Inauguration of President Joko Widodo at the DPR/MPR in 2014
The leadership of the Indonesian Provisional People's Consultative Assembly at the time of the 1967 Special Session
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The building complex in Jakarta that includes the offices and meeting chamber of Indonesia's People's Consultative Assembly
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Suharto reads his speech at the 1993 session of the People's Consultative Assembly.
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
The MPR during the 1998 Special Session
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Before 2004, and the amendments to the 1945 Constitution, the MPR was the highest governing body in Indonesia.

- People's Consultative Assembly

Indonesia is a presidential republic with an elected legislature.

- Indonesia

6 related topics


The Indonesian political system before and after the constitutional amendments

Constitution of Indonesia

The Indonesian political system before and after the constitutional amendments

The 1945 State Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia (Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945, commonly abbreviated as UUD 1945 or UUD '45) is the supreme law and basis for all laws of Indonesia.

In 1983, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR) passed a decree stipulating the need for a nationwide referendum to be held before any amendments were made to the Constitution.

Dutch East Indies Governor-General Johan Paul van Limburg Stirum opens the first meeting of the Volksraad in 1918.

People's Representative Council

Dutch East Indies Governor-General Johan Paul van Limburg Stirum opens the first meeting of the Volksraad in 1918.
The historic meeting of the KNIP in Malang, East Java to decide Indonesia's response to the Linggadjati Agreement
Old DPR Building
The Indonesian parliament in session in the 1950s
The building complex in Jakarta where Indonesia's People's Representative Council holds its plenary sessions
Present-day Gedung Pancasila (previously known as Volksraad Building)
PSKD 1 Senior High School, site of the third meeting of the KNIP
Gedung Kesenian Jakarta (Jakarta Art Building)
Societeit Concordia Building in Malang, East Java
Societeit Concordia Building in Jakarta
Hotel Des Indes in Jakarta
MPRS chairman Abdul Haris Nasution congratulating General Soeharto on the his appointment as acting president, 12th March 1967, in the aftermath of the 1967 MPRS Special Session, situated in Istora Senayan, Jakarta.

The People's Representative Council of the Republic of Indonesia (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Republik Indonesia; commonly abbreviated as DPR) is one of two elected chambers of the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat/MPR), the national legislature of Indonesia.

The Palace of Westminster, meeting place of the United Kingdom's legislative bodies.

Regional Representative Council

The Palace of Westminster, meeting place of the United Kingdom's legislative bodies.

The Regional Representative Council (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah, DPD; alternatively translatable as the House of Regions or the House of Regional Representatives or the Senate of Indonesia), is one of two parliamentary chambers in Indonesia.

Together with the Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat, (DPR), it makes up the Indonesian national legislative body, the Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (MPR).

Official portrait, 1949


Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Official portrait, 1949
Sukarno as a HBS student in Surabaya, 1916
Sukarno with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.
Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu.
Sukarno shakes hands with the Japanese director of the Interior for occupied Dutch East Indies, General Moichiri Yamamoto, September 1944
Sukarno during a visit to Makassar, 30 April 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Sukarno addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang, March 1947
Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.
Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta in June 1949
Sukarno (right) with John Foster Dulles (left) and Richard Nixon (center) in 1956.
Sukarno and Nixon in 1956.
Sukarno casting his vote at the 1955 elections
Sukarno (on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959
Sukarno's official portrait used in the 1960s, complete with military-style decorations.
The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962
Sukarno addresses the U.S. Congress on 17 May 1956. Sitting behind him the U.S. vice president/Senate president Richard Nixon and U.S. House speaker Sam Rayburn.
Sukarno and Fidel Castro in 1960, Havana, Cuba
Sukarno (center) with John F. Kennedy (left) and Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in 1961.
Soekarno with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Maxwell Taylor at The Merdeka Palace on August 2, 1963.
Sukarno with Fatmawati and five of their children. Clockwise from center: Sukarno, Sukmawati, Fatmawati, Guruh, Megawati, Guntur, Rachmawati

In September 1960, he established a Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (Madjelis Permusjawaratan Rakjat Sementara/MPRS) as the highest legislative authority according to the 1945 constitution.

Indonesian actor Frans Tumbuan portrayed Sukarno in the 1997 movie Blanco, The Colour of Love (compacted from its original TV serial version, Api Cinta Antonio Blanco) about Spanish painter Antonio Blanco who settled and resided in Bali, Indonesia.

National Emblem of Indonesia

Constitutional Court of Indonesia

National Emblem of Indonesia
Aerial view of the Constitutional Court building

The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (Mahkamah Konstitusi Republik Indonesia) is one of the apex courts in Indonesia along with the Indonesian Supreme Court.

The Indonesian Constitutional Court was established as a consequence of the third amendment to the Constitution of Indonesia, ratified by the People's Consultative Assembly on 9 November 2001.

New Order (Indonesia)

Map of Indonesia in 1978
General Suharto
Map of Indonesia in 1978
Suharto took the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968.
Suharto on a visit to West Germany in 1970.
Suharto attends 1970 meeting of the Non-Aligned Movement in Lusaka, Zambia.
Suharto with US Secretary of Defense William Cohen, 14 January 1998.
Suharto reads his address of resignation at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. Suharto's VP and successor, B. J. Habibie, was on his left.

The New Order (Orde Baru, abbreviated Orba) is the term coined by the second Indonesian President Suharto to characterise his administration as he came to power in 1966 until his resignation in 1998.

Using the decree, the PKI was banned in March 1966 and the parliament (MPRS), government and military were purged of pro-Sukarno elements, many of whom were accused of being communist sympathisers, and replaced with Suharto supporters.