Indus River

The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
Indus at Skardu
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan

Transboundary river of Asia and a trans-Himalayan river of South and Central Asia.

- Indus River

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Longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan.

Sutlej Valley from Rampur c. 1857
Using inflated animal skins to cross the Sutlej River, c. 1905
Sutlej River in Kinnaur Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India
Cattle grazing on the banks of the river in Rupnagar, Punjab, India
Satluj River near Shahkot, Punjab, India
Sutlej entering India from Tibet near Shipki La, c. 1856

It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.

Chenab River

Major river that flows in India and Pakistan, and is one of the 5 major rivers of the Punjab region.

The Chandra river, one of the two main headstreams of the Chenab, as seen from Rohtang pass
The Salal Dam near Reasi, Jammu and Kashmir, India
The Chenab river at the Marala Headworks

Chenab flows through the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir, India into the plains of Punjab, Pakistan, before ultimately flowing into the Indus River.

Arabian Sea

Region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan, Iran and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea and the Maldives, on the southwest by Somalia, and on the east by India.

Arabian Sea
17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Arabian Sea as seen from space.
The aerial view of the Arabian Sea above Bombay/Mumbai, India
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The Kochi Port located on the south-west coast of India is the nearest Indian port to the international shipping routes, as well as one of the largest and busiest ports serving the Arabian Sea. Seen here is the International Container Transshipment Terminal, the only such facility in India.
Landsat view of Socotra, an island of Yemen.
Phytoplankton bloom over the Arabian Sea in winter (NASA)
A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature, a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630
Persian Sea.
thumb|Asia. Sinus Persicus and the Mare Persicum
Erythraean Sea 1838.
1658 Jansson Map of the Indian Ocean (Erythraean Sea)
The western part of the Indian Ocean,1693.
The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 from his system of global gores the Makran coast
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island, Iran.
Critically endangered
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow waters.
thumb|Makran coast
thumb|Makran sea .Makoran coast in Iran
thumb|Makran coast

The maximum width of the sea is approximately 2400 km, and its maximum depth is 4652 m. The biggest river flowing into the sea is the Indus River.

Ravi River

Transboundary river crossing northwestern India and eastern Pakistan.

Pir Panjal Range
Source of Budhil River, in Himachal Pradesh a major tributary of the Ravi River
Boats floating beside the Ravi River in Lahore
Bridge of boats on the Ravi taken by an unknown photographer in 1880
A map of the Punjab region c. 1947 showing the doabas formed by Ravi River with other rivers of the Indus River system.
Chamera Lake and dam
The Indus River system comprising the rivers, Ravi, Beas, Sutlej, Chenab, Jhelum, and Indus- a shared legacy between India and Pakistan

The waters of the Ravi River drain into the Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean) through the Indus River in Pakistan.

Kabul River

700 km river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Maidan Wardak province, Afghanistan.

One of five bridges that crossed Kabul River during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1879-1880) era. Soldiers a pictured atop the bridge while people walk along the road in the distance and in the right foreground people sit or squat on the bridge while soldiers ride behind them. Bala Hissar (High Fort) is in the background just visible through the heat haze and trees. It was the locus of power in Kabul for many centuries and the site of fierce fighting during the war. It was partly destroyed in October–December 1879 when Sir Frederick Roberts occupied the city at the head of the Kabul Field Force
The Kabul River in the city of Kabul, 1966
The Kabul River in the city of Kabul, 1982
The Kabul River in the city of Kabul in 2009, now dried up
The dried river in the central city of Kabul
Kabul River valley
Gorge of the Kabul River, parallel to the Kabul-Jalalabad Road
Kabul River in Behsood Bridge Area, Jalalabad, 2009
Kabul River in Behsood Bridge Area, Jalalabad, 2009
Buddhist caves, which have been carved into a set of cliffs on the north side of the Kabul river
A dam on the river
Kabul River at Behsood Bridge, Jalalabad

The Kabul River empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan.


Geopolitical, cultural, and historical region in South Asia, specifically in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northwestern India.

Taxila in Pakistan is a World Heritage Site
Menander I Soter (165/155 – 130 BCE), conqueror of the Punjab, carved out a Greek kingdom in the Punjab and ruled the Punjab until his death in 130BC.
A section of the Lahore Fort built by the Mughal emperor Akbar
The Punjab, 1849
The Punjab, 1880
Punjab Province (British India), 1909
The snow-covered Himalayas
Ethnic Punjabis in India and Pakistan
Dominant Mother Tongue in each Pakistani District as of the 2017 Pakistan Census
Lahore Fort, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
Punjab, Pakistan
Punjab, India, 2014
Haryana, India
Himachal Pradesh, India
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Golden Temple, Amritsar
Clock Tower, Faisalabad
Aerial view of Multan Ghanta Ghar chawk
Open Hand monument, Chandigarh
Faisal Masjid (Margalla Hills)
Anupgarh fort in Anupgarh city
Bhatner fort in Hanumangarh city
Phulkari embroidery from Patiala

In the 16th century Mughal Empire it referred to a relatively smaller area between the Indus and the Sutlej rivers.

Hindu Kush

800 km mountain range in Central and South Asia to the west of the Himalayas.

Hindu Kush (top right) and its extending mountain ranges like Selseleh-ye Safīd Kūh or Koh-i-Baba to the west
Aerial view of Hindu Kush mountains in northern Afghanistan
Terraced fields amongst the Hindu Kush in the Swat valley, Pakistan
The Hindu Kush photographed by Apollo 9
A land cover map of the HKH region was developed using Landsat 30-meter data.
Kabul, situated 5900 ft above sea level in a narrow valley, wedged between the Hindu Kush mountains
Hindu Kush relative to Bactria, Bamiyan, Kabul and Gandhara (bottom right).
Landscape of Afghanistan with a T-62 in the foreground.
Hindu Kush in the background in Ishkoshim, Tajikistan

It divides the valley of the Amu Darya (the ancient Oxus) to the north from the Indus River valley to the south.


One of the four provinces of Pakistan.

The Priest-King from Mohenjo-daro, 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization in pre-modern Pakistan and India 3000 BC
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Sindh captured by the Umayyads:
Makli Hill is one of the largest necropolises in the world.
Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1909.
Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Devotee at Panchmukhi Hanuman Temple in Karachi
Peninsula of Manora
Sindhri is among top 10 mango varieties in the world
Sindh ibex in Kirthar National Park
Indus river dolphin
Lansdowne Railway Bridge
A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province
Qayoom Abad Bridge Karachi
Navalrai Market Clock Tower Hyderabad
Sukkur skyline along the shores of the River Indus
Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College), Karachi in the 19th century
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Children in a rural area of Sindh, 2012
Sant Nenuram Ashram
Archaeological ruins at Moenjodaro, Sindh, Pakistan
The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore
Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village
Huts in the Thar desert
Caravan of merchants in the Indus River Valley
Sukkur Bridge
Gorakh Hill Station
Faiz Mahal, Khairpur
Ranikot Fort, one of the largest forts in the world
Chaukhandi tombs
Remains of 9th century Jain temple in Bhodesar near Nagarparkar.
Karachi Beach
Qasim fort
Kot Diji
Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur
National Museum of Pakistan
Kirthar National Park
alt=Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar|Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar
Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta
Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
Keenjhar Lake
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar Desert in the eastern portion of the province along the international border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western portion of the province.

Indus Valley Civilisation

Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.

Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro, Sindh province, Pakistan, showing the Great Bath in the foreground. Mohenjo-daro, on the right bank of the Indus River, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the first site in South Asia to be so declared.
Miniature votive images or toy models from Harappa, c. 2500 BCE. Terracotta figurines indicate the yoking of zebu oxen for pulling a cart and the presence of the chicken, a domesticated jungle fowl.
Major sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation
Alexander Cunningham, the first director general of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), interpreted a Harappan stamp seal in 1875.
R. D. Banerji, an officer of the ASI, visited Mohenjo-daro in 1919–1920, and again in 1922–1923, postulating the site's far-off antiquity.
John Marshall, the director-general of the ASI from 1902 to 1928, who oversaw the excavations in Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, shown in a 1906 photograph
Early Harappan Period, c. 3300–2600 BCE
Terracotta boat in the shape of a bull, and female figurines. Kot Diji period (c. 2800–2600 BC).
Mature Harappan Period, c. 2600–1900 BCE
Skull of a Harappan, Indian Museum
Harappan weights found in the Indus Valley, (National Museum, New Delhi)
Male dancing torso; 2400-1900 BC; limestone; height: 9.9 cm; National Museum (New Delhi)
red jasper male torso
Stamp seals and (right) impressions, some of them with Indus script; probably made of steatite; British Museum (London)
human deity with the horns, hooves and tail of a bull
Archaeological discoveries suggest that trade routes between Mesopotamia and the Indus were active during the 3rd millennium BCE, leading to the development of Indus–Mesopotamia relations.
Boat with direction-finding birds to find land. Model of Mohenjo-daro seal, 2500–1750 BCE.(National Museum, New Delhi)
Ten Indus characters from the northern gate of Dholavira, dubbed the Dholavira signboard
The Pashupati seal, showing a seated figure surrounded by animals
Swastika seals of Indus Valley Civilisation in British Museum
Late Harappan Period, c. 1900–1300 BCE
Late Harappan figures from a hoard at Daimabad, 2000 BCE (Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay)
Painted pottery urns from Harappa (Cemetery H culture, c. 1900–1300 BCE), National Museum, New Delhi
Impression of a cylinder seal of the Akkadian Empire, with label: "The Divine Sharkalisharri Prince of Akkad, Ibni-Sharrum the Scribe his servant". The long-horned buffalo is thought to have come from the Indus Valley, and testifies to exchanges with Meluhha, the Indus Valley civilisation. Circa 2217–2193 BCE. Louvre Museum.
Ceremonial vessel; 2600-2450 BC; terracotta with black paint; 49.53 × 25.4 cm; Los Angeles County Museum of Art (US)
Cubical weights, standardised throughout the Indus cultural zone; 2600-1900 BC; chert; British Museum (London)
Mohenjo-daro beads; 2600-1900 BC; carnelian and terracotta; British Museum
Ram-headed bird mounted on wheels, probably a toy; 2600-1900 BC; terracotta; Guimet Museum (Paris)
Reclining mouflon; 2600–1900 BC; marble; length: 28 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
The Priest-King; 2400–1900 BC; low fired steatite; height: 17.5 cm; National Museum of Pakistan (Karachi)
The Dancing Girl; 2400–1900 BC; bronze; height: 10.8 cm; National Museum (New Delhi)
Seal; 3000–1500 BC; baked steatite; 2 × 2 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York City)
Stamp seal and modern impression: unicorn and incense burner (?); 2600-1900 BC; burnt steatite; 3.8 × 3.8 × 1 cm; Metropolitan Museum of Art
Seal with two-horned bull and inscription; 2010 BC; steatite; overall: 3.2 x 3.2 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art (Cleveland, Ohio, US)
Seal with unicorn and inscription; 2010 BC; steatite; overall: 3.5 x 3.6 cm; Cleveland Museum of Art

The civilisation flourished both in the alluvial plain of Indus River, which flows through the length of Pakistan, and along a system of perennial monsoon-fed rivers that once coursed in the vicinity of the Ghaggar-Hakra, a seasonal river in northwest India and eastern Pakistan.


Largest city in Pakistan and the twelfth-largest city in the world.

The 15th–18th century Chaukhandi tombs are located 29 km east of Karachi.
The Manora Fort, built-in 1797 to defend Karachi, was captured by the British on 3February 1839 and upgraded 1888–1889.
An 1897 image of Karachi's Rampart Row street in Mithadar
Some of Karachi's most recognized structures, such as Frere Hall, date from the British Raj.
Karachi features several examples of colonial-era Indo-Saracenic architecture, such as the KMC Building.
Lord Mountbatten and his wife Edwina in Karachi 14 August 1947
Satellite view of Karachi 2010
Hawke's Bay, west of Karachi
Clifton Skyline at night
The Arabian Sea influences Karachi's climate, providing the city with more moderate temperatures compared to the interior Sindh province.
The Karachi Chamber of Commerce Building. Central Karachi features several such buildings dating from the colonial era.
Much of Karachi's skyline is decentralized, with some growth in traditionally suburban areas.
The former State Bank of Pakistan building was built during the colonial era.
Karachi is home to large numbers of descendants of refugees and migrants from Hyderabad, in southern India, who built a small replica of Hyderabad's famous Charminar monument in Karachi's Bahadurabad area.
Abdullah Shah Ghazi, an 8th Century Sufi mystic, is the patron saint of Karachi.
St. Patrick's Cathedral, built-in 1881, serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Karachi.
The Swaminarayan Temple is the largest Hindu temple in Karachi.
Nagan Chowrangi interchange is a major intersection in northern Karachi.
Lyari Expressway Interchange
Karachi's Cantonment railway station is one of the city's primary transport hubs.
Greeline Metrobus Station
Karachi Circular Railway
Karachi's Jinnah International Airport is the busiest and second largest airport in Pakistan.
The Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports.
Bai Virbaijee Soparivala (B.V.S.) Parsi High School
The D. J. Sindh Government Science College is one of Karachi's oldest universities and dates from 1887.
Aga Khan University's hospital.
The famous "Priest-King" statue of the Indus Valley Civilization is displayed at Karachi's National Museum of Pakistan.
Built as a home for a wealthy Hindu businessman, the Mohatta Palace is now a museum open to the public.
Built by Hindus under British rule, the Gymkhana Building was repurposed to house the National Academy of Performing Arts.
The Tooba Mosque. Karachi saw construction of several such modernist style buildings in the 1950s and 1960s.
The former US Embassy, designed by modernist architect Richard Neutra
The National Stadium in Karachi
At a height of {{convert|300|m|ft}}, Bahria Icon Tower is the tallest skyscraper in Pakistan.
Lucky One Mall is the largest shopping mall in Pakistan as well as in South Asia with an area of about 3.4 million square feet.<ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=South Asia's largest mall, Lucky One selects LMKT to deploy GPON Solution|date=18 January 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=|title=21 Amazing Photos and Facts About Lucky One Mall Karachi – The Biggest Shopping Mall in Pakistan|last=Khan|first=Haris|date=2017-06-04|website=Paki Holic|language=en-US|access-date=2020-01-04|archive-url=|archive-date=13 June 2020|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Millenium Mall
Karachi's downtown is centred on I. I. Chundrigar Road.
Many corporations are located in Defence and Clifton.
Karachi Port Trust Building
Khaliq Dina Hall
Empress Market
Ocean Tower
Frere Hall
Merewether Clock Tower
Katrak Bandstand at the Jehangir Kothari Parade
Dolmen Twin Towers
Grand Jamia Mosque
Habib Bank Plaza
Teen Talwar Monument Clifton

The expansive Karachi region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks, and may have been the site of Barbarikon, an ancient seaport which was located at the nearby mouth of the Indus River.