataram Kingdom during the Central Java and Eastern Java periods
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
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The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
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Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
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Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
The Plaosan temple with Mount Merapi in the background.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Canggal inscription (732), created by King Sanjaya.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
The 9th century Central Javanese gold and silver image of the Mahayana Buddhist goddess Tara
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The construction of Kalasan temple was mentioned in Kalasan inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
The construction of Manjusrigrha temple was mentioned in Manjusrigrha inscription, under the auspices of King Panangkaran and completed during Dharanindra reign.
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
The construction of Mendut temple was initiated and completed during the reign of King Indra (r. 780–800), a valiant king of Shailendra dynasty.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription (circa 900 CE) from the Laguna de Bay area in Luzon, the Philippines. The inscription invokes the "chief" (pamegat) of "Mdang" as one of the authorities in the clearing of a debt owed to the "chief and commander" (pamegat senapati) of "Tundun".
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The massive stone stupa-mandala of Borobudur was completed in 825 during the reign of King Samaratungga.
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Ratu Boko, a fortified hill, probably referred in Shivagrha inscription as the location of a battle.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Shivagrha inscription dated 778 Saka (856 CE), one of the historical source dated from the Mataram Kingdom.
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Ijo, a 10th-century Hindu temple located on Ijo Hill Southeast from Prambanan
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
A battle scene depicted on a bas-relief in Prambanan.
Population pyramid 2016
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Bubrah temple
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Sajiwan Buddhist temple, linked to Nini Haji Rakryan Sanjiwana or Sri Kahulunnan
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Borobudur ship, a ship used by Javanese people for sailing as far as Ghana.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Towering Merapi volcano overlooking Prambanan prasad tower. It was suggested that Merapi volcanic eruption had devastated Mataram capital, forcing them to relocate in the east.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Barong Hindu temple, constructed on large terraces.
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Badut temple near Malang, East Java circa 8th century
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Anjukladang inscription (937), issued by King Sindok during his power consolidation in East Java.
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Bodhisattva Manjushri from Goa Gajah cave, Bali, demonstrated the influence of Javanese Mataram Sailendran art.
An Indonesian batik
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra, the hostility between two kingdoms has led to the collapse of Mataram kingdom.
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Buddhist bronze figure depicting Boddhisattva Padmapani, 10th-century dated from late period of Mataram Kingdom
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Plaosan twin temples
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
The scene of the Javanese court depicted in Borobudur bas relief
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Asia in the early 14th century
Prambanan prāsāda (towers) viewed from Ratu Boko hill, the area in Prambanan Plain was the location of the Mataram capital.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depicts the scene in royal court.
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
Image of Boddhisattva on Plaosan temple.
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java — Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
A nobleman accompanied by his entourage and servants, a bas-relief of Borobudur.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
A Buddhist hermit meditating in secluded forest, Borobudur bas-relief
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The statue of Dhyani Buddha Vairocana, Avalokitesvara, and Vajrapani inside the Mendut temple
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Shiva statue in main chamber of Prambanan.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Mataram kingdom.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
The magnificent 9th-century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Mataram.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Bas relief in Prambanan depicting a scene taken from Ramayana. The translation of Indian epic into Javanese Kakawin Ramayana took place during Mataram kingdom.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
National Vesak ceremony in Borobudur, the Hindu-Buddhist temples dated from Mataram Kingdom are especially important for pilgrimage and ceremony for Indonesian Buddhist and Hindus.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
The Javanese Ramayana Ballet perform in Prambanan open air stage. The Mataram Kingdom era has left a profound impact in Javanese culture.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

Between the eighth and tenth centuries CE, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan.

- Indonesia

The proper urban development as a city took place later in 13th-century Majapahit's Trowulan.

- Mataram Kingdom

The literature of Majapahit was the continuation of Javanese Kawi Hindu-Buddhist scholarly tradition that produces kakawin poem that has been developed in Java since the 9th century Medang Mataram era, all the way through Kadiri and Singhasari periods.

- Majapahit

It was the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia, evidence of the immense wealth and cultural achievement of the kingdom.

- Mataram Kingdom

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The cradle of Javanese culture is commonly described as being in Kedu and Kewu Plain in the fertile slopes of Mount Merapi as the heart of the Mataram Kingdom.

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

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Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.

Borobudur was likely founded around 800 AD. This corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 AD, the peak of the Sailendra dynasty rule over the Mataram kingdom in central Java, when their power encompassed not only the Srivijayan Empire but also southern Thailand, Indianized kingdoms of Philippines, North Malaya (Kedah, also known in Indian texts as the ancient Hindu state of Kadaram).

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Java (Jawa, ; ꦗꦮ; ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

However, the first major principality was the Mataram Kingdom that was founded in central Java at the beginning of the 8th century.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest

Srivijaya

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The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

Srivijaya (Sriwijaya, ; Srivijaya, ) was a Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

It was involved in close interactions, often rivalries, with the neighbouring Mataram, Khmer and Champa.

The kingdom ceased to exist in the 13th century due to various factors, including the expansion of the competitor Javanese Singhasari and Majapahit empires.

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010

Wayang

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Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010
There are three main components of wayang kulit shows including dalang, gamelan (music and sindhen), and wayang kulit itself
Blencong, a Javanese oil lamp in the form of the mythical Garuda bird for wayang kulit performances, before 1924
Palm leaves manuscript of kakawin Arjunawiwaha is written by Mpu Kanwa in 1035 CE
A dalang (puppet master) depicting a fight in a wayang kulit performance
A wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance using kelir (thin fabric) as a border between the puppeteer (dalang) who plays the puppets and the audience
Wayang golek performance (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia
Menak Amir Hamzah manuscripts, before 1792.
Dalang (puppet master), sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and wiyaga (gamelan musicians) in a wayang kulit show in Java
The front view of the Wayang Museum seen from Fatahillah Square (Taman Fatahillah)
Wayang kulit performance with gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A dalang (puppeteer) in a {{Transl|jv|wayang golek}} (wooden puppet) performance, between 1880 and 1910
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta; in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kumbakarna, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Gatot Kaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Wibisana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Princess Shinta, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1983
Yudhishthira, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Princess Tari, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1934
Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, Indonesia
Rahwana, Indonesia in 2004
Ramawijaya, Indonesia in 2004
Gatot kaca, Indonesia in 2015
Kumbakarna, Indonesia before 1976
Dewi Drupadi, Indonesia before 1976
Menak Jingga, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1953
Damar Wulan, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Demon, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1950
Figure of Batara Guru
Duryudhana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Brathasena, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Final fight in alun-alun in Kediri, East Java. Tawang Alun kills Klana. Indonesia 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji, mbok Kili (left), and Ganda Ripa or Panji (right) in the palace in Kediri, 17th century
Radèn Gunung Sari on horse says goodbye to his advisers Tratag and Gimeng before travelling to princess Kumuda Ningrat, 18th century
Princess Sekar Taji and Panji meet in Paluhamba market, 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji in palace garden approached by Klana, 17th century
Competition between Panji Sepuh (left) and Jaya Puspita (right), 18th century
Pandava and Krishna in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
King Duryodana in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Giants in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Punokawan in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Rama and Shinta in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} Ramayana Ballet performance
Opening of {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance, usually showing traditional Javanese dance
Dancing {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} in Malang
Studio portrait of {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} actors
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} Malang
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Anggada, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Jayadrata, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Kendran, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Sangruda, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Duryadana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Gatakaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jayengrana, a collection from Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmaya, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmadi, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jiweng, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Putri Murtinjung, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang Golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, King Maktal (Albania), a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
{{Transl|jv|Kancil}}
{{Transl|jv|Srigala}}
{{Transl|jv|Macan}}
{{Transl|jv|Baya}}
{{Transl|jv|Keong}}
{{Transl|jv|Nenek Petani}}
Wayang glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle.
A wayang kulit set and a gamelan ensemble collection, Indonesia section at the Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
A {{lang|jv|wayang}} show in Java, Indonesia, presenting a {{lang|jv|wayang}} puppet.
Wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Gatot Kaca, Indonesia in 2017.
Sundanese wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia.
A {{lang|jv|wayang klithik}} (flat wooden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet show) accompanied by a gamelan ensemble in Java, circa 1870.
{{lang|jv|Wayang}} (shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
{{lang|jv|Wayang beber}} depiction of a battle.
{{lang|jv|Wayang kulit}} and {{lang|jv|wayang golek}} {{lang|jv|dalang}} (puppeteer), Ki Entus Susmono.
{{lang|jv|Wayang golek}} performance in Yogyakarta.
Wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance.
Kayon (Gunungan).
{{lang|jv|Wayang makassar}}

', also known as ' (ꦮꦪꦁ), is a traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

Old Javanese (Kawi) inscriptions called Jaha Inscriptions from around 840 CE, issued by Maharaja Sri Lokapala from the Medang Kingdom in Central Java, mention three sorts of performers:, , and.

The origin of the stories involved in these puppet plays comes from the kingdoms of eastern Java: Jenggala, Kediri and Majapahit.

Buddha in an open stupa and the main stupa of Borobudur in the background.

Candi of Indonesia

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Buddha in an open stupa and the main stupa of Borobudur in the background.
Prambanan temple compound. The towering candi prasada (temple towers) are believed to represent the cosmic Mount Meru, the abode of gods.
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
The Shiva temple Candi Prambanan consist of three ascending realms, temple's base (Bhurloka), body (Bhurvaloka) and roof (Svarloka).
Bima temple, one of Dieng temples. It was one of the earliest temples in Java.
Interlocking andesite stone blocks forming a corbeling arch in Borobudur.
Red brick Jabung temple, dated from Majapahit period.
Traces of worn off vajralepa plaster on Sari's relief.
Kala-makara on the portal of Borobudur gates, Kala's head on top of the portal and makaras flanking either sides.
Central Javanese linga-yoni with spout decorated and supported by nāga serpent, Yogyakarta 9th century.
Rama killing evil giant, bas-relief of Ramayana on Prambanan temple, Central Java style.
Hanuman battling enemy, bas-relief of Ramayana on Penataran temple, East Java style.
Kinnara (male), Kinnari (female), Apsara, and Devata guarding Kalpataru, the divine tree of life. 8th century Pawon temple, Java, Indonesia.
A Bodhisattva flanked by two Taras in Sewu temple.
A Devata flanked by two apsaras in Prambanan temple.
One of dvarapala statues guarding Sewu temple.
Lion guardian of Borobudur.
Bell-shaped perforated stupas of Borobudur.
Prambanan vajra pinnacle.
Map showing the location of the main sites of the so-called "Indonesian classical period" or Hindu-Buddhist period. Black dots represent Hindu sites and red dots Buddhist sites.
Cangkuang, Garut West Java
Arjuna group of Dieng temples
Gedong Songo III
Borobudur
Sambisari
The Prambanan temple complex
The gate of Ratu Boko Palace compound.
Candi Barong.
Singosari
Penataran
Surowono
Jawi
Candi Brahu, Trowulan
Gunung Kawi, Bali
Biaro Bahal, North Sumatra
Blandongan, Batujaya, 2nd to 12th century, Karawang, West Java
Gumpung, Muaro Jambi, 7th-12th century, Jambi
Bojongmenje, 7th century, Rancaekek, Bandung, West Java
Cangkuang, 8th century, Leles, Garut, West Java
Candi Bima, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Puntadewa, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Arjuna, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Srikandi, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Gatotkaca, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Semar, 7th-8th century, Dieng Plateau
Candi Gedong Songo, 7th-8th century, Ungaran
Gunung Wukir, 8th century, Muntilan
Badut temple, 8th century, Malang
Kalasan temple, 8th century, near Prambanan
Sari temple, 8th century
Lumbung, 8th century
Sewu, 8th century, Central Java
Bubrah, 8th century, part of Sewu Mandala
Gana temple, 8th century, part of Sewu Mandala
Ngawen temple, 8th century, Muntilan, Central Java
Mendut temple, 8th century, near Borobudur
Candi Gebang, 8th-9th century, Yogyakarta
Asu Temple, 8th-9th century, Sengi, Magelang
Lumbung Sengi temple, 8th-9th century, Sengi, Sawangan, Magelang
Pawon temple, 9th century, between Borobudur and Mendut
Borobudur, 9th century, Magelang, Central Java, world's largest Buddhist monument
Plaosan, 9th century
Plaosan Kidul, 9th century
Prambanan, 9th century, the largest Hindu Temple in Indonesia
Sojiwan, 9th century, near Prambanan
Banyunibo, 9th century
Sambisari, 9th century
Barong temple, 9th century
Kimpulan, 9th-10th century, Kaliurang, Yogyakarta
Morangan temple, 9th-10th century, Ngemplak, Sleman, Yogyakarta
Merak temple, 10th century, Klaten, Central Java
Ijo Temple, 10th-11th century, Yogyakarta
Belahan temple, fountain and pool, 11th century, Mount Penanggungan, Gempol, Pasuruan, East Java
Candi Gunung Gangsir, 11th century, Pasuruan, East Java
Candi Mengening, 11th century, Tampaksiring, Bali
Gunung Kawi, 11th century, Tampak Siring, Bali
Muara Takus, 11th-12th century, Riau
Bahal temple, 11th-13th century, North Sumatra
Penataran, 12th-15th century, Blitar
Kidal, 13th century, Malang
Jago, 13th century, Malang
Jawi, 13th century, Prigen, Pasuruan
Candi Plumbangan, 14th century, Blitar, East Java
Simping temple, 14th century, Sumberjati, Blitar, East Java
Candi Gayatri, 14th century, Boyolangu, Tulungagung, East Java
Brahu, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Wringin Lawang, Trowulan, 14th century
Bajang Ratu, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Tikus, Trowulan, 14th century
Candi Rimbi, Jombang, 14th century
Surawana temple, Kediri, 14th century
Jabung, Paiton, Probolinggo, 14th century
Candi Pari, 14th century, Porong, Sidoarjo
Sukuh, 15th century, Karanganyar
Ceto, 15th century, Karanganyar

A candi is a Hindu or Buddhist temple in Indonesia, mostly built during the Zaman Hindu-Buddha or "Hindu-Buddhist period" between circa the 4th and 15th centuries.

Examples of non-temple candis are the Bajang Ratu and Wringin Lawang gates of Majapahit.

The example is the linga-yoni of Gunung Wukir temple, according to Canggal inscription is connected to King Sanjaya from the Mataram Kingdom, in 654 Saka (732 CE).