A report on Indonesia and Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
Population pyramid 2016
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
An Indonesian batik
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Asia in the early 14th century
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit (ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀; ), also known as Wilwatikta (ꦮꦶꦭ꧀ꦮꦠꦶꦏ꧀ꦠ; ) was a Javanese Hindu-Buddhist thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

- Majapahit

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

32 related topics with Alpha

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

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A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks
Javanese temple.

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

Raden Wijaya would later establish Majapahit near the delta of the Brantas River in modern-day Mojokerto, East Java.

Southeast Asia

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Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of Mainland China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and north of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia
The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories: 
Central Asia
Eastern Asia
Northern Asia
South-eastern Asia
Southern Asia
Western Asia
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries), with a high density of volcanoes situated in Indonesia and the Philippines.
The Mayon Volcano, Phillipines
Bái Đính Temple in Ninh Bình Province – the largest complex of Buddhist temples in Vietnam

East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator.

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293.

Mount Bromo in East Java

Java

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Mount Bromo in East Java
Parahyangan highland near Buitenzorg, c. 1865–1872
Banteng at Alas Purwo, eastern edge of Java
Male Javan rhino shot in 1934 in West Java. Today only small numbers of Javan rhino survive in Ujung Kulon; it is the world's rarest rhino.
Mount Sumbing surrounded by rice fields. Java's volcanic topography and rich agricultural lands are the fundamental factors in its history.
Cangkuang Hindu temple a shrine for Shiva, dated from the 8th century the Galuh Kingdom.
The 9th century Borobudur Buddhist stupa in Central Java
Tea plantation in Java during Dutch colonial period, in or before 1926
Japanese prepare to discuss surrender terms with British-allied forces in Java 1945
Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia
Betawi mask dance (Tari Topeng Betawi)
SambaSunda music performance, featuring traditional Sundanese music instruments.
Lakshmana, Rama and Shinta in Ramayana ballet at Prambanan, Java.
Languages spoken in Java (Javanese is shown in white). "Malay" refers to Betawi, the local dialect as one of Malay creole dialect.
Water buffalo ploughing rice fields near Salatiga, in Central Java.
Java transport network
"Welcome!" statue in Central Jakarta
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor.
Mendut Vihara, a Buddhist monastery near Mendut temple, Magelang.
Masjid Gedhe Kauman in Yogyakarta, build in traditional Javanese multi-tiered roof.
Ganjuran Church in Bantul, built in traditional Javanese architecture.

Java (Jawa, ; ꦗꦮ; ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia.

The eastern Javanese kingdoms of Kediri, Singhasari and Majapahit were mainly dependent on rice agriculture, yet also pursued trade within the Indonesian archipelago, and with China and India.

Bali

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Subak irrigation system
Puputan monument
2002 Bali bombings memorial
Aerial photograph of Bali
Mount Agung is the highest point of Bali.
Bali myna is found only on Bali and is critically endangered.
Monkeys in Uluwatu
Uluwatu
Wood carving
Kuta Beach is a popular tourist spot.
Ogoh-ogoh procession on the eve of Nyepi
I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport
One of the major forms of transport is the scooter.
Bali Mandara Toll Road
Balinese people
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Hindu temples.
Holy Spirit Cathedral, Denpasar
Kecak dance
Balinese cuisine
Cremation ceremony in Ubud
Kapten I Wayan Dipta Stadium, the home of Bali United F.C.
The cliff of Nusa Penida with Kelingking beach at the foregound
Detailed map of Bali
Several tourist spot in Bali island, from top left to right: Sunset over Amed beach with Mount Agung in the background, Garuda Wisnu Kencana monument, Tanah Lot temple, view from top of Besakih Temple, scuba diving around Pemuteran, The Rock Bar at Jimbaran Bay, and various traditional Balinese people activities
Trans Sarbagita bus
Pura Ulun Danu Bratan
Kecak dance
Cremation ceremony in Nusa Penida
Melasti, is a Hindu Balinese purification ceremony and ritual
Rejang, A sacred balinesse dance to greet The Gods that come down to the earth on ceremony day
Penataran Lempuyang Temple, Gunung Lempuyang, Bali
Ibnu Batutah Mosque, Kuta
Saint Joseph's Church, Denpasar
Ling Sii Miao Buddhist Temple, Denpasar

Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands.

The Hindu Majapahit Empire (1293–1520 AD) on eastern Java founded a Balinese colony in 1343.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

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Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

The only old Javanese manuscript that hints the monument called Budur as a holy Buddhist sanctuary is Nagarakretagama, written by Mpu Prapanca, a Buddhist scholar of Majapahit court, in 1365.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.

Borneo

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Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Third-largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

Location map of Borneo in Maritime Southeast Asia, the Red River Fault is included in the map.
Mount Kinabalu in Malaysia, the highest summit of the island
Kapuas River in Indonesia; at 1000 km in length, it is the longest river in Borneo.
The critically endangered Bornean orangutan, a great ape endemic to Borneo
NASA satellite image of Borneo on 19 May 2002
Logging road in East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Dayak, the main indigenous people in the island, were feared for their headhunting practices.
Territorial loss of the thalassocracy of the Sultanate of Brunei from 1400 to 1890 due to the beginning of Western imperialism
British flag hoisted for the first time on the island of Labuan on 24 December 1846
Map of the island divided between the British and the Dutch, 1898. The present boundaries of Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei are largely inherited from the British and Dutch colonial rules.
The Dayak tribe during an Erau ceremony in Tenggarong
Arab-Malay Sultan of Pontianak in 1930
Japanese troops march through the streets of Labuan on 14 January 1942.
American support craft moving towards Victoria and Brown beach to assist the landing of the members of Australian 24th Infantry Brigade on the island during Operation Oboe Six, 10 June 1945
Sukarno visiting Pontianak, West Kalimantan in 1963
Queen's Own Highlanders 1st Battalion conduct a patrol to search for enemy positions in the jungle of Brunei.
Balikpapan, a major city in Borneo
Political divisions of Borneo

The island is politically divided: Brunei, Indonesia, Sarawak, and Sabah.

The Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Majapahit court poet Mpu Prapanca in 1365, mentioned the island as Nusa Tanjungnagara, which means the island of the Tanjungpura Kingdom.

Malaysia

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Country in Southeast Asia.

Country in Southeast Asia.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya
Topographic map of Malaysia; Mount Kinabalu is the highest summit in the country.
Köppen climate classification of Malaysia. The country is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Kuala Lumpur, the financial centre of Malaysia
The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge) 
Malayic
Bornean
Aslian
Land Dayak
Sama–Bajaw
Philippine
Chinese
Areas with multiple languages

Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

By the 13th and the 14th century, the Majapahit empire had successfully wrested control over most of the peninsula and the Malay Archipelago from Srivijaya.

Austronesian peoples

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The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

The Austronesian peoples, sometimes referred to as Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of peoples in Taiwan, Maritime Southeast Asia, Micronesia, coastal New Guinea, Island Melanesia, Polynesia, and Madagascar that speak Austronesian languages.

Skulls representing Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's "five races" in De Generis Humani Varietate Nativa (1795). The Tahitian skull labelled "O-taheitae" represented what he called the "Malay race"
The New Physiognomy map (1889) printed by the Fowler & Wells Company depicting Johann Friedrich Blumenbach's five human races. The region inhabited by the "Malay race" is shown enclosed in dotted lines. Like in most 19th century sources, Islander Melanesians are excluded. Taiwan, which was annexed by the Qing Dynasty in the 17th century is also excluded.
Distribution of the Austronesian languages (Blust, 1999)
Paraw sailboats from Boracay, Philippines. Outrigger canoes and crab claw sails are hallmarks of the Austronesian maritime culture.
Coconuts in Rangiroa island in the Tuamotus, French Polynesia, a typical island landscape in Austronesia. Coconuts are native to tropical Asia, and were spread as canoe plants to the Pacific Islands and Madagascar by Austronesians.
Extent of contemporary Austronesia and possible further migrations and contact (Blench, 2009)
Map showing the distribution of the Austronesian language family (light rose pink). It roughly corresponds to the distribution of all the Austronesian peoples.
Samoan man carrying two containers over his shoulder
The Javanese people of Indonesia are the largest Austronesian ethnic group.
Representation of the coastal migration model, with the indication of the later development of mitochondrial haplogroups
Coastlines of Island Southeast Asia, New Guinea, and Australia during the last glacial period
Aeta fishermen in an outrigger canoe in Luzon, Philippines (c. 1899)
Possible language family homelands and the spread of rice into Southeast Asia (ca. 5,500–2,500 BP). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue.
Yue statue of a tattooed Baiyue man in the Zhejiang Provincial Museum (c. 3rd century BCE)
Suggested early migration route of early Austronesians into and out of Taiwan based on ancient and modern mtDNA data. This hypothesis assumes the Sino-Austronesian grouping, a minority view among linguists. (Ko et al., 2014)
Proposed routes of Austroasiatic and Austronesian migrations into Indonesia (Simanjuntak, 2017)
Proposed genesis of Daic languages and their relation with Austronesians (Blench, 2018)
Early waves of migration to Taiwan proposed by Roger Blench (2014)
Colorized photograph of a Tsou warrior from Taiwan wearing traditional clothing (pre-World War II)
Map showing the migration of the Austronesians
Hōkūlea, a modern replica of a Polynesian double-hulled voyaging canoe, is an example of a catamaran, another of the early sailing innovations of Austronesians
Proposed migration waves from Sundaland in the Late Pleistocene based on mtDNA data; and later "back-migrations" into Island Southeast Asia during the early to mid-Holocene expansion of rice-farming Austronesians from mainland southern China. The extent of the coastlines of Sundaland during the last ice age is presented in light shading; while modern coastlines after the rise of sea levels in the Late Pleistocene to mid-Holocene is in dark shading. (Brandão et al., 2016)
Queen Liliuokalani, the last sovereign monarch of the Kingdom of Hawaii
Succession of forms in the development of the Austronesian boat
Austronesian proto-historic and historic maritime trade network in the Indian Ocean
Aboriginal Taiwanese Architecture
Sama-Bajau villages are typically built directly on shallow water
The raised bale houses of the Ifugao people with capped house posts are believed to be derived from the designs of traditional granaries
Tongkonan houses of the Toraja people with the distinctive saddleback roofs reminiscent of boats
Bai meeting house of the Palauan people with colourfully decorated gables
Māori pataka storehouses
Cast of a Lapita red-slipped earthenware shard from the Santa Cruz Islands (c. 1000 BCE), showing dentate-stamped, circle-stamped, and cross-in-circle decorations. The latter two are shared elements from Neolithic red-slipped pottery from the Nagsabaran Site in the Philippines.
Māori hei matau jade pendant
Hand stencils in the "Tree of Life" cave painting in Gua Tewet, Kalimantan, Indonesia
Watu Molindo ("the entertainer stone"), one of the megaliths in Bada Valley, Central Sulawesi, Indonesia, usually found near megalithic stone vats known as kalamba.
Toraja megaliths memorializing the deceased in Sulawesi, Indonesia
Boats and human figures in a cave painting in the Niah National Park of Sarawak, Malaysia; an example of the Austronesian Painting Traditions (APT)
Petroglyphs in Vanuatu with the concentric circles and swirling designs characteristic of the Austronesian Engraving Style (AES)
Haligi pillars from the Latte period of Guam, these served as supports for raised buildings
The ruins of Nan Madol, a stone city built on artificial islets in Pohnpei
A rai stone, large stone discs used as currency in Yap
A marae sacred site in Raiatea, French Polynesia
Hawaiian petroglyph depicting a poi dog (īlio)
Carving of Rongo, the Māori deity (atua) of kūmara, from Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand
A 1782 illustration of a heiau temple in Hawaii
Elder Tayal women from Taiwan with facial tattoos
Teeth filing on a Mentawai man in the Mentawai Islands, Dutch East Indies, c. 1938
Tablet B of rongorongo, an undeciphered system of glyphs from Rapa Nui
An example of the abundant petroglyphs in Orongo, Rapa Nui associated with the tangata manu cult of Makemake. Rongorongo does not appear in any of these petroglyphs.
The Talang Tuo inscription, a 7th-century Srivijaya stele featuring Old Malay written in a derivative of the Pallava script
Page from Doctrina Cristiana Española Y Tagala (1593) featuring the Baybayin script alongside the Latin alphabet
Wharenui meeting house of the Māori people
Besakana of the Merina people
Bahay kubo of the Filipinos. Also known as Payag in Visayan.
Bure of the Fijian people
Uma mbatangu of the Sumba people
Jabu of the Toba Batak people
Rumoh of the Acehnese people
Rumah gadang of the Minangkabau people
Torogan of the Maranao people
Kubing jaw harps, flutes, and a kagul slit drum from the Philippines
Karinding jaw harps of the Sundanese people, Indonesia
Sapeh, traditional lutes of the Orang Ulu people of Malaysia
Atingting kon, wooden slit drums from Vanuatu
An Indonesian gamelan ensemble
A kanaka maoli (native) from Hawaii performing the hula
Kapa haka of the Māori people
Traditional song and dance at a funeral in Tana Toraja, Sulawesi, Indonesia
Ramayana Ballet, traditional theatre dance from Java, Indonesia
Gending Sriwijaya, traditional dance from Palembang, Indonesia
A Minahasan Kabasaran war dancer from Tomohon, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Kecak dancers from Bali, Indonesia
Hudoq, traditional dance from Kalimantan, Indonesia
Aloalo funerary pole of the Sakalava people of Madagascar
Adu zatua ancestor carvings of the Nias people of western Indonesia
Taotao carvings of anito ancestor spirits from the Ifugao people, Philippines
Stone tiki from Hiva Oa, Marquesas
Ki'i carving at Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau, Hawaii
Māori poupou from the Ruato tomb of Rotorua
Moai in Ahu Tongariki, Rapa Nui
Toraja tau tau (wooden statue of the deceased) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia
Balinese small familial house shrines to honor the households' ancestors in Bali, Indonesia

In Indonesia, the nationalistic term Nusantara from the Old Javanese is also popularly used for their islands.

The adoption of Hindu statecraft model allowed the creation of Indianized kingdoms such as Tarumanagara, Champa, Butuan, Langkasuka, Melayu, Srivijaya, Medang Mataram, Majapahit, and Bali.

Philippines

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Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

Philip II of Spain
The Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the oldest known writing found in the Philippines
Manila (1847)
Filipino Ilustrados in Spain formed the Propaganda Movement. Photographed in 1890.
General Douglas MacArthur coming ashore during the Battle of Leyte on October 20, 1944
The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo was the second largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century.
Topography of the Philippines
Mayon is an active stratovolcano, located in the south of the island of Luzon
The Philippine Eagle is endemic to the forests of the country.
A male Celestial monarch seen in Bislig.
Köppen climate classification of the Philippines
Malacañan Palace is the official residence of the president of the Philippines.
President Rodrigo Duterte and U.S. President Donald Trump discuss matters during a bilateral meeting in November 2017.
BRP Jose Rizal (FF-150) is the lead ship of her class of guided missile frigates of the Philippine Navy
Administrative map of the Philippines
Dominant ethnic groups by province
A map that shows all ethnolinguistic groups in the Philippines.
The historical Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte. Declared as a National Cultural Treasure by the Philippine government in 1973 and a UNESCO World Heritage Site under the collective group of Baroque Churches of the Philippines in 1993.
St. Luke's Medical Center in Taguig.
Founded in 1611, the University of Santo Tomas is the oldest extant university in Asia.
Real GPD per capita development of the Philippines
A proportional representation of Philippines exports, 2019
Filipinos planting rice. Agriculture employs 23% of the Filipino workforce.
Headquarters of the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños, Laguna.
Limestone cliffs of El Nido, Palawan.
An LRT Line 2 train at Santolan station.
Ambuklao Dam in Bokod, Benguet.
A participant of the Ati-Atihan Festival.
A statue in Iriga City commemorating the mano po gesture
Colonial houses in Vigan.
Cariñosa, a Hispanic era dance for traditional Filipino courtship.
José Rizal is a pioneer of Philippine Revolution through his literary works.
Philippines men's national basketball team celebrating the 2015 Southeast Asian Games championship.

It shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Japan to the northeast, Palau to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest.

Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu Majapahit empire.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin

Gajah Mada

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Gajah Mada (c.

Gajah Mada (c.

A modern artist's impression of Gajah Mada, based on the outdated, earlier illustration by M. Yamin
The terracotta figure collection of Trowulan Museum. Mohammad Yamin used this clay image as a popular depiction of Gajah Mada.
The expansion of the Majapahit empire in the 14th century much owed to Gajah Mada
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
According Nagarakretagama, Bubat square is located on northern parts of Majapahit capital city. The residence of Mahapatih Gajah Mada also located in northern part of the city, tradition linked this gate with Gajah Mada's residence.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite was named after Palapa oath.

1290 – c. 1364), also known as Jirnnodhara was, according to Old Javanese manuscripts, poems, and mythology, a powerful military leader and Mahapatih (the approximate equivalent of a modern Prime Minister) of the Javanese empire of Majapahit during the 14th century.

He is considered an important national hero in modern Indonesia, as well as a symbol of patriotism and national unity.