Indonesia

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

- Indonesia

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Rama with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana during exile in the forest, manuscript, ca. 1780

Ramayana

Sanskrit epic from ancient India.

Sanskrit epic from ancient India.

Rama with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana during exile in the forest, manuscript, ca. 1780
An artist's impression of sage Valmiki composing the Ramayana
Rama (left third from top) depicted in the Dashavatara, the ten avatars of Vishnu. Painting from Jaipur, now at the Victoria and Albert Museum
The marriage of the four sons of Dasharatha with the four daughters of Siradhvaja Janaka and Kushadhvaja. Rama and Sita, Lakshmana and Urmila, Bharata and Mandavi and Shatrughna with Shrutakirti.
A gold carving depiction of the legendary Ayodhya at the Ajmer Jain temple.
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Ravana fights Jatayu as he carries off the kidnapped Sita. Painting by Raja Ravi Varma
A stone bas-relief at Banteay Srei in Cambodia depicts the combat between Vali and Sugriva (middle). To the right, Rama fires his bow. To the left, Vali lies dying.
Ravana is meeting Sita at Ashokavana. Hanuman is seen on the tree.
The Battle at Lanka, Ramayana by Sahibdin. It depicts the monkey army of the protagonist Rama (top left, blue figure) fighting Ravana—the demon-king of the Lanka—to save Rama's kidnapped wife, Sita. The painting depicts multiple events in the battle against the three-headed demon general Trishira, in the bottom left. Trishira is beheaded by Hanuman, the monkey-companion of Rama.
Sita with Lava and Kusha
The epic story of Ramyana was adopted by several cultures across Asia. Shown here is a Thai historic artwork depicting the battle which took place between Rama and Ravana.
A relief with part of the Ramayana epic, shows Rama killed the golden deer that turn out to be the demon Maricha in disguise. Prambanan Trimurti temple near Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia.
Cambodian classical dancers as Sita and Ravana, the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh (c. 1920s)
Lakshmana, Rama and Sita during their exile in Dandaka Forest depicted in Javanese dance
Rama (Yama) and Sita (Me Thida) in Yama Zatdaw, the Burmese version of Ramyana
The Thai retelling of the tale—Ramakien—is popularly expressed in traditional regional dance theatre
A Ramlila actor wears the traditional attire of Ravanan.
Hanuman discovers Sita in her captivity in Lanka, as depicted in Balinese kecak dance.
The painting by the Indonesian (Balinese) artist, Ida Bagus Made Togog depicts the episode from the Ramayana about the Monkey Kings of Sugriva and Vali; The Killing of Vali. Rama depicted as a crowned figure with a bow and arrow.
Hanoman at Kecak fire dance, Bali, 2018

The characters Rama, Sita, Lakshmana, Bharata, Hanuman, and Ravana are all fundamental to the cultural consciousness of the South Asian nations of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka and the South-East Asian countries of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand.

A 5 dollar banknote, Hawaii, circa 1839, using Hawaiian language

Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family widely spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the islands of the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan (by Taiwanese indigenous peoples).

The Austronesian languages are a language family widely spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the islands of the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan (by Taiwanese indigenous peoples).

A 5 dollar banknote, Hawaii, circa 1839, using Hawaiian language
The distribution of the Austronesian languages, per Blust (1999). Western MP and Central MP are no longer accepted.
Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization of Taiwan, per Blust (1999)
Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization, per . The three languages in green (Bunun, Puyuma, Paiwan) may form a Southern Formosan branch, but this is uncertain.
Nested branches of Austronesian languages according to Sagart. Languages colored red are outside the other branches but are not subgrouped. Kradai and Malayo-Polynesian would also be purple.
A map of the Austronesian expansion. Periods are based on archeological studies, though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is disputed.
An example of hypothetical Pre-Austronesian migration waves to Taiwan from the mainland. (The Amis migration from the Philippines is controversial).
Path of Migration and Division of Some of the Major Ethnicities with their genetically distinctive markers, adapted from Edmondson and Gregerson (2007:732) . The sketched migration route M119-Baiyue from Southeast Asia corresponds to the southern origin hypothesis of early Austronesians.

Below are two charts comparing list of numbers of 1-10 and thirteen words in Austronesian languages; spoken in Taiwan, the Philippines, the Mariana Islands, Indonesia, Malaysia, Chams or Champa (in Thailand, Cambodia, and Vietnam), East Timor, Papua, New Zealand, Hawaii, Madagascar, Borneo, Kiribati, Caroline Islands, and Tuvalu.

Coat of arms of East Timor province

Provinces of Indonesia

Coat of arms of East Timor province
The provinces' development in Indonesia over the years

Provinces of Indonesia are the 34 administrative division of Indonesia and the highest tier of the local government (formerly called first-level region provinces or provinsi daerah tingkat I).

Photograph, c. 1954

Mohammad Hatta

Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president.

Indonesian statesman who served as the country's first vice president.

Photograph, c. 1954
Bung Hatta's Birth House which is now located on Sukarno-Hatta street, Bukittinggi
Leaders of Perhimpoenan Indonesia. Left to right: Gunawan Mangunkusumo, Mohammad Hatta, Iwa Kusumasumantri, Sastro Mulyono, and R.M. Sartono
Hatta on a 2002 Indonesian postage stamp
Hatta's home in Bandaneira, currently a museum.
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta, declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Indonesian Vice-president Hatta and Dutch Queen Juliana signing the recognition of sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia

Hatta was born in Fort de Kock, Dutch East Indies (now Bukittinggi, Indonesia).

A couple donned in the neo-traditional costume, walking underneath a Lellu'  (traditional folding canopy) during their wedding ceremony

Bugis

A couple donned in the neo-traditional costume, walking underneath a Lellu'  (traditional folding canopy) during their wedding ceremony
Ancient hand axe found in Barru, c. 1965
The court ladies of Bone, unknown date
A palace owned by an aristocrat in the port city of Palopo, Luwu, South Sulawesi (c. 1900–1930)
The southwest arm of Celebes in 16th century. Parts of Kingdom of Luwu (Red), Mandar & Torajan Society (light yellow), Ajatappareng Confederation (Yellow), Tellumpocco'e Confederation (Striped), Gowa and Tallo (Orange)
The Bone Royal Family, 1912
Manuel Godinho de Erédia, a Portuguese Malaccan explorer of Bugis-Portuguese descent
From left to right: Ternate, Bali and Bugis soldiers, European illustration from the 17th century
Funeral ceremony for the Governor of Sawitto, 1932
Bugis pilgrims to Mecca, 19th century
The Conquest of Makassar in 1667
Arung Palakka, an illustration from the 17th century
A Bugis vessel in West Sulawesi during the early 20th century
Lontara, the traditional Bugis-Makassar writing script
Areas with high concentrations Bugis-speakers in Sulawesi; with its central core located in the lowland plains of South Sulawesi province
A Bugis poem with its font shaded in blue and a white background, located in the canal banks of Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies, Leiden, Netherlands
One of the Bugis-styled dagger
The early forms of recorded Bugis literature was primarily documented in a Lontar leave scroll, as can be seen in the Sure' Bawang
Kutika, a historical Bugis almanac with visible usage of Lontara and Arabic alphabets on the page.
Excerpt from La Galigo, written in the Lontara script
A group of girls clad in the Baju Bodo, sarong and traditional hair adornments
Kawari, a pendant commonly paired with the Baju Bodo and Baju La'bu
A few home-cooked Bugis classics during the Hari Raya celebration. Burasa' (center); clockwise from top: Goré-Goré Daging, Ayam Saus Merah, Nasu Kari and Nasu Likku'.
A Bugis Baju Zirah/Waju Rante from the 18th century in the National Museum of Malaysia; one of the armors that aided their historical political expansion throughout insular Southeast Asia.
The sword fighting art of Sigajang Laleng Lipa, commonly staged in a single sarong. Both of the contenders are holding a Badik
The Bugis-Makassar house in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta
A traditional Bugis dwelling in South Sulawesi
Padewakang, historically used by the Bugis-Makassar-Mandar as a major trading ship before being eclipsed by the pinisi
A Pinisi shipmaking facility in Bulukumba
A map of Maritime Southeast Asia recorded in the Bugis-Makassar writing system (c.1820)
Terraced paddy fields as nestled in the agricultural landscape of the Bugis-Makassar region
The Maudu Lompoa (Grand Mawlid) procession by their Makassarese brethren, the Islamisation of the Bugis-Makassar states commenced in the 17th century
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Horse racing remains as one of the popular traditional sports amongst the Bugis-Makassar-Mandar societies; in the past, the competitions were commonly held after the harvesting season
A South Sulawesi dance performance
Kecapi Bugis, one of the traditional musical instruments for songs and storytelling

The Bugis people, also known as Buginese, are an ethnicity—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi (the others being Makassar and Toraja), in the south-western province of Sulawesi, third-largest island of Indonesia.

The countries most affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis

1997 Asian financial crisis

Period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

Period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia and Southeast Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.

The countries most affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis
Annual growth of GDP per capita in affected countries from 1995 to 2000
Fall of Suharto: President Suharto resigns, 21 May 1998.

South Korea, Indonesia and Thailand were the countries most affected by the crisis.

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010

Wayang

Wayang kulit performance by the famous Indonesian dalang (puppet master) Manteb Soedharsono, with the story "Gathutkaca Winisuda", in Bentara Budaya Jakarta, Indonesia, on 31 July 2010
There are three main components of wayang kulit shows including dalang, gamelan (music and sindhen), and wayang kulit itself
Blencong, a Javanese oil lamp in the form of the mythical Garuda bird for wayang kulit performances, before 1924
Palm leaves manuscript of kakawin Arjunawiwaha is written by Mpu Kanwa in 1035 CE
A dalang (puppet master) depicting a fight in a wayang kulit performance
A wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance using kelir (thin fabric) as a border between the puppeteer (dalang) who plays the puppets and the audience
Wayang golek performance (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia
Menak Amir Hamzah manuscripts, before 1792.
Dalang (puppet master), sindhen (traditional Javanese singer), and wiyaga (gamelan musicians) in a wayang kulit show in Java
The front view of the Wayang Museum seen from Fatahillah Square (Taman Fatahillah)
Wayang kulit performance with gamelan accompaniment in the context of the appointment of the throne for Hamengkubuwono VIII's fifteen years in Yogyakarta, between 1900 and 1940
A dalang (puppeteer) in a {{Transl|jv|wayang golek}} (wooden puppet) performance, between 1880 and 1910
Wayang Beber performance of the desa Gelaran at the home of Dr. Wahidin Soedirohoesodo at Yogyakarta; in the middle Dr. GAJ Hazeu, Dutch East Indies, in 1902
Kumbakarna, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Gatot Kaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Wibisana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Princess Shinta, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1983
Yudhishthira, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1914
Princess Tari, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1934
Cepot, a Sundanese Punokawan, Indonesia
Rahwana, Indonesia in 2004
Ramawijaya, Indonesia in 2004
Gatot kaca, Indonesia in 2015
Kumbakarna, Indonesia before 1976
Dewi Drupadi, Indonesia before 1976
Menak Jingga, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1953
Damar Wulan, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1933
Demon, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1950
Figure of Batara Guru
Duryudhana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Brathasena, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1986
Final fight in alun-alun in Kediri, East Java. Tawang Alun kills Klana. Indonesia 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji, mbok Kili (left), and Ganda Ripa or Panji (right) in the palace in Kediri, 17th century
Radèn Gunung Sari on horse says goodbye to his advisers Tratag and Gimeng before travelling to princess Kumuda Ningrat, 18th century
Princess Sekar Taji and Panji meet in Paluhamba market, 17th century
Princess Sekar Taji in palace garden approached by Klana, 17th century
Competition between Panji Sepuh (left) and Jaya Puspita (right), 18th century
Pandava and Krishna in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
King Duryodana in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance in Taman Budaya Rahmat Saleh, Semarang, Jawa Tengah, Indonesia
Giants in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Punokawan in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance
Rama and Shinta in a {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} Ramayana Ballet performance
Opening of {{Transl|jv|wayang wong}} performance, usually showing traditional Javanese dance
Dancing {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} in Malang
Studio portrait of {{Transl|jv|wayang topeng}} actors
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} Malang
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
{{Transl|jv|Wayang topeng}} in Java
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Anggada, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Jayadrata, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Kendran, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Sangruda, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Duryadana, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet) Gatakaca, Tropenmuseum collection, Indonesia, before 1900
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jayengrana, a collection from Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmaya, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Umarmadi, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Jiweng, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, Putri Murtinjung, a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
Wayang Golek {{Transl|jv|menak}}, King Maktal (Albania), a collection at Tropenmuseum, the Netherlands, before 2003
{{Transl|jv|Kancil}}
{{Transl|jv|Srigala}}
{{Transl|jv|Macan}}
{{Transl|jv|Baya}}
{{Transl|jv|Keong}}
{{Transl|jv|Nenek Petani}}
Wayang glass painting depiction of Bharatayudha battle.
A wayang kulit set and a gamelan ensemble collection, Indonesia section at the Musical Instrument Museum, Phoenix, Arizona, United States.
A {{lang|jv|wayang}} show in Java, Indonesia, presenting a {{lang|jv|wayang}} puppet.
Wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Gatot Kaca, Indonesia in 2017.
Sundanese wayang golek (3D wooden puppet), Indonesia.
A {{lang|jv|wayang klithik}} (flat wooden puppet) performance with a gamelan orchestra in Ngandong, Java, in 1918.
Wayang kulit (shadow puppet show) accompanied by a gamelan ensemble in Java, circa 1870.
{{lang|jv|Wayang}} (shadow puppets) from central Java, a scene from Irawan's Wedding, mid-20th century, University of Hawaii Dept. of Theater and Dance.
{{lang|jv|Wayang beber}} depiction of a battle.
{{lang|jv|Wayang kulit}} and {{lang|jv|wayang golek}} {{lang|jv|dalang}} (puppeteer), Ki Entus Susmono.
{{lang|jv|Wayang golek}} performance in Yogyakarta.
Wayang kulit (leather shadow puppet) performance.
Kayon (Gunungan).
{{lang|jv|Wayang makassar}}

', also known as ' (ꦮꦪꦁ), is a traditional form of puppet theatre play originated on the Indonesian island of Java.

Australia

Sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

Sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

Aboriginal rock art in the Kimberley region of Western Australia
Landing of James Cook at Botany Bay on 29 April 1770 to claim Australia's eastern half for Great Britain
Tasmania's Port Arthur penal settlement is one of eleven UNESCO World Heritage-listed Australian Convict Sites
The Big Picture, a painting by Tom Roberts, depicts the opening of the first Australian Parliament in 1901
The 1942 Bombing of Darwin, the first of over 100 Japanese air raids on Australia during World War II
Postwar migrants from Europe arriving in Australia in 1954
Topographic map of Australia. Dark green represents the lowest elevation and dark brown the highest
Heron Island, a coral cay in the southern Great Barrier Reef
Uluru in the semi-arid region of Central Australia
Basic geological regions of Australia, by age.
Köppen climate types of Australia.
The koala and the eucalyptus form an iconic Australian pair.
Parliament House, Canberra
A map of Australia's states and territories
Diplomatic missions of Australia
HMAS Canberra, a Canberra class landing helicopter dock, and HMAS Arunta, an Anzac-class frigate, sailing in formation
Australian energy resources and major export ports map
The Boddington Gold Mine in Western Australia is the nation's largest open cut mine.
Australia has one of the world's most highly urbanised populations with the majority living in metropolitan cities on the coast, such as Gold Coast, Queensland.
Australian residents by country of birth, 2016 census
Five Australian universities rank in the top 50 of the QS World University Rankings, including the Australian National University (19th).
The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne was the first building in Australia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004.
Sidney Nolan's Snake mural (1970), held at the Museum of Old and New Art in Hobart, Tasmania, is inspired by the Aboriginal creation myth of the Rainbow Serpent, as well as desert flowers in bloom after a drought.
Actor playing the bushranger Ned Kelly in The Story of the Kelly Gang (1906), the world's first feature-length narrative film
The meringue-based pavlova is generally eaten at Christmas time.
The Melbourne Cricket Ground is strongly associated with the history and development of cricket and Australian rules football, Australia's two most popular spectator sports.

The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically for trade by Makassan fishermen from what is now Indonesia.

Netherlands

Transcontinental country located in north-western Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Transcontinental country located in north-western Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

In Asia, the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia), and the only western trading post in Japan, Dejima.

Oceania

Geographical region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Geographical region that includes Australasia, Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia.

Ethnocultural subregions of Oceania.
A German map of Oceania from 1884, showing the region to encompass Australia and all islands between Asia and Latin America.
A map of member states for the Pacific Islands Forum (PIF), the member states are depicted in blue. The PIF is a governing organization for the Pacific, and all of its members are politically within Oceania. Territories geographically associated with Oceania, but not politically associated with Oceania, such as Easter Island, Hawaii and Western New Guinea, have considered gaining representation in the PIF.
An exclusive economic zone map of the Pacific which includes territories not politically associated with Oceania, that may be considered geographically or geologically within Oceania.
A 19th-century engraving of an Aboriginal Australian encampment
Stone money transport to Yap Island in Micronesia (1880)
Chronological dispersal of Austronesian people across the Pacific (per Bellwood in Chambers, 2008)
Moai at Ahu Tongariki on Rapa Nui (Easter Island)
1852 map of Oceania by J. G. Barbié du Bocage. Includes regions of Polynesia, Micronesia, Melanesia and Malesia.
New Guinea from 1884 to 1919. The Netherlands controlled the western half of New Guinea, Germany the north-eastern part, and Britain the south-eastern part.
New Zealand troops land on Vella Lavella, in Solomon Islands.
Aoraki / Mount Cook, located on the South Island of New Zealand
Puncak Jaya / Carstensz Pyramid, highest summit in Oceania
A map of Oceania from the CIA World Factbook
Exclusive economic zones of Pacific states and territories
The Pacific Plate comprises most of Oceania, excluding Australasia and the western portion of Melanesia.
New Zealand countryside
Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Central Australia
The Pacific robin inhabits the islands of the south western Pacific.
August 2011 winter's snowfall in Dunedin, Otago
Saione, the church of the King, a Free Wesleyan Church in Kolomotuʻa, Tonga. Especially British and American missionaries brought various Protestant denominations to Oceania.
Many Portuguese immigrants in Hawaii were Azorean or Madeiran.
The skyline of Sydney
Auckland's central business district at night.
Honolulu viewed from Diamond Head crater
Shangri-La's Fijian Resort
Dandenong Ranges in Victoria are popular among tourists.
Elizabeth is Head of the Commonwealth and Queen of five Oceanian countries: Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Tuvalu.
Government building in the Samoan capital Apia housing administrative ministerial offices.
On 28 June 2007, the Sydney Opera House became a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The Iolani Palace in Honolulu, formerly the residence of the Hawaiian monarch, was restored and opened to the public as a museum in 1978.
The Hobbiton Movie Set, located near Matamata, was used for The Lord of the Rings film trilogy.
A fale on Manono Island
Gwion Gwion rock paintings found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia
Fiji playing Wales at seven-a-side rugby

Aside from mainland Australia, areas that she identified as of high importance were Hawaii, Indonesia's Borneo, Java and Sumatra, New Guinea, New Zealand, the Philippines, French Polynesia's Society Islands, Tasmania and Tonga.