A report on KarachiPakistan and Indus River

The 15th–18th century Chaukhandi tombs are located 29 km east of Karachi.
The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
The Manora Fort, built-in 1797 to defend Karachi, was captured by the British on 3February 1839 and upgraded 1888–1889.
Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
An 1897 image of Karachi's Rampart Row street in Mithadar
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Some of Karachi's most recognized structures, such as Frere Hall, date from the British Raj.
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Karachi features several examples of colonial-era Indo-Saracenic architecture, such as the KMC Building.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Lord Mountbatten and his wife Edwina in Karachi 14 August 1947
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
Satellite view of Karachi 2010
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Hawke's Bay, west of Karachi
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
Clifton Skyline at night
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
The Arabian Sea influences Karachi's climate, providing the city with more moderate temperatures compared to the interior Sindh province.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
The Karachi Chamber of Commerce Building. Central Karachi features several such buildings dating from the colonial era.
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Indus at Skardu
Much of Karachi's skyline is decentralized, with some growth in traditionally suburban areas.
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan
The former State Bank of Pakistan building was built during the colonial era.
Parliament House
Karachi is home to large numbers of descendants of refugees and migrants from Hyderabad, in southern India, who built a small replica of Hyderabad's famous Charminar monument in Karachi's Bahadurabad area.
Prime Minister's Office
Abdullah Shah Ghazi, an 8th Century Sufi mystic, is the patron saint of Karachi.
Supreme Court of Pakistan
St. Patrick's Cathedral, built-in 1881, serves as the seat of the Archdiocese of Karachi.
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
The Swaminarayan Temple is the largest Hindu temple in Karachi.
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Nagan Chowrangi interchange is a major intersection in northern Karachi.
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
Lyari Expressway Interchange
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Karachi's Cantonment railway station is one of the city's primary transport hubs.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Greeline Metrobus Station
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Karachi Circular Railway
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Karachi's Jinnah International Airport is the busiest and second largest airport in Pakistan.
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
The Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Bai Virbaijee Soparivala (B.V.S.) Parsi High School
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
The D. J. Sindh Government Science College is one of Karachi's oldest universities and dates from 1887.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Aga Khan University's hospital.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
The famous "Priest-King" statue of the Indus Valley Civilization is displayed at Karachi's National Museum of Pakistan.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Built as a home for a wealthy Hindu businessman, the Mohatta Palace is now a museum open to the public.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
Built by Hindus under British rule, the Gymkhana Building was repurposed to house the National Academy of Performing Arts.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
The Tooba Mosque. Karachi saw construction of several such modernist style buildings in the 1950s and 1960s.
Karachi Cantonment railway station
The former US Embassy, designed by modernist architect Richard Neutra
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
The National Stadium in Karachi
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
At a height of {{convert|300|m|ft}}, Bahria Icon Tower is the tallest skyscraper in Pakistan.
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Lucky One Mall is the largest shopping mall in Pakistan as well as in South Asia with an area of about 3.4 million square feet.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.lmkt.com/south-asias-largest-mall-lucky-one-selects-lmkt-to-deploy-gpon-solution/|title=South Asia's largest mall, Lucky One selects LMKT to deploy GPON Solution|date=18 January 2016}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://pakiholic.com/photos-facts-lucky-one-mall/|title=21 Amazing Photos and Facts About Lucky One Mall Karachi – The Biggest Shopping Mall in Pakistan|last=Khan|first=Haris|date=2017-06-04|website=Paki Holic|language=en-US|access-date=2020-01-04|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200613125623/https://pakiholic.com/photos-facts-lucky-one-mall/|archive-date=13 June 2020|url-status=dead}}</ref>
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Millenium Mall
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Karachi's downtown is centred on I. I. Chundrigar Road.
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
Many corporations are located in Defence and Clifton.
Karachi Port Trust Building
Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Khaliq Dina Hall
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Empress Market
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
Ocean Tower
Frere Hall
Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
Merewether Clock Tower
Katrak Bandstand at the Jehangir Kothari Parade
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Dolmen Twin Towers
Grand Jamia Mosque
Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
Habib Bank Plaza
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Teen Talwar Monument Clifton
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

Karachi (ڪراچي; ALA-LC:, ) is the largest city in Pakistan and the twelfth-largest city in the world.

- Karachi

The 3180 km river rises in Western Tibet, flows northwest through the disputed region of Kashmir, bends sharply to the left after the Nanga Parbat massif, and flows south-by-southwest through Pakistan, before emptying into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi.

- Indus River

The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilisation (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

- Pakistan

The expansive Karachi region is believed to have been known to the ancient Greeks, and may have been the site of Barbarikon, an ancient seaport which was located at the nearby mouth of the Indus River.

- Karachi

None of the territory of modern Pakistan was ruled by the British, or other European powers, until 1839, when Karachi, then a small fishing village with a mud fort guarding the harbour, was taken, and held as an enclave with a port and military base for the First Afghan War that soon followed.

- Pakistan

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The Priest-King from Mohenjo-daro, 4000 years old, in the National Museum of Pakistan
Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization in pre-modern Pakistan and India 3000 BC
Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro
Sindh captured by the Umayyads:
Makli Hill is one of the largest necropolises in the world.
Sindh became part of the Bombay Presidency in 1909.
Shrine of Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
Devotee at Panchmukhi Hanuman Temple in Karachi
Peninsula of Manora
Sindhri is among top 10 mango varieties in the world
Sindh ibex in Kirthar National Park
Indus river dolphin
Lansdowne Railway Bridge
A view of Karachi downtown, the capital of Sindh province
Qayoom Abad Bridge Karachi
Navalrai Market Clock Tower Hyderabad
Sukkur skyline along the shores of the River Indus
Dayaram Jethmal College (D.J. College), Karachi in the 19th century
National Academy of Performing Arts, Karachi
Children in a rural area of Sindh, 2012
Sant Nenuram Ashram
Archaeological ruins at Moenjodaro, Sindh, Pakistan
The ruins of an ancient mosque at Bhambore
Sindhi women collecting water from a reservoir on the way to Mubarak Village
Huts in the Thar desert
Caravan of merchants in the Indus River Valley
Sukkur Bridge
Gorakh Hill Station
Faiz Mahal, Khairpur
Ranikot Fort, one of the largest forts in the world
Chaukhandi tombs
Remains of 9th century Jain temple in Bhodesar near Nagarparkar.
Karachi Beach
Qasim fort
Kot Diji
Bakri Waro Lake, Khairpur
National Museum of Pakistan
Kirthar National Park
alt=Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar|Karoonjhar Mountains, Tharparkar
Shah Jahan Mosque, Thatta
Tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhittai
Keenjhar Lake
Lal Shahbaz Qalandar

Sindh (سنڌ;, ; historically romanized as Sind) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan.

Sindh's landscape consists mostly of alluvial plains flanking the Indus River, the Thar Desert in the eastern portion of the province along the international border with India, and the Kirthar Mountains in the western portion of the province.

The economy of Sindh is the second-largest in Pakistan after the province of Punjab; its provincial capital of Karachi is the most populous city in the country as well as its main financial hub.

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan


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Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia.

Iranian ethnic group who are native to Central Asia and South Asia.

Pashtun men in Kandahar, Afghanistan
A Pashtun Tribesmen in Kurram, c. 1894 CE
A map of Pashtun tribes
Tents of Afghan nomads in Badghis Province who are known in Pashto language as Kuchian. They migrate from region to region depending on the season (transhumance).
The Arachosia Satrapy and the Pactyan people during the Achaemenid Empire in 500 BCE
Head of a Saka warrior
Pactyans, present day Pashtunistan. The Oriental Empires about 600 B.C., Historical Atlas by William Shepherd (1923-26)
Heads of two males, discovered in Hadda (Pashto: هډه) 10km south of Jalalabad, Afghanistan. Dated 3-4th century CE.
Bactrian document in the Greek script from the 4th century mentioning the word Afghan (αβγανανο): "To Ormuzd Bunukan from Bredag Watanan, the chief of the Afghans"
Afghan Amir Sher Ali Khan (in the center with his son) and his delegation in Ambala, near Lahore, in 1869
Leader of the non-violent Khudai Khidmatgar, also referred to as "the Red shirts" movement, Bacha Khan, standing with Mohandas Gandhi
Malala Yousafzai, a Pashtana, recipient of 2014 Nobel Peace Prize
American diplomat Zalmay Khalilzad with Taliban officials Abdul Ghani Baradar, Abdul Hakim Ishaqzai, Sher Mohammad Abbas Stanikzai and Suhail Shaheen
President Hamid Karzai and Abdul Rahim Wardak
From left to right: Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai; Anwar ul-Haq Ahady; and Abdullah Abdullah
Imran Khan, Pakistani cricketer-turned-politician and former Prime Minister, belongs to the Niazi tribe.
Pashtun-inhabited areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan (green) in 1980
Ethnolinguistic groups in Pakistan and Afghanistan in 1982
Pashtun female festive dress in Faryab, Afghanistan
Khattak dance involves running and whirling. It is mainly performed in and around the Peshawar area of Pakistan.
Mahmud Tarzi, son of Ghulam Muhammad Tarzi, became the pioneer of Afghan journalism for publishing the first newspaper Seraj al Akhbar.
Shahid Afridi, former captain of the Pakistan national cricket team
Buzkashi in Afghanistan
The Bodhisattva and Chandeka, Hadda, 5th century CE
The Friday Mosque in Kandahar. Adjacent to it is the Shrine of the Cloak(also known as Kirka Sharif), and the tomb of Ahmad Shah Durrani, the 18th century Pashtun conqueror who became the founding father of Afghanistan.
Men doing Islamic salat (praying) outside in the open in the Kunar Province of Afghanistan
Two Pashtane (Pashtun women) from Kuch i tribe pictured in 1967 on the Helmand river (د هلمند سيند)
Queen Soraya of Afghanistan
Zarine Khan, Indian model and actress in Bollywood films
Malala Yousafzai, Pakistani activist for female education and the 2014 Nobel Peace Prize laureate
Madhubala, Indian Bollywood actress and producer

The Pashtun people are indigenous to a historical region known as Pashtunistan, which stretches across southern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan and hosts the majority of their global population.

Significant and historical communities of the Pashtun diaspora exist in the Pakistani provinces of Sindh and Punjab, particularly in the cities of Karachi and Lahore; and in Rohilkhand, a region in northern India, as well as in major Indian cities such as Delhi and Mumbai.

The majority of Pashtuns are found in the native Pashtun homeland, located south of the Hindu Kush which is in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, principally around the Sulaiman Mountains.


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In ancient Indian subcontinent, the city of Purushapura (which became Peshawar), was established near the Gandharan capital city of Pushkalavati
The nearby Takht-i-Bahi monastery was established in 46 CE, and was once a major centre of Buddhist learning.
Peshawar's Kanishka stupa once kept sacred Buddhist relics in the Kanishka casket.
Clock Tower Peshawar
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
The interior of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is elaborately frescoed with elegant and intricately detailed floral and geometric motifs.
Peshawar's Sunehri Mosque dates from the Mughal era.
Peshawar's Bala Hissar fort was once the royal residence of the Durrani Afghan kings.
The British-era Islamia College was built in an Indo-Saracenic Revival style.
Built for wealthy local merchants in a Central Asian architectural style, the Sethi Mohallah features several homes dating from the British era.
Edwardes College was built during the British-era, and is now one of Peshawar's most prestigious educational institutions.
The city serves as a gateway to the Khyber Pass, whose beginning is marked by the Khyber Gate.
Peshawar sits at the eastern end of the Khyber Pass, which has been used as a trade route since the Kushan era approximately 2,000 years ago.
A view of old Peshawar's famous Qissa Khawani Bazaar.
Much of Peshawar's old city still features examples of traditional style architecture.
City Center Road is the major trade zone in Peshawar.
Hayatabad area
New flyovers, such as this one near the suburb of Hayatabad, have been constructed in recent years to improve traffic flow.
Peshawar International Airport offers direct flights throughout Pakistan, as well as to Bahrain, Malaysia, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
One of Peshawar's privately run intercity bus terminals.
The Peshawar Museum is known for its collection of Greco-Buddhist art.
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Iqra National University
Museum of Peshawar University
FAST Peshawar Campus
Bhittani Plaza
BBQ shop on Food Street
Peshawar Gymkhana Cricket Ground

Peshawar (پېښور ; ; ; ), historically known as Purushapura, is the capital city of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

As the first Pashtun tribe to settle the region, the Dilazak Pashtuns began settling in the Valley of Peshawar, and are believed to have settled regions up to the Indus River by the 11th century.

Peshawar's estimated monthly per capita income was ₨55,246 in 2015, compared to ₨117,924 in Islamabad, and ₨66,359 in Karachi.

Hyderabad, Sindh

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Pacco Qillo was built on a limestone outcropping known as Ganjo Takkar.
The tomb of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro
The tomb of Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro.
The Tombs of Talpur Mirs date from the 18th century.
Hyderabad's Badshahi Bungalow was built as the palace of Prince Mir Hassan Ali Khan Talpur in 1863.
Hyderabad in the late 1800s. The triangular structures on the rooftops are wind catchers, funneling cool breezes into homes below.
A Sindhi woman on the banks of the River Indus in the outskirts of Hyderabad
Sunset over the Indus at Hyderabad.
Giddu Chowk Hyderabad
Not all buildings in Hyderabad are historic
Hyderabad Junction railway station serves as the city's main rail station.
Hasrat Mohani Library, a public library in Hyderabad

Hyderabad (Sindhi and ; ) is a city and capital of Hyderabad Division in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

It is about 150 km inland of Karachi, the largest city of Pakistan, to which it is connected by a direct railway and M-9 motorway.

The River Indus was changing course around 1757, resulting in periodic floods of the then capital of the Kalhora dynasty, Khudabad.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

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Gold coin of Kushan king Kanishka II, featuring lord Shiva (200–220 AD)
Approximate boundaries of the Gandharan Empire; Alexander's Army also passed through this area centered on the modern-day Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan
Relics of the Buddha from the ruins of the Kanishka stupa at Peshawar – now in Mandalay, Myanmar
Asia in 565 CE, showing the Shahi kingdoms, centered on modern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.
Bestowed by Mohabbat Khan bin Ali Mardan Khan in 1630, the white-marble façade of the Mohabbat Khan Mosque is one of Peshawar's most iconic sights.
Bacha Khan with Mahatma Gandhi
Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan
Northern parts of the province feature forests and dramatic mountain scenery, as in Swat District.
Ghabral, Swat Valley
A map of the districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with their names. Colors correspond to divisions.
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa's dominance: forestry
University of Peshawar
Islamia College University
Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Hindko and Urdu: ; خېبر پښتونخوا), often abbreviated as KPK or KP, is a province of Pakistan.

Yusufzai Pashtun tribes from the Kabul and Jalalabad valleys began migrating to the Valley of Peshawar beginning in the 15th century, and displaced the Swatis of the Bhittani confederation (a predominant Pashtun tribe of Hazara div) and Dilazak Pashtun tribes across the Indus River to Hazara Division.

The Awami National Party has its strongholds in the Pashtun areas of Pakistan, particularly in the Peshawar valley, while Karachi in Sindh has one of the largest Pashtun populations in the world—around 7 million by some estimates.

Arabian Sea

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Arabian Sea
17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Arabian Sea as seen from space.
The aerial view of the Arabian Sea above Bombay/Mumbai, India
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The Kochi Port located on the south-west coast of India is the nearest Indian port to the international shipping routes, as well as one of the largest and busiest ports serving the Arabian Sea. Seen here is the International Container Transshipment Terminal, the only such facility in India.
Landsat view of Socotra, an island of Yemen.
Phytoplankton bloom over the Arabian Sea in winter (NASA)
A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature, a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630
Persian Sea.
thumb|Asia. Sinus Persicus and the Mare Persicum
Erythraean Sea 1838.
1658 Jansson Map of the Indian Ocean (Erythraean Sea)
The western part of the Indian Ocean,1693.
The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 from his system of global gores the Makran coast
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island, Iran.
Critically endangered
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow waters.
thumb|Makran coast
thumb|Makran sea .Makoran coast in Iran
thumb|Makran coast

The Arabian Sea (Arabic: اَلْبَحرْ ٱلْعَرَبِيُّ romanized: Al-Bahr al-ˁArabī) is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan, Iran and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea and the Maldives, on the southwest by Somalia, and on the east by India.

The maximum width of the sea is approximately 2400 km, and its maximum depth is 4652 m. The biggest river flowing into the sea is the Indus River.

It is located between the Karachi towns of Kiamari and Saddar.