Indonesian language

IndonesianBahasa IndonesiaIndonesiaidBahasaBahasa IndonesianIndonesian-languageIndonesian/MalayindIndonesian Malay
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia ) is the official language of Indonesia.wikipedia
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Indonesia

Republic of IndonesiaIndonesianIndonesian Republic
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia ) is the official language of Indonesia.
Indonesia (, ; Indonesian: ), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia ), is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Austronesian languages

AustronesianAustronesian languageAustronesian language family
It is a standardized variety of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries.
Major Austronesian languages include Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).

Languages of Indonesia

Indonesian languageslanguagesIndonesian
Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in at least one of the more than 700 indigenous local languages; examples include Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese, which are commonly used at home and within the local community.
The official language is Indonesian (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a standardised form of Malay, which serves as the lingua franca of the archipelago.

Javanese language

JavaneseOld JavaneseJavanese word
Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in at least one of the more than 700 indigenous local languages; examples include Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese, which are commonly used at home and within the local community.
Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian, the standardized form of Malay spoken in Indonesia, for official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.

Malay language

MalayBahasa MelayuMalay-language
It is a standardized variety of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries.
In Singapore and Brunei, it is called Bahasa Melayu ("Malay language") and in Indonesia, an autonomous normative variety called Bahasa Indonesia ("Indonesian language") is designated the Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu ("unifying language"/lingua franca).

Nusantara

Indonesian archipelagoNusantaran archipelagoNusantaran
Since the 7th century, the Old Malay language has been used in Nusantara (Indonesian archipelago), evidenced by Srivijaya inscriptions and by other inscriptions from coastal areas of the archipelago, such as those discovered in Java.
Nusantara is the Indonesian/Malay name of Maritime Southeast Asia (or parts of it).

Comparison of Standard Malay and Indonesian

Differences between Malay and IndonesianComparison of standard Malaysian and Indonesiandiffer
However, it does differ from Malaysian Malay in several respects, with differences in pronunciation and vocabulary.
Malaysian and Indonesian are two standardised registers of the Malay language, used in Malaysia and Indonesia, respectively.

Balinese language

BalineseBaliBalinese vocabulary
Most Indonesians, aside from speaking the national language, are fluent in at least one of the more than 700 indigenous local languages; examples include Javanese, Sundanese and Balinese, which are commonly used at home and within the local community.
Most Balinese speakers also know Indonesian.

Diglossia

diglossic diglossicdiglossic linguistic area
The term "Indonesian" is especially associated with the national standard dialect, which is confined to formal situations, existing in a diglossic relationship with vernacular Malay varieties, which are commonly used for daily communication.
Other examples include literary Katharevousa versus spoken Demotic Greek; literary Tamil versus spoken Tamil, and Indonesian, with its Baku and Gaul forms; and literary versus spoken Welsh.

Greater Indonesia

Melayu RayaIndonesia RayaMalay irredentism
Moreover, it was the language of the sultanate of Brunei and of the future Malaysia, on which some Indonesian nationalists had claims (see Greater Indonesia).
Greater Indonesia, or in Indonesian and Malaysian, Indonesia Raya or Melayu Raya, was a political concept that sought to bring the so-called Malay race, only part of which were the actual Malays, together by uniting the British territories of Malaya and Borneo with the Dutch East Indies.

List of languages by number of native speakers

numbermost spoken languages20 languages with the largest numbers of native speakers
Of its large population, the majority speak Indonesian, making it one of the most widely spoken languages in the world.

Sukarno

SoekarnoPresident SukarnoBung Karno
Over the first 53 years of Indonesian independence, the country's first two presidents, Sukarno and Suharto constantly nurtured the sense of national unity embodied by Indonesian, and the language remains an important component of Indonesian identity today.
In addition to the Javanese language of his childhood, he was a master of Sundanese, Balinese and Indonesian, and was especially strong in Dutch.

Austronesian peoples

AustronesianAustronesiansAustronesian people
Its ancestor, Proto-Malayo-Polynesian, a descendant of the Proto-Austronesian language, began to break up by at least 2000 BCE, possibly as a result of the southward expansion of Austronesian peoples into Maritime Southeast Asia from the island of Taiwan.
Major Austronesian languages with the highest number of speakers are Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Javanese, and Filipino (Tagalog).

Suharto

SoehartoPresident SuhartoGeneral Suharto
Over the first 53 years of Indonesian independence, the country's first two presidents, Sukarno and Suharto constantly nurtured the sense of national unity embodied by Indonesian, and the language remains an important component of Indonesian identity today.
However, General Abdul Nasution said that Suharto took great care in preparing the "General Offensive" (Indonesian Serangan Umum).

Malaysian language

MalaysianBahasa MalaysiaMalay
Indonesian (in its normative form) has essentially the same material basis as the standard Malaysian register of Malay, and is therefore considered to be a variety of the pluricentric Malay language.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia; Jawi: بهاس مليسيا‎) or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the lect used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the Indonesian language).

Ilocano language

IlocanoIlokanoIloko
An Austronesian language, it is related to such languages as Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Tetum, Chamorro, Fijian, Maori, Hawaiian, Samoan, Tahitian, Paiwan and Malagasy.

Jakarta

Jakarta, IndonesiaBataviaDKI Jakarta
While Indonesian is spoken as a mother tongue by only a small proportion of Indonesia's large population (i.e. mainly those who reside within the vicinity of Jakarta and other large predominantly Indonesian-speaking cities such as Medan and Balikpapan), over 200 million people regularly make use of the national language, with varying degrees of proficiency.
Indonesian is the official and dominant language of Jakarta, while many elderly people speak Dutch or Chinese, depending on their upbringing.

Arabic

Arabic languageArabic-languageArab
and Hindi contributing during the flourishing of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms from the 2nd to the 14th century; followed by Arabic after the spread of Islam in the archipelago in the 13th century.
Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Azeri, Armenian, Hindustani (Hindi and Urdu), Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Malay (Indonesian and Malaysian), Maldivian, Pashto, Punjabi, Spanish, Tagalog, Assamese, Sindhi, Odia and Hausa and some languages in parts of Africa.

Tagalog language

TagalogTagalog-languageFilipino
It is related to other Philippine languages, such as the Bikol languages, Ilocano, the Visayan languages, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan, and more distantly to other Austronesian languages, such as the Formosan languages of Taiwan, Malay (Malaysian and Indonesian), Hawaiian, Māori, and Malagasy.

Sumatra

SumateraSumatra IslandSumatran
Originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra, Malay has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for half a millennium.
Like all parts of Indonesia, Indonesian (which was based on Riau Malay) is the official language and the main lingua franca.

Riau-Lingga Sultanate

RiauRiau-LinggaRiau Sultanate
High Malay was the official language used in the court of the Johor Sultanate and continued by the Dutch-administered territory of Riau-Lingga, while Low Malay was commonly used in marketplaces and ports of the archipelago.
Riau-Lingga Sultanate (Malay/Indonesian: Kesultanan Riau-Lingga, Jawi: ), also known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention.

Voice of America

VOAVOA NewsVoice of America (VOA)
The VOA and BBC use Indonesian as their standard for broadcasting in Malay.

Tetum language

TetumTetunTetum and
In East Timor, which was occupied by Indonesia between 1975 and 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese.
When Indonesia occupied East Timor between 1975 and 1999, declaring it "the Republic's 27th Province", the use of Portuguese was banned, and Indonesian was declared the sole official language, but the Roman Catholic Church adopted Tetum as its liturgical language, making it a focus for cultural and national identity.

Lingua franca

trade languagecommon languagelingua francas
It is a standardized variety of Malay, an Austronesian language that has been used as a lingua franca in the multilingual Indonesian archipelago for centuries. Originally spoken in Northeast Sumatra, Malay has been used as a lingua franca in the Indonesian archipelago for half a millennium.
Indonesian – which originated from a Malay language variant spoken in Riau – is the official language and a lingua franca in Indonesia, although Javanese has more native speakers.

East Timor

Timor-LesteTimor LesteDemocratic Republic of Timor-Leste
In East Timor, which was occupied by Indonesia between 1975 and 1999, Indonesian is recognised by the constitution as one of the two working languages (the other being English), alongside the official languages of Tetum and Portuguese.
"Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian, which became recorded as Timor in Portuguese, thus resulting in the tautological toponym meaning "East East": In Portuguese Timor-Leste (Leste being the word for "east"); in Tetum Timór Lorosa'e (Lorosa'e being the word for "east" (literally "rising sun")).