Indonesian language

Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, written in Pallava script, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.
Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.
The Youth Pledge was the result of the Second Youth Congress held in Batavia in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of Indonesian language as a unifying language throughout the archipelago.
Road-signs in an airport terminal
Toll gate in Bali
Indonesian language used on a Kopaja bus advertisement
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use standard Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.
Indonesian is used in schools.
Indonesian word "Gereja" (Church) is derived from Portuguese "Igreja". The sign reads: "Gereja & Candi Hati Kudus Tuhan Yesus Ganjuran Keuskupan Agung Semarang" (The Church and Temple of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Ganjuran Archdiocese of Semarang).
The Indonesian word of bioskop is derived from Dutch bioscoop (movie theater).
BIPA (Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing) book, which helps foreigners to learn the Indonesian language effectively.
Old one thousand Indonesian Rupiah banknote, featuring Indonesian national hero Thomas Matulessy.
Indonesian-language calendar
Location where Indonesian language seen as the business language which taught in schools, colleges, universities, institutions, etc.

Official and national language of Indonesia.

- Indonesian language

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Javanese language

Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.

The word Jawa (Java) written in Javanese script.
A Javanese noble lady (left) would address her servant with one vocabulary, and be answered with another. (Studio portrait of painter Raden Saleh's wife and a servant, colonial Batavia, 1860–1872.)
Susuhunan Pakubuwono X of Surakarta. Surakarta has been a center of Javanese culture, and its dialect is regarded as the most "refined".
A modern bilingual text in Portuguese and Javanese in Yogyakarta.
Madurese in Javanese script.
Distribution map of languages spoken in Java, Madura, and Bali.

Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian for the official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.


Situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

The station board of Hapur Junction railway station in Northern India; Hindustani is an example of triglossia, with a common vernacular and two formal registers. Furthermore, digraphia is present between the two formal registers.

Other examples include literary Katharevousa (H) versus spoken Demotic Greek (L); Indonesian, with its bahasa baku (H) and bahasa gaul (L) forms; Standard American English (H) versus African-American Vernacular English (L); and literary (H) versus spoken (L) Welsh.

Malaysian Malay

Malaysian Malay (Malay: Bahasa Melayu Malaysia), also known as Standard Malay (Bahasa Melayu Standard), Bahasa Malaysia ( lit.

Malay children playing Tarik Upih Pinang, a traditional game that involves dragging a palm frond
The remains of an ancient folk temple in Bujang Valley. It was believed that the area was home to an early civilisation dating from 553 BC.
Portuguese illustration of Malays, 1540.
The bronze mural of the legendary Malay warrior, Hang Tuah with his renowned quote Ta' Melayu Hilang Di-Dunia (Malay for "Never shall the Malays vanish from the face of the earth") written on the top. The quote is a famous rallying cry for Malay nationalism.
The Malayan Declaration of Independence in Jawi alphabet.
Comparison of the Malay language written in Rumi and Jawi with other languages
Traffic signs in Malaysian: Warning sign "Level crossing" and regulatory sign "Stop".

'Malaysian language', Jawi: بهاس مليسيا), or simply Malay, is a standardized form of Malay language used in Malaysia (as opposed to the variety used in Indonesia, which is referred to as the "Indonesian" language) and Singapore.

Nusantara (archipelago)

A gilded map in the Hall of Independence, Indonesian National Monument, Jakarta. Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (states and a federal territory of Malaysia), Brunei and East Timor (sovereign countries) are also included.
Majapahit Negara Agung (grand state) and Mancanagara (provinces) in eastern and central parts of Java, including the islands of Madura and Bali.
The extent of Majapahit Nusantara according to Nagarakretagama.
Modern Wawasan Nusantara, the Indonesian archipelagic baselines pursuant to article 47, paragraph 9, of the UNCLOS

Nusantara is the Indonesian name of Maritime Southeast Asia (or parts of it).


Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, cultural diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.

Riau-Lingga Sultanate

The dominion of Riau-Lingga Sultanate in red, consisting of many islands in the South China Sea and enclave in Kateman, Sumatra.
The region witnessed the triumph of Haji Fisabillah of Johor-Riau during the battle against the Dutch East India Company on 6 January 1784 in Tanjung Pinang, Riau. It was the largest military campaign in the Strait of Malacca during the 18th century.
The dominion of Riau-Lingga Sultanate in red, consisting of many islands in the South China Sea and enclave in Kateman, Sumatra.
Alexander Hamilton's "A Map of the Dominions of Johore and of the Island of Sumatra with the Adjacent Islands" (1727). Illustrating mainland Johore, eastern Sumatra, Singapore, Bangka and Riau Archipelago as a single political entity, the map was made a century prior to the partition of 1824.
The Riau-Lingga noblemen with Sultan Sulaiman II (seated, in the middle). (c.1867)
Cogan, the Royal Regalia of Johor-Riau. The coronation of the sultan would be only be official if the regalia were used. This caused both the British and the Dutch to try to claim the regalia from Engku Puteri Hamidah in order to install their preferred sultan.
A fort in Reteh, Indragiri, on mainland Sumatra (c. 1857). One of the territory held by the Sultanate. The fort was constructed by Tengku Sulung in retaliation of the appointment of Sultan Sulaiman and the Dutch rule whom contested control over the area.
Tandjoengpinang in 1859
Ali Kelana, Crown Prince of Riau-Lingga, one of the founding fathers of the Roesidijah Club Riouw, the first modern organisation in the Netherlands East Indies. (taken in 1899)
A Dutch map of Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden (Residence of Riau and Dependencies) in 1860.
The last Sultan of Riau-Lingga, Abdul Rahman II. He was forced to live in exile after his refusal to sign an agreement with the Dutch that was intended to totally limit his powers.
The dissolution of the sultanate as reported in Rotterdam's Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant on 19 February 1911.
The Datuk Kaya or local Malay rulers of Poelau Toedjoeh (Tudjuh Archipelago) with G.F Bruijn Kops, the Dutch Resident of Riouw. Taken in Tanjung Pinang, a week after the abdication of the Sultan (1911).
The Straits Times, dated 11 December 1947 on the establishment of Riouw Raad, with Tengku Ibrahim (left) to be crowned as the sultan if the sultanate were to be revived. Seen in right was his grandfather, the late Sultan Abdul Rahman II.
The Riouw Raad building with Encik Mohamad Apan (middle, don under a peci) the temporary leader of the council, with other members of the Riouw Raad during the appointment of the Provincial Resident on 4 August 1947.
The flag of Federasi Bangka Belitung dan Riau (Bangka Belitung and Riau Federation), an autonomous territory under Dutch rule in United States of Indonesia until 1950.
A picture Sultan Abdul Rahman II (1890-1911) shows him with a headdress with a crescent and five-pointed star from which a lily-shaped ornament rises. The crescent and star symbolise "Head of State" as the crescent is the Islamic emblem of state, and the star the emblem of a (Muslim) ruler.
Onderkoning Van Riau (Dutch: Viceroy of Riau) inscribed on the mohor (royal seal) of Yang Dipertuan Muda Abdullah, the XI Yang Dipertuan Muda of Riau Lingga (1857–8). In a fusion of Arab-Malay written in Jawi script the seal also bears the inscription Al Watik Baladun Al Aziz Al Ghaffar Sultan Alauddin Syah Ibni Al Marhum Raja Jaafar 1273-Hijrah (lit: the trusted governor, the powerful, the protector, Sultan Alauddin Syah Ibni Al Marhum Raja Jaafar, Year 1273 AH (1856AD)
The Dutch Resident with the Sultan. (1890-1910)
Abdul Rahman II with fellow rulers (c. 1880)
Muhammad Yusof, the 10th Yang Dipertuan Muda of Riau-Lingga (taken circa 1858–1899)
The remains of Istana Kantor, built in 1844, was the first administration and residential complex of the Yang Dipertuan Muda Dynasty.
The Royal Mausoleum in Penyengat Inderasakti
The Heraldic badge of Riau-Lingga Sultanate in Arabic calligraphy, comprising a Dua and verses from sura As-Saff.
A tin mine belonging to the Sultan in Singkep.
Japanese stamps issued in Tandjoengpinang, Riow in 1943. The territory was occupied by Imperial Japan during World War II, with its territorial jurisdiction incorporated into Malaya.
Pulau Penyengat (Lit: Wasp island), lithography of an original watercolour by J.C. Rappard. ca. 1883–1889. Initially founded as a royal dowry for Engku Puteri Hamidah, by the late 19th century, it was known as Penyengat Inderasakti. The latter was derived from Indera (Royal) and Sakti (Divination) respectively.
A Mus'haf of the Quran dating from the Riau-Lingga Sultanate period, with East coast Malay Peninsular styled gloss finish.
A manuscript of Gurindam 12, a morale and religious guidance originally written in Jawi script, completed in 1264AH (1847AD).
Ali Haji (1808-1873) was credited to be the author of the first Malay dictionary, this would later form the basis of the Indonesian language.
Raja Aisyah Sulaiman completed her first work, Hikayat Syamsul Anwar in 1890. The hikayat was one of the earliest pieces of feminist literature published in the Malay world. (image was taken in 1911)
The Masjid Raya (Grand Mosque), built in 1803, is part of the legacy of the sultanate that can be found in Penyengat Inderasakti. The mosque was a home for the Kutub Kanah Marhum Ahmadi, an Islamic library.
The Al-Ahmadiah Press in Singapore, a legacy of its predecessor from Riau-Lingga. (1925)
A troupe of local Riau Malay dancers performing the Joget Dangkong. (taken in the late 19th century)
The Nobat that was used for the coronation of Sultan Abdul Rahman II (taken in 1885). The assembly was inherited by the Terengganu Sultanate and became a vital part of the regalia of the royal house. It was last used during the installation ceremony of Mizan Zainal Abidin as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King of Malaysia) on 27 April 2007.
The Royal Brass Band with Heer Gunter, the instructor from Vienna, Austro-Hungarian Empire. (c. 1880s, Penyengat Palace.)
Flag of the Riau-Lingga Sultanate in 1818.
Personal standard of the Sultan
Personal Standard of the Yang Dipertuan Muda (Viceregal)
Personal standard of the Pangeran Laksamana (Chief Admiral)
Royal Standard
Male Royal Standard
Royal Ensign
Yang Dipertuan Muda Ensign
Naval Ensign
Civil Ensign

Riau-Lingga Sultanate (Malay/Indonesian: کسلطانن رياوليڠݢ, Kesultanan Riau-Lingga}), also known as the Lingga-Riau Sultanate, Riau Sultanate or Lingga Sultanate was a Malay sultanate that existed from 1824 to 1911, before being dissolved following Dutch intervention.

Languages of Indonesia

More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.

The major ethno-linguistic groups within Indonesia
The use of Dutch, Javanese and Malay in Java, Dutch East Indies

The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian (locally known as bahasa Indonesia), a standardised form of Malay, which serves as the lingua franca of the archipelago.

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

Read at 10:00 on Friday, 17 August 1945 in Jakarta.

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.
The original Indonesian proclamation of Independence
Sukarno praying before proclaiming the independence of Indonesia
The monument commemorating the Indonesian proclamation of Independence in Proclamation Park

In October 1928, the representatives at a Youth Congress held in Batavia, the capital, adopted the ideals of one motherland, Indonesia; one nation, the nation of Indonesia; and one language, the Indonesian language.


Buddhist thalassocratic empire based on the island of Sumatra (in modern-day Indonesia), which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

The maximum extent of Srivijaya around the 8th century with a series of Srivijayan expeditions and conquest
Map of the expansion of the Srivijaya empire, beginning in Palembang in the 7th century, then extending to most of Sumatra, then expanding to Java, Riau Islands, Bangka Belitung, Singapore, Malay Peninsula (also known as: Kra Peninsula), Thailand, Cambodia, South Vietnam, Kalimantan, Sarawak, Brunei, Sabah, and ended as the Malay Kingdom of Dharmasraya in Jambi in the 14th century
Talang Tuwo inscription, discovered in Bukit Seguntang area, tells the establishment of the sacred Śrīksetra park
Floating houses in Musi River bank near Palembang in 1917. The Srivijayan capital was probably formed from a collection of floating houses like this
Srivijaya Archaeological Park (green) located southwest from the centre of Palembang. The site forms an axis connecting Bukit Seguntang and Musi River.
Muaro Jambi Buddhist temple compound, a possible location of Srivijaya's religious center.
By the late 8th century, the political capital was shifted to Central Java, when the Sailendras rose to become the Maharaja of Srivijaya.
The Kedukan Bukit inscription displayed in the National Museum of Indonesia
The golden Malayu-Srivijayan Avalokiteśvara Bodhisattva in Rataukapastuo, Muarabulian, Jambi, Indonesia
Malay polities in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula. By the turn of the 8th century the states in Sumatra and Malay Peninsula were under Srivijayan domination.
The construction of the Borobudur was completed under the reign of Samaratunga of the Sailendra dynasty.
Ancient Javanese vessel depicted in Borobudur. In 990 King Dharmawangsa of Java launched a naval attack against Srivijaya in Sumatra.
A Siamese painting depicting the Chola raid on Kedah
Ruins of the Wat Kaew in Chaiya, dating from Srivijayan times
Candi Gumpung, a Buddhist temple at the Muaro Jambi Temple Compounds of the Melayu Kingdom, later integrated as one of Srivijaya's important urban centre
Statue of Amoghapasa on top of inscription (1286) sent by Kertanegara of Singhasari to be erected in Suvarnabhumi Dharmasraya
Telaga Batu inscription adorned with seven nāga heads on top, and a waterspout on the lower part to channel the water probably poured during a ceremonial allegiance ritual
Expansion of Buddhism 
starting in the 5th century BCE from northern India to the rest of Asia, which followed both inland and maritime trade routes of the Silk Road. Srivijaya once served as a centre of Buddhist learning and expansion. The overland and maritime "Silk Roads" were interlinked and complementary, forming what scholars have called the "great circle of Buddhism".
1 masa, silver coin of Srivijaya, circa 7th - 10th century.
Candi Tinggi, one of the temples within Muaro Jambi temple compound
Pagoda in Srivijaya style in Chaiya, Thailand
The gilded costume of South Sumatran Gending Sriwijaya dance invoked the splendour of the Srivijaya Empire.
The Sriwijaya Museum in Srivijaya Archaeological Park

Contemporary Indonesians, even those from the area of Palembang (around where the kingdom was based), had not heard of Srivijaya until the 1920s when the French scholar, George Cœdès, published his discoveries and interpretations in the Dutch and Indonesian language newspapers.

Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages are a language family widely spoken throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar, the islands of the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan (by Taiwanese indigenous peoples).

A 5 dollar banknote, Hawaii, circa 1839, using Hawaiian language
The distribution of the Austronesian languages, per Blust (1999). Western MP and Central MP are no longer accepted.
Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization of Taiwan, per Blust (1999)
Families of Formosan languages before Minnanese colonization, per . The three languages in green (Bunun, Puyuma, Paiwan) may form a Southern Formosan branch, but this is uncertain.
Nested branches of Austronesian languages according to Sagart. Languages colored red are outside the other branches but are not subgrouped. Kradai and Malayo-Polynesian would also be purple.
A map of the Austronesian expansion. Periods are based on archeological studies, though the association of the archeological record and linguistic reconstructions is disputed.
An example of hypothetical Pre-Austronesian migration waves to Taiwan from the mainland. (The Amis migration from the Philippines is controversial).
Path of Migration and Division of Some of the Major Ethnicities with their genetically distinctive markers, adapted from Edmondson and Gregerson (2007:732) . The sketched migration route M119-Baiyue from Southeast Asia corresponds to the southern origin hypothesis of early Austronesians.

Major Austronesian languages include Indonesian, around 250–270 million speakers, Malay, Javanese, and Tagalog (Filipino).