A report on Jakarta and Indonesian language

Rencong alphabet, native writing systems found in central and South Sumatra. The text reads (Voorhoeve's spelling): "haku manangis ma / njaru ka'u ka'u di / saru tijada da / tang [hitu hadik sa]", which is translated by Voorhoeve as: "I am weeping, calling you; though called, you do not come" (in modern Malay "Aku menangis, menyerukan engkau, kaudiseru, tiada datang [itu adik satu]").
Replica of the Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar with a cross of the Order of Christ commemorating a treaty between the Portuguese Empire and the Hindu Sunda Kingdom, at Jakarta History Museum.
Kedukan Bukit Inscription, written in Pallava script, is the oldest surviving specimen of the Old Malay language in South Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 5th-century Tugu inscription discovered in Tugu district, North Jakarta
Volksraad session held in July 1938 in Jakarta, where Indonesian was formally used for the first time by Jahja Datoek Kajo.
Batavia around 1780
The Youth Pledge was the result of the Second Youth Congress held in Batavia in October 1928. On the last pledge, there was an affirmation of Indonesian language as a unifying language throughout the archipelago.
The City Hall of Batavia (Stadhuis van Batavia), the seat of the Governor-General of the VOC in the late 18th century by Johannes Rach c. 1770. The building now houses the Jakarta History Museum, Jakarta Old Town.
Road-signs in an airport terminal
One of the most monumental projects launched by Sukarno was the demolition of government buildings in Merdeka Square to make way for the National Monument.
Toll gate in Bali
Aerial view of North Jakarta
Indonesian language used on a Kopaja bus advertisement
Ancol beach
Indonesian is also the language of Indonesian mass media, such as magazines. Printed and broadcast mass media are encouraged to use standard Indonesian, although more relaxed popular slang often prevails.
Facade of the Museum Bank Indonesia in Kota Tua
Indonesian is used in schools.
Wisma 46 in post-modernist architecture, the fourth tallest building in Jakarta
Indonesian word "Gereja" (Church) is derived from Portuguese "Igreja". The sign reads: "Gereja & Candi Hati Kudus Tuhan Yesus Ganjuran Keuskupan Agung Semarang" (The Church and Temple of the Sacred Heart of Jesus Ganjuran Archdiocese of Semarang).
view of Monas, Jakarta's landmark
The Indonesian word of bioskop is derived from Dutch bioscoop (movie theater).
Bundaran HI, a 1960s landmark of Jakarta located at the west end of Menteng District.
BIPA (Bahasa Indonesia untuk Penutur Asing) book, which helps foreigners to learn the Indonesian language effectively.
Boat ride at Indonesian archipelago lake in Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Old one thousand Indonesian Rupiah banknote, featuring Indonesian national hero Thomas Matulessy.
Ancol Gondola
Indonesian-language calendar
Chinese in Jakarta praying during Chinese New Year in Glodok, Jakarta
Location where Indonesian language seen as the business language which taught in schools, colleges, universities, institutions, etc.
The Indonesian Stock Exchange (Bursa Efek Indonesia) building in Jakarta, one of the oldest in Asia.
Bank Indonesia head office
Gandaria City Mall in South Jakarta
Jakarta Old City Post Office at Fatahillah Square, Central Jakarta
Most visitors to Jakarta are domestic tourists, and Taman Mini Indonesia Indah is aimed at supporting national identity and patriotism.
The main TV tower of TVRI at its headquarters in Jakarta
Atma Jaya Catholic University of Indonesia campus at Semanggi
University of Indonesia campus
Tanjidor music of Betawi culture demonstrate European influence
Gado-gado is a popular Indonesian salad dish.
Football match at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium
Asian Games 2018 opening ceremony in Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, 2018
Jakarta Merdeka Palace
Map of the administrative cities (Kota administratif) in Jakarta province. The Thousand Islands Regency (to the north) is not shown. Each administrative city is further divided into districts (Kecamatan).
Batavia map of Meester Cornelis (now Jatinegara)
The Secretariat of ASEAN at Jl. Sisingamangaraja No.70A, South Jakarta, Indonesia
Jakarta Street in Tripoli, Libya
Al-Azhar Great Mosque, It was Jakarta's largest mosque when it was built until it was surpassed by the Istiqlal Mosque.
The Jakarta Cathedral, one of the oldest churches in Jakarta.
Kim Tek Ie, the oldest Taoist and Buddhist temple in Jakarta.
Aditya Jaya Hindu temple, Rawamangun, East Jakarta.
Ondel-Ondel, often used as a symbol of Betawi culture
Chinese paifang in Mangga Dua, Central Jakarta
The Golden Snail IMAX theatre at Taman Mini Indonesia Indah
Jakarta Fair of 2007
Japanese community celebrating Ennichisai in Blok M, South Jakarta
Traditional Betawi dance, Tari Yapong

The most common and widely used colloquial Indonesian is heavily influenced by the Betawi language, a Malay-based creole of Jakarta, amplified by its popularity in Indonesian popular culture in mass media and Jakarta's status as the national capital.

- Indonesian language

Indonesian is the official and dominant language of Jakarta, while many elderly people speak Dutch or Chinese, depending on their upbringing.

- Jakarta

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Official portrait, 1949

Sukarno

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Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Indonesian statesman, orator, revolutionary, and nationalist who was the first president of Indonesia, serving from 1945 to 1967.

Official portrait, 1949
Sukarno as a HBS student in Surabaya, 1916
Sukarno with fellow defendants and attorneys during his trial in Bandung, 1930.
Sukarno at his home in exile, Bengkulu.
Sukarno shakes hands with the Japanese director of the Interior for occupied Dutch East Indies, General Moichiri Yamamoto, September 1944
Sukarno during a visit to Makassar, 30 April 1945
Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), declaring the independence of Indonesia.
Sukarno addressing the KNIP (parliament) in Malang, March 1947
Sukarno and Foreign Minister Agus Salim in Dutch custody, Parapat 1949.
Sukarno's return to Yogyakarta in June 1949
Sukarno (right) with John Foster Dulles (left) and Richard Nixon (center) in 1956.
Sukarno and Nixon in 1956.
Sukarno casting his vote at the 1955 elections
Sukarno (on top of the steps) reading his decree on 5 July 1959
Sukarno's official portrait used in the 1960s, complete with military-style decorations.
The structure of Sukarno's guided democracy in 1962
Sukarno addresses the U.S. Congress on 17 May 1956. Sitting behind him the U.S. vice president/Senate president Richard Nixon and U.S. House speaker Sam Rayburn.
Sukarno and Fidel Castro in 1960, Havana, Cuba
Sukarno (center) with John F. Kennedy (left) and Lyndon B. Johnson (right) in 1961.
Soekarno with Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Maxwell Taylor at The Merdeka Palace on August 2, 1963.
Sukarno
Sukarno with Fatmawati and five of their children. Clockwise from center: Sukarno, Sukmawati, Fatmawati, Guruh, Megawati, Guntur, Rachmawati

The Soekarno–Hatta International Airport, which serves the area near Indonesia's capital, Jakarta, still uses the Dutch spelling.

In addition to the Javanese language of his childhood, he was a master of Sundanese, Balinese and Indonesian, and was especially strong in Dutch.

Dutch East Indies

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Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.

Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
Expansion of the Dutch East Indies in the Indonesian Archipelago
Map of the Dutch East Indies showing its territorial expansion from 1800 to its fullest extent prior to Japanese occupation in 1942
The Submission of Prince Dipo Negoro to General De Kock, by Nicolaas Pieneman
Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer and B. C. de Jonge, the last and penultimate governor-general of the Dutch East Indies, before the Japanese invasion
The governor-general's palace in Batavia (1880–1900)
House of the Resident (colonial administrator) in Surabaya
The Supreme Court Building, Batavia
The Aceh War (1873–1914) between the Netherlands and the Aceh Sultanate
Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927
Volksraad members in 1918: D. Birnie (Dutch), Kan Hok Hoei (Chinese), R. Sastro Widjono and M. N. Dwidjo Sewojo (Javanese)
Students of the School Tot Opleiding Van Indische Artsen (STOVIA) aka Sekolah Doctor Jawa
Dutch, Eurasian and Javanese professors of law at the opening of the Rechts Hogeschool in 1924
Headquarters of the Deli Company in Medan circa 1925
De Javasche Bank in Banjarmasin
Workers pose at the site of a railway tunnel under construction in the mountains, 1910
Perhimpunan Pelajar-Pelajar Indonesia (Indonesian Students Union) delegates in Youth Pledge, an important event where Indonesian language was decided to be the national language, 1928
The romantic depiction of De Grote Postweg near Buitenzorg
Bioscoop Mimosa cinema in Batu, Java, 1941
Museum and lab of the Buitenzorg Plantentuin
Dutch family enjoying a large Rijsttafel dinner, 1936
Ceremonial Hall, Bandung Institute of Technology, Bandung, designed by architect Henri Maclaine-Pont
Javanese nobles adopted and mixed some aspects of European fashion, such as this couple in 1890.
Dutch colonial couple in the early 20th century wearing native batik and kebaya fashion
Dutch imperial imagery representing the Dutch East Indies (1916). The text reads "Our most precious jewel."

A capital was established in Batavia (now Jakarta), which became the center of the VOC's Asian trading network.

In the early 20th century, Indonesia's independence leaders adopted a form of Malay from Riau, and called it Indonesian.

Indonesia

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Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian and Pacific oceans.

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur temple, c. 800 CE. Outrigger boats from the archipelago may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.
The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830
Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java. Indonesia's seismic and volcanic activity is among the world's highest.
Rainforest in Mount Palung National Park, West Kalimantan
Köppen-Geiger climate classification map for Indonesia
Major volcanoes in Indonesia. Indonesia is in the Pacific Ring of Fire area.
Low visibility in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, due to deforestation-related haze.
A presidential inauguration by the MPR in the Parliament Complex Jakarta, 2014
Embassy of Indonesia, Canberra, Australia
Vast palm oil plantation in Bogor, West Java. Indonesia is the world's largest producer of palm oil.
A proportional representation of Indonesia exports, 2019
Jatiluhur Dam, Indonesia's first and largest dam.
Palapa satellite launch in 1984
Borobudur in Central Java, the world's largest Buddhist temple, is the single most visited tourist attraction in Indonesia.
Raja Ampat Islands, West Papua, has the highest recorded level of diversity in marine life, according to Conservation International.
Population pyramid 2016
A map of ethnic groups in Indonesia
A Hindu shrine dedicated to King Siliwangi in Pura Parahyangan Agung Jagatkarta, Bogor. Hinduism has left a legacy on Indonesian art and culture.
Menara Kudus, a mosque with a traditional Indonesian architectural style.
Catholic Mass at the Jakarta Cathedral
Bandung Institute of Technology in West Java
Riots on the streets of Jakarta on 14 May 1998.
Traditional Balinese painting depicting cockfighting
An avenue of Tongkonan houses in a Torajan village, South Sulawesi
An Indonesian batik
Pandava and Krishna in an act of the Wayang Wong performance
Advertisement for Loetoeng Kasaroeng (1926), the first fiction film produced in the Dutch East Indies
Metro TV at Gelora Bung Karno Stadium, reporting the 2010 AFF Championship
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist. Many considered him to be Southeast Asia's leading candidate for a Nobel Prize in Literature.
Nasi Padang with rendang, gulai and vegetables
A demonstration of Pencak Silat, a form of martial arts
A Hindu prayer ceremony at Besakih Temple in Bali, the only Indonesian province where Hinduism is the predominant religion.
Baiturrahman Grand Mosque in Banda Aceh, Aceh. The spread of Islam in Indonesia began in the region.

The country's capital, Jakarta, is the world's second-most populous urban area.

A shared identity has developed with the motto "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), defined by a national language, cultural diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it.

Javanese language

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Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, Indonesia.

Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, Indonesia.

The word Jawa (Java) written in Javanese script.
A Javanese noble lady (left) would address her servant with one vocabulary, and be answered with another. (Studio portrait of painter Raden Saleh's wife and a servant, colonial Batavia, 1860–1872.)
Susuhunan Pakubuwono X of Surakarta. Surakarta has been a center of Javanese culture, and its dialect is regarded as the most "refined".
A modern bilingual text in Portuguese and Javanese in Yogyakarta.
Madurese in Javanese script.
Distribution map of languages spoken in Java, Madura, and Bali.

Most speakers of Javanese also speak Indonesian for the official and commercial purposes as well as a means to communicate with non-Javanese-speaking Indonesians.

At least one third of the population of Jakarta are of Javanese descent, so they speak Javanese or have knowledge of it.

Official portrait, 1973

Suharto

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Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Indonesian army officer and politician, who served as the second and the longest serving president of Indonesia.

Official portrait, 1973
Official portrait, 1993
Lieutenant Colonel Suharto, c. 1947
Official portrait of Suharto and Siti Hartinah, c. date unknown
Suharto with his wife and six children, c. 1967
In his office as the head of the Strategic Reserve, c. 1963
President Sukarno (with glasses) 
in Disneyland, c. 1961
As Major General, Suharto (at right, foreground) attends funeral for assassinated generals, 5 October 1965
The Supersemar document transferring the authority to restore security to Suharto in 1966
Suharto taking the presidential oath of office, 27 March 1968
Suharto's right-hand man Ali Murtopo, c. 1982
Street art depicting Suharto as the father of development, c. 1985
Official portrait, c. 1983
Official portrait, c. 1988
Suharto and his wife in Islamic attire after performing the hajj in 1991
Official portrait, c. 1998
Suharto reads his resignation speech at Merdeka Palace on 21 May 1998. His vice president and successor, B. J. Habibie, is on his left hand side
Suharto in 1998

As company commander, he conducted training for new PETA recruits in Surakarta, Jakarta, and Madiun.

However, General Abdul Nasution said that Suharto took great care in preparing the "General Offensive" (Indonesian: Serangan Umum).

Map of the pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe culture(s) associated with the Proto-Germanic language, ca 500–50 BCE. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture.

Dutch language

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West Germanic language spoken by about 25 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting most of the population of the Netherlands (where it is the only official language countrywide) and about 60% of the population of Belgium (as one of three official languages).

West Germanic language spoken by about 25 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting most of the population of the Netherlands (where it is the only official language countrywide) and about 60% of the population of Belgium (as one of three official languages).

Map of the pre-Roman Iron Age in Northern Europe culture(s) associated with the Proto-Germanic language, ca 500–50 BCE. The area south of Scandinavia is the Jastorf culture.
Area in which Old Dutch was spoken
The Utrecht baptismal vow
Title page of the Statenvertaling (1637) reads: Biblia ... Uyt de Oorspronckelijcke talen in onse Neder-landtsche tale getrouwelijck over-geset. (English: From the Original languages into our Dutch language faithfully translated.
The location of Suriname in South America
The Dutch Caribbean at both ends of the Lesser Antilles, lining the Caribbean Sea
Standard Dutch used in a 1916 ad in South Africa before Afrikaans replaced Dutch for use in media
The distribution of Afrikaans across South Africa: proportion of the population speaking Afrikaans at home
The 27-letter compound hemelwaterinfiltratiegebied (rainwater infiltration area) on a traffic sign in Zwolle, Netherlands
Dutch uses the digraph IJ as a single letter and it can be seen in several variations. Here, a marking saying ("line/route" + "bus"; the tram lane also serves as bus road).
The distribution of the primary Germanic languages in Europe in around AD 1:
North Germanic
North Sea Germanic, or Ingvaeonic
Weser-Rhine Germanic, or Istvaeonic
Elbe Germanic, or Irminonic
East Germanic
Lighter-colored areas denote areas of either mixed settlement, such as between East-Germanic and Balto-Slavic peoples, or possible settlement, such as the Istvaeones within the Roman Empire or the Ingvaenes in Northern Denmark.

Dutch is taught in various educational centres in Indonesia, the most important of which is the Erasmus Language Centre (ETC) in Jakarta.

Yet the Indonesian language inherited many words from Dutch: words for everyday life as well as scientific and technological terms.

Yogyakarta

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Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Capital city of Special Region of Yogyakarta in Indonesia, in the south-central part of the island of Java.

Kotagede, former capital of the Mataram Sultanate.
The Yogyakarta sultanate palace's main pavilion
The Taman Sari Water Castle, the former royal garden of the Sultan of Yogyakarta
Administration of Yogyakarta City
Borobudur is the world's largest Buddhist archaeological site.
Wayang (shadow puppets) in Yogyakarta style, a scene from Irawan's Wedding. Mid-20th century, from the University of Hawaii Department of Theatre and Dance.
Kawung Motif in batik from Yogyakarta.
Kotagede silverwork.
Mandala Krida Stadium
Yogyakarta railway station
Trans Jogja Bus. A bus rapid transit system in Yogyakarta.
Main building of Panti Rapih Hospital.

As the orthography of the Indonesian language changed, the consonant came to be written with , and the consonant with .

Yogyakarta is served primarily by Yogyakarta International Airport in Kulon Progo Regency, which connects the city with other major cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, Lombok, Makassar, Balikpapan, Banjarmasin, Pekanbaru, Palembang, and Pontianak.