The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Population pyramid 2016
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Srivijaya (Sriwijaya, ; Srivijaya, ) was a Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

- Srivijaya

The Indonesian archipelago has been a valuable region for trade since at least the 7th century when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent.

- Indonesia

18 related topics

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Southeast Asia

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and northwest of Australia.

Geographical south-eastern region of Asia, consisting of the regions that are situated south of China, east of the Indian subcontinent, and northwest of Australia.

States and regions of Southeast Asia
A political map of Southeast Asia
Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE
The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC
Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia
Borobudur temple in Central Java, Indonesia
Angkor Wat in Siem Reap, Cambodia
Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414
Strait of Malacca
Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia
Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya
Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit
Relief map of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification
Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park, Indonesia
The Philippine eagle
Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side
The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia
Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).
Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai, Thailand.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei, an Islamic country with Sharia rule.
Roman Catholic Cathedral-Basilica of the Immaculate Conception, the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila, Philippines.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.
Burmese puppet performance
Paddy field in Vietnam
The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)
Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system
Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Bangkok, Thailand
Singapore
Manila, Philippines
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Jakarta, Indonesia

East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator.

This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Medang emerged.

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb

Javanese people

A Javanese bride and groom wearing their traditional garb
Javanese adapted many aspects of Indian culture, such as the Ramayana epic.
Sultan Amangkurat II of Mataram (upper right) watching warlord Untung Surapati fighting Captain Tack of the Dutch East India Company (VOC). ca 1684 AD.
A Javanese courtly ceremony at Keraton Surakarta in 1932.
Javanese cultural expressions, such as wayang and gamelan are often used to promote the excellence of Javanese culture.
Gamelan is one of Javanese cultural expression that demonstrate refinement.
Javanese abugida.
Javanese priyayi (aristocrat) and servants, c. undefined 1865.
Javanese temple.
Traditional Javanese house.
Example of Javanese cuisine. Clockwise: fried tempeh, mlinjo crackers, gudeg with rice wrapped in teak leaf, green chili sambal and sliced lime.
Nasi tumpeng, the quintessentially Javanese rice dish, symbolises the volcano.
A Javanese sailor.
Inhabitants of Jave la Grande (Great Java island), from Nicholas Vallard's manuscript sea atlas (1547). The people are armed with spear and shortsword with curving hilt, a feature of Indonesian weapon (golok?). The man riding a horse seems to be a leader or noble. The servant behind him carried a parasol. Several men is wearing turbans, which may indicate that they are Muslims, but the women did not cover their head like Muslims do (it needs to be noted that, this custom of Muslim women not wearing a veil in Indonesia is quite common until after World War 2). In the background are several raised wooden huts, also a feature of Indonesian building. It is unknown whether these huts are for dwelling or serve as a temporary shelter for people working on the orchard.
Javanese migrant workers in Suriname, circa 1940
A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk
Varieties of Javanese keris
Weapons of Java: Machetes, maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling
Weapon of Java: Keris
Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun (istinggar)
Javanese weapons and standards
Various keris and pole weapons of Java.
Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era
The carpenters' tools of the Javanese people
Javanese agricultural tools
A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments
Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters
Javanese masks

The Javan or Javanese (Javanese:, Wong Jawa (in Ngoko register); , Tiyang Jawi (in Krama register)) are indigenous ethnic group native to the central and eastern hemisphere of Java island, Indonesia.

The move was most likely caused by the volcanic eruption of Merapi and/or invasion from Srivijaya.

Dutch East Indies

Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."

The Dutch East Indies, also known as the Netherlands East-Indies (Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) were a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Centuries before Europeans arrived, the Indonesian archipelago supported various states, including commercially oriented coastal trading states and inland agrarian states (the most important were Srivijaya and Majapahit).

Batak warriors, 1870

Sumatra

Batak warriors, 1870
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh
Huria Kristen Indonesia (Indonesian Christian Church) in Medan city
Map of geological formation of Sumatra island
Mount Sinabung, North Sumatra
Medan, the largest city in Sumatra
Sumatran tiger
Rafflesia arnoldii
Minangkabau women carrying platters of food to a ceremony
Traditional house in Nias North Sumatra

Sumatra is one of the Sunda Islands of western Indonesia.

The earliest known mention of the current form "Sumatra" was in 1017, when the local king Haji Sumatrabhumi ("King of the land of Sumatra") sent an envoy to China.

The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.

Malay language

The Rencong alphabet, a native writing system found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (hitu adik sa- is the rest of 4th line.
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, using Pallava alphabet, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.
A Malay traffic sign in Malaysia.
Malay road signs in Jakarta, Indonesia. The blue sign reads "Lajur Khusus Menurunkan Penumpang" which means "Lane for dropping passengers only" and the small no-parking sign on the left reads "Sampai Rambu Berikutnya" which means "until next sign" in Indonesian
Jakartan Creole Malay (Betawi language)

Malay (Bahasa Melayu, Jawi:, Rencong: ) is an Austronesian language officially spoken in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia and Singapore and unofficially spoken in East Timor and parts of Thailand.

This 14th-century pre-Islamic legal text was produced in the Adityawarman era (1345–1377) of Dharmasraya, a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom that arose after the end of Srivijayan rule in Sumatra.

Majapahit

The greatest extent of Majapahit influence based on the Nagarakretagama in 1365
A maja fruit growing near Trowulan. The bitter-tasting fruit is the origin of the kingdom's name
Nagarakretagama palm-leaf manuscript. Composed by Mpu Prapanca in 1365, it provides a primary historical account of Majapahit court during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk.
Painting of a 14th-century Yuan junk. Similar ships were sent by the Yuan in their naval armada.
King Kertarajasa portrayed as Harihara, amalgamation of Shiva and Vishnu. Originally located at Candi Simping, Blitar, today it is displayed in National Museum.
Golden image of a mounted rider, possibly the Hindu god Surya, within a stylised solar halo. Below is a conch flanked by two nagas. 14th-century Majapahit art, National Museum Jakarta.
The statue of Parvati as mortuary deified portrayal of Tribhuwanottunggadewi, queen of Majapahit, mother of Hayam Wuruk.
Rough estimations of Majapahit's conquest of the Indonesian archipelago (Nusantara) in the 13th century, its decline and its eventual fall in the early 16th century to Demak Sultanate. The existing historical records from several sources only partially describe the years listed and thus are subject to revisions.
The terracotta figure popularly believed by Mohammad Yamin as the portrait of Gajah Mada, collection of Trowulan Museum. His claim, however, is not backed by historical background.
Gajah Mada inscription, dated 1273 Saka (1351 CE), mentioned about a sacred caitya building dedicated by Gajah Mada for the late King Kertanegara of Singhasari.
Bronze cannon, called cetbang, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, from c. 1470–1478 Majapahit. Note the Surya Majapahit emblem on the bronze cannon.
The route of the voyages of Zheng He's fleet, including Majapahit ports.
The mortuary deified portrait statue of Queen Suhita (reign 1429–1447), discovered at Jebuk, Kalangbret, Tulungagung, East Java, National Museum of Indonesia.
Demak was the earliest Islamic polity in Java that replaced Majapahit.
Wringin Lawang, the 15.5-meter tall red brick split gate in Trowulan, believed to be the entrance of an important compound.
The king of Java and his 7 vassal kings, as imagined in a 15th century British manuscript contained in Friar Odoric's account.
The graceful Bidadari Majapahit, golden celestial apsara in Majapahit style perfectly describes Majapahit as "the golden age" of the archipelago.
Gold figure from the Majapahit period representing Sutasoma being borne by the man-eater Kalmasapada.
Palm leaf manuscript of Kakawin Sutasoma, a 14th-century Javanese poem.
Bas reliefs of Tegowangi temple, dated from Majapahit period, demonstrate the East Javanese style.
Pair of door guardians from a temple, Eastern Java, 14th century, Museum of Asian Art, San Francisco.
Jabung temple near Paiton, Probolinggo, East Java, dated from Majapahit period.
The 16.5-metre tall Bajang Ratu Paduraksa gate, at Trowulan, echoed the grandeur of Majapahit.
The stepped terraces, pavilions, and split gates of Cetho temple complex on mount Lawu slopes.
Majapahit terracotta piggy bank, 14th or 15th century Trowulan, East Java. (Collection of National Museum of Indonesia, Jakarta)
Ancient red-brick canal discovered in Trowulan. Majapahit had a well-developed irrigation infrastructure.
Majapahit core realm and provinces (Mancanagara) in eastern and central parts of Java, including islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit's influence under Hayam Wuruk in 1365 according to Nagarakretagama.
A 1.79 kilogram, 21-karat Majapahit period gold image discovered in Agusan, Philippines, copied Nganjuk bronze images of the early Majapahit period, signify Majapahit cultural influence on southern Philippines.
Asia in the early 14th century
14th-century gold armlets and rings in East Javanese Majapahit style, found at Fort Canning Hill, Singapore, suggests that Tumasik or Singapura was within Majapahit sphere of influence.
Adityawarman, a senior minister of Majapahit depicted as Bhairava. He established the Pagaruyung Kingdom in Central Sumatra.
On centre bottom row (no. 8) is a Yǒng-Lè Tōng-Bǎo (永樂通寶) cash coin cast under the Yǒng-Lè Emperor (永樂帝) of Ming dynasty. These were cast in great quantities and used by Ashikaga, Ryukyu, as well as Majapahit.
Pura Maospahit ("Majapahit Temple") in Denpasar, Bali, demonstrate the typical Majapahit red brick architecture.
The Majapahit style minaret of Kudus Mosque.
Bas relief from Candi Penataran describes the Javanese-style pendopo pavilion, commonly found across Java and Bali.
The Kris of Knaud, one of the oldest surviving kris is dated to Majapahit period
The high reliefs of Gajah Mada and Majapahit history depicted in Monas, has become the source of Indonesian national pride of past greatness.
Gajah Mada statue in front of Telecommunication Museum in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta. Palapa, Indonesia's first telecommunication satellite launched on 9 July 1976 was named after Palapa oath.
Genealogy diagram of Rajasa dynasty, the royal family of Singhasari and Majapahit. Rulers are highlighted with period of reign.
Theatrical performance depicting the Mongol invasion of Java, performed by 150 students of Indonesian Institute of the Arts, Yogyakarta. The history of Majapahit continues to inspire contemporary artists.
Cropped portion of China Sea in the Miller atlas, showing six and three-masted jong.
Armor depicted in a statue from a candi in Singasari.
This Jiaozhi arquebus is similar to Java arquebus.
Deity holding a cuirass, from earlier, 10-11th century Nganjuk, East Java.
Various keris and pole weapons of Java

Majapahit, also known by its Sanskrit name Wilwatikta was a Javanese Hindu thalassocratic empire in Southeast Asia that was based on the island of Java (in modern-day Indonesia).

He invited China to resume the tributary system, just like Srivijaya did several centuries earlier.

Malaysia

Country in Southeast Asia.

Country in Southeast Asia.

"Malaysia" used as a label for the Malay Archipelago on a 1914 map from a United States atlas
The Malacca Sultanate played a major role in spreading Islam throughout the Malay Archipelago.
The Dutch fleet battling with the Portuguese armada as part of the Dutch–Portuguese War in 1606 to gain control of Malacca
Statue of Francis Light in the Fort Cornwallis of Penang, the first British colony in what was to become Malaysia
The Parliament of Malaysia, the building that houses the members of the Dewan Rakyat
The Perdana Putra houses the office of the Prime Minister.
Former Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad meeting with US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo at the Prime Minister's Office in Putrajaya, 2018
Examples of the Malaysian Armed Forces weaponry assets. Clockwise from top right:, PT-91M MBT tank, Malaysian Army paratrooper with M4, and Su-30MKM fighter aircraft.
Malaysia is within the equatorial region, where a tropical rainforest climate is apparent all year round.
Mount Kinabalu, the highest summit in the country
Native species in Malaysia, clockwise from top-right: oriental pied hornbills, hawksbill sea turtle, proboscis monkey, Malayan tiger.
Some species of Rafflesia can grow up to 1 m in diameter, making them the largest flowers in the world.
Development of real GDP per capita, 1870 to 2018
A proportional representation of Malaysia exports, 2019
The Proton company is a Malaysian car manufacturer.
Population pyramid 2016
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by ethnic group based on 2010 census
Population density (person per km2) in 2010
The percentage distribution of Malaysian population by religion based on 2010 census
A traditional house being built in Sabah
A craftsman making batik. Malaysian batik is usually patterned with floral motifs with light colouring.
Radio Televisyen Malaysia
Malaysia's largest Buddhist temple—Kek Lok Si in Penang—illuminated in preparation for the Lunar New Year
Traditional sports such as the martial art style Silat Melayu persist alongside modern sports.
Ministry of Education, Putrajaya

Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore, Vietnam, and Indonesia.

'Melayu' then became associated with Srivijaya, and remained associated with various parts of Sumatra, especially Palembang, where the founder of the Malacca Sultanate is thought to have come from.

Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").

Indonesian language

Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, written in Pallava script, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.
Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.
The Youth Pledge was the result of the Second Youth Congress held in Batavia in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of Indonesian language as a unifying language throughout the archipelago.
Road-signs in an airport terminal
Toll gate in Bali
Indonesian language used on a Kopaja bus advertisement
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use standard Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.
Indonesian is used in schools.
Indonesian word "Gereja" (Church) is derived from Portuguese "Igreja". The sign reads: "Gereja & Candi Hati Kudus Tuhan Yesus Ganjuran Keuskupan Agung Semarang" (The Church and Temple of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Ganjuran Archdiocese of Semarang).
The Indonesian word of bioskop is derived from Dutch bioscoop (movie theater).
BIPA (Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing) book, which helps foreigners to learn the Indonesian language effectively.
Old one thousand Indonesian Rupiah banknote, featuring Indonesian national hero Thomas Matulessy.
Indonesian-language calendar
Location where Indonesian language seen as the business language which taught in schools, colleges, universities, institutions, etc.

Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia ) is the official and national language of Indonesia.

The Kedukan Bukit Inscription in Sumatra is the oldest surviving specimen of Old Malay, the language used by Srivijayan empire.

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site

Borobudur

Borobudur, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
Candi Borobudur viewed from the northwest. The monument was mentioned in the Karangtengah and Tri Tepusan inscriptions.
Straight-line arrangement of Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut
Exposed Buddha image within the stupas of Borobudur upper terraces
A painting by G.B. Hooijer (c. 1916–1919) reconstructing the scene of Borobudur during its heyday
Borobudur stupas overlooking a mountain. For centuries, it was deserted.
Borobudur's main stupa in mid 19th-century, a wooden deck had been installed above the main stupa.
Borobudur in 1872.
Terrace on the temple of Borobudur 1913
Borobudur after Van Erp's restoration in 1911. Note the reconstructed chhatra pinnacle on top of the main stupa (now dismantled).
The Unfinished Buddha from the main stupa of Borobudur at Karmawibhangga Museum, to which the Buddhists give offerings, along with the main stupa's chhatra on its back.
Embedding concrete and PVC pipe to improve Borobudur's drainage system during the 1973 restoration
A 1968 Indonesian stamp promoting restoration of Borobudur
Buddhist pilgrims meditate on the top platform
Vesak ceremony at Borobudur
Location of Borobudur relative to Mount Merapi and Yogyakarta
Borobudur is surrounded by mountains, including twin volcanoes Mount Merbabu (left) and Merapi (right)
Tourists in Borobudur
Borobudur ground plan taking the form of a Mandala
Aerial view of Borobudur, it took the form of a step pyramid and mandala plan
Half cross-section with 4:6:9 height ratio for foot, body and head, respectively
Stairs of Borobudur through arches of Kala
A narrow corridor with reliefs on the wall
The position of narrative bas-reliefs stories on Borobudur wall
The Karmavibangga scene on Borobudur's hidden foot, on the right depicting sinful act of killing and cooking turtles and fishes, on the left those who make living by killing animals will be tortured in hell, by being cooked alive, being cut, or being thrown into a burning house.
Queen Maya riding horse carriage retreating to Lumbini to give birth to Prince Siddhartha Gautama
Prince Siddhartha Gautama became an ascetic hermit.
A relief of Jataka story of giant turtle that saving drowned sailors.
A relief of the Gandavyuha story from Borobudur 2nd level north wall.
A Buddha statue with the hand position of dharmachakra mudra
Head from a Borobudur Buddha statue in Tropenmuseum, Amsterdam.
Headless Buddha statue in Borobudur. Since its discovery, numbers of heads have been stolen and installed in museums abroad.
Lion gate guardian
Sukarno and India's Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru visiting Borobudur in June 1950.
Emblem of Central Java displaying Borobudur.
Relief panel of a ship at Borobudur.
Musicians performing a musical ensemble, probably the early form of gamelan.
The Apsara of Borobudur.
The scene of King and Queen with their subjects.
One relief on a corridor wall.
A weapon, probably the early form of keris.
A detailed carved relief stone.
Tara holding a Chamara
Surasundari holding a lotus
Close up of a relief
Great Departure from Lalitavistara
Dancer dancing to orchestra of cymbals, chime cymbals and flutes.
World Heritage inscription of Borobudur Temple
The procedures signage for visiting Borobudur Temple
The inscription of Borobudur restoration in 1973 by the former Indonesian president Soeharto
The scattered parts of Borobudur Temple at Karmawibhangga Museum. People still can't locate their original positions.
A Buddha statue inside a stupa

Borobudur, also transcribed Barabudur (Candi Borobudur, ꦕꦤ꧀ꦝꦶꦧꦫꦧꦸꦝꦸꦂ) is a 9th-century Mahayana Buddhist temple in Magelang Regency, not far from the town of Muntilan, in Central Java, Indonesia.

Borobudur was likely founded around 800 AD. This corresponds to the period between 760 and 830 AD, the peak of the Sailendra dynasty rule over the Mataram kingdom in central Java, when their power encompassed not only the Srivijayan Empire but also southern Thailand, Indianized kingdoms of Philippines, North Malaya (Kedah, also known in Indian texts as the ancient Hindu state of Kadaram).

A Malay couple in traditional attire after their akad nikah (marriage solemnisation) ceremony. The groom is wearing a baju melayu paired with songkok and songket, while the bride wears baju kurung with a tudong.

Malays (ethnic group)

Austronesian ethnic group native to eastern Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands that lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

Austronesian ethnic group native to eastern Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands that lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.

A Malay couple in traditional attire after their akad nikah (marriage solemnisation) ceremony. The groom is wearing a baju melayu paired with songkok and songket, while the bride wears baju kurung with a tudong.
Joget dance from the Malacca Sultanate, many aspects of Malay culture are derived from the Malaccan court.
Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds in Jambi, historically linked to the pre-Islamic Melayu Kingdom.
Tengku Abd Aziz, the Prince of Terengganu in a classical formal Malay attire. (c. 1920)
A group of men from Brunei Darussalam in the Cekak Musang type, worn together with the songket (far left) and kain sarong.
Ladies from Sumatra clad in their traditional attire, known as Baju Kurung made from Songket. The dress is commonly associated with women of Malay extraction.
Early Malayic and pre-Malayic-speaking areas, classical kingdoms and urban settlements preceding the rise of Srivijaya in the 7th century and prior to the eastward Malay cultural expansion to the shores of Borneo. It also can be witnessed that the historical forebears of Minangkabaus, eastern Acehnese and Southern Thais are closely related with the present-day Malays during this era.
Chedi Phra Borommathat, a stupa located in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. The temple witnessed the rise and fall of Tambralinga, a powerful Buddhist kingdom that managed to conquer Jaffna kingdom in Sri Lanka.
The timeline of Srivijaya between the 7th-13th century, the state would subsequently known as Melayu Kingdom before its demise. Parameswara, a Melayu-Srivijayan prince would later establish the Kingdom of Malacca in 1400 after he moved from Palembang in 1377 and Singapura in 1389. Thus, continuing the Melayu-Srivijaya court traditions on the newfound capital
The "Dayak-Malay" brotherhood monument in West Kalimantan Provincial Museum, Pontianak, Indonesia. The golden age of Malay sultanates in Borneo has invited many Dayak tribes to be both Islamised and adopting the Malay culture, customs, language and identity. A similar process of "Masuk Melayu" (i.e. to become Malay) was also correlated with historical developments in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula, ushering many Orang Asli, Orang Laut, Batak and various other tribal and regional communities to be assimilated into the Malay-Islamic identity, thus becoming the ancestors of present-day Malay people.
The extent of the powerful Malaccan Sultanate in the 15th century. The emergence of Malacca as a cosmopolitan regional metropolis has monumentally redefined the characteristic of the Malay interpretation of culture, language, religion, philosophy and identity. With Malayness and Islam as the core pillars and strengths, the legacy of the Malaccan court can be strongly witnessed in the construction of the Malay sociocultural framework until today.
The reigning elite of the Riau-Lingga Sultanate, together with the Sultan (being seated, in the middle) as depicted in this photograph taken in 1867. The administrative class of Riau-Lingga are known to be strict adherents of Sufi Tariqa, this resulted various laws and legal enactments based on Islamic principles to be strictly observed throughout the archipelago kingdom. The sultanate would be abolished almost half a century later in 1911 by the Dutch powers, following a strong independence movement manifested in the nation against the colonial government.
Tuan Lebeh (seated, in the middle), the Long Raya or Raja Muda (crown prince) of the Kingdom of Reman in 1899. A state in the northern Malay Peninsula made wealthy by tin mining, the State of Reman was abolished by the Rattanakosin Kingdom alongside various other Malay kingdoms that revolted for independence in the early 1902 including Pattani, Saiburi, Nongchik, Yaring, Yala, Legeh and Teluban.
The Malay Rulers and nobilities of Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor with British colonial officers during the first Durbar in Istana Negara, Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Federated Malay States, 1897.
The bronze mural of the legendary Malay warrior, Hang Tuah with his renowned quote Ta' Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia (Malay for "Never shall the Malays vanish from the face of the earth") written on the top. The quote is a famous rallying cry for Malay nationalism.
Federation of Malaya's commemorative stamp issued in 1957. The semi-independent federation was formed in 1948 from nine Malay states and two British Straits Settlements. It achieved independence in 1957.
Supporters of Negara Soematra Timoer (State of East Sumatra) in post-World War II Dutch-established territory of East Sumatra. The state was headed by a president, Dr. Tengku Mansur, a member of Asahan royal family. Both the state and the traditional Malay monarchy institution in East Sumatra dissolved following her merger into the newly formed unitarian Republic of Indonesia in 1950. (image taken c. 1947–1950)
The Kedukan Bukit Inscription written in Pallava script. Dating back from 683, it is one of the oldest surviving Malay written artefact.
The Alamat Langkapuri from British Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka). Initially published between 1869–1870 and written in Jawi script, it is noted to be among the first Malay-language newspaper. The readership consist of the Malay-diaspora in Ceylon as well as in the Malay archipelago.
Hikayat Merong Mahawangsa in Jawi text. Also known as the Kedah Annals, it is an ancient Malay literature that chronicles the bloodline of Merong Mahawangsa and the foundation of Kedah.
A Kelantan-Patani styled Wayang Kulit (Shadow play) that narrated the heroic tale of Hikayat Seri Rama.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei on the eve of Ramadhan. The wealthy kingdom adopted Melayu Islam Beraja (Malay Islamic Monarchy) as the national philosophy since its independence in 1984.
Replica of the Malacca Sultanate's Imperial Palace, which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477.
A wall panel adorned with various floral motives from the Setul Mambang Segara palatial residence as seen in the Muzium Negara. Setul was a historical Malay kingdom that existed between 1808 and 1915 in the northern Malay Peninsula.
Burung Petala Indra, a giant mythical bird constructed for the grand circumcision parade of the Kelantanese prince.
An ebony-coloured Labu Sayong, a classic Malay jar from Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia.
Itek Masak Lomak Cili Api, smoked duck with thick, creamy, savoury and spicy sauce, usually eaten with white rice. A classical dish from Negeri Sembilan; this cuisine features a common ingredient of a Malay recipe, a generous amount of coconut milk. As a result, many traditional fare of the Malay community is noted for its rich and flavourful gravy.
A troupe of Siamese Malay dancers performing the Mak Yong during the reign of King Rama V of Siam (c. 19th century), a dance theatre that owes its origin from the Pattani and Kelantanese palace courts. In 2005, it received recognition as being among the masterpieces of the oral and intangible heritage of humanity by UNESCO.
Malay children wearing traditional dress during Eid al-Fitr.
Rows of Pelita (oil lamps) lighted during Malam Tujuh Likur (the 27th night of Ramadhan), the oil lamps are traditionally used to illuminate homes and the streets during the Ramadhan. Seen here in Muar, Johor, Malaysia
The coronation ceremony between Tengku Otteman, as the Tengku Mahkota (Crown Prince) of Deli Sultanate in Residency of Sumatra's East Coast, Dutch East Indies; with his wife, Raja Amnah, daughter of Raja Chulan and a member of Perak Royalty as Tengku Puan Indera in 1925.
A Silat Melayu performance on a stage.
The Bunga Mas, National Museum of Malaysia. Literary translated as the "Golden Flowers", the Bunga Mas was offered by the northern Malay states of Terengganu, Kelantan, Kedah, Pattani, Nong Chik, Yala, Rangae, Kubang Pasu and Setul to the King of Ayutthaya (Siam) as a symbol of allegiance.
A Malay Keris, with its sheath on the left. This particular dagger was historically belonged to a Malay aristocrat from Sumatra.
The trigger mechanism of an Istinggar, a classical Malay gun as displayed in Muzium Warisan Melayu (Malay Heritage Museum), Serdang, Selangor.
A Wau-maker's workshop in Kelantan, Malaysia. This peculiar type of kite can be found in the northeast coast of Malay Peninsular.
The realm of Malays is described in green and other related sub-ethnic groups are rendered in darker or lighter green.

These locations are today part of the countries of Malaysia, Indonesia (Eastern Sumatra, Bangka Belitung Islands, Western coastal Borneo (Kalimantan) and Riau Islands), southern part of Thailand (Pattani, Satun, Songkhla, Yala and Narathiwat), Singapore and Brunei Darussalam.

Historically, the Malay population is descended primarily from the earlier Malayic-speaking Austronesians and Austroasiatic tribes who founded several ancient maritime trading states and kingdoms, notably Brunei, Kedah, Langkasuka, Gangga Negara, Chi Tu, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Pahang, Melayu and Srivijaya.