A report on Pakistan and Indus River

The course of the Indus in the disputed Kashmir region; the river flows through Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan, administered respectively by India and Pakistan
Indus Priest King Statue from Mohenjo-Daro.
The major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization fl 2600–1900 BCE in Pakistan, India and Afghanistan
Indus River near Leh, Ladakh
Standing Buddha from Gandhara, Greco-Buddhist art, 1st–2nd century AD.
Confluence of Indus and Zanskar rivers. The Indus is at the left of the picture, flowing left-to-right; the Zanskar, carrying more water, comes in from the top of the picture.
Badshahi Mosque, Lahore
Fishermen on the Indus River, c. 1905
Clock Tower, Faisalabad, built by the British government in the 19th century
Skyline of Sukkur along the shores of the Indus River
Queen Elizabeth II was the last monarch of independent Pakistan, before it became a republic in 1956.
The Indus River near Skardu, in Gilgit–Baltistan.
Signing of the Tashkent Declaration to end hostilities with India in 1965 in Tashkent, USSR, by President Ayub alongside Bhutto (centre) and Aziz Ahmed (left)
Affected areas as of 26 August 2010
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Lansdowne Bridge and Ayub Bridge connecting the cities of Rohri and Sukkur in Sindh, Pakistan.
The Friday Prayers at the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore
Frozen Indus, Near Nyoma
A satellite image showing the topography of Pakistan
Indus at Skardu
Köppen climate classification of Pakistan
Indus near Dera Ismail Khan
Parliament House
Prime Minister's Office
Supreme Court of Pakistan
President of Pakistan Ayub Khan with US President John F. Kennedy in 1961
Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan at the 2019 Shanghai Cooperation Organisation summit
Pakistan Prime Minister Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai signing the Treaty of Friendship Between China and Pakistan. Pakistan is host to China's largest embassy.
The areas shown in green are the Pakistani-controlled areas.
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region is part of Pakistani-controlled Kashmir.
Pakistan Air Force's JF-17 Thunder flying in front of the 26660 ft Nanga Parbat
Statue of a bull outside the Pakistan Stock Exchange, Islamabad, Pakistan
Surface mining in Sindh. Pakistan has been termed the 'Saudi Arabia of Coal' by Forbes.
Television assembly factory in Lahore. Pakistan's industrial sector accounts for about 20.3% of the GDP, and is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises.
Rising skyline of Karachi with several under construction skyscrapers.
Lake Saiful Muluk, located at the northern end of the Kaghan Valley, near the town of Naran in the Saiful Muluk National Park.
Badshahi Mosque was commissioned by the Mughals in 1671. It is listed as a World Heritage Site.
Tarbela Dam, the largest earth filled dam in the world, was constructed in 1968.
Pakistan produced 1,135 megawatts of renewable energy for the month of October 2016. Pakistan expects to produce 3,000 megawatts of renewable energy by the beginning of 2019.
The motorway passes through the Salt Range mountains
Karachi Cantonment railway station
Port of Karachi is one of South Asia's largest and busiest deep-water seaports, handling about 60% of the nation's cargo (25 million tons per annum)
Orange Line Metro Train, Lahore
Track of Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metrobus with adjoining station
Nagan Chowrangi Flyover, Karachi
Central Library of University of Sargodha
Literacy rate in Pakistan 1951–2018
Malala Yousafzai at the Women of the World festival in 2014.
Pakistan hosts the second largest refugee population globally after Turkey. An Afghan refugee girl near Tarbela Dam
Kalma Underpass, Lahore
Faisal Mosque, built in 1986 by Turkish architect Vedat Dalokay on behalf of King Faisal bin Abdul-Aziz of Saudi Arabia
Havana at Shri Hinglaj Mata temple shakti peetha, the largest Hindu pilgrimage centre in Pakistan. The annual Hinglaj Yathra is attended by more than 250,000 people.
Sacred Heart Cathedral, Lahore
Truck art is a distinctive feature of Pakistani culture.
People in traditional clothing in Neelum District
Muhammad Iqbal, Pakistan's national poet who conceived the idea of Pakistan
The Tomb of Shah Rukn-e-Alam is part of Pakistan's Sufi heritage.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.
Located on the bank of Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.
Gaddafi Stadium, Lahore is the 3rd largest cricket stadium in Pakistan with a seating capacity of 27,000 spectators.
President George W. Bush meets with President Musharraf in Islamabad during his 2006 visit to Pakistan.
Minar-e-Pakistan is a national monument marking Pakistan's independence movement.

The 3180 km river rises in Western Tibet, flows northwest through the disputed region of Kashmir, bends sharply to the left after the Nanga Parbat massif, and flows south-by-southwest through Pakistan, before emptying into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi.

- Indus River

The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley civilisation (2,800–1,800 BCE) at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

- Pakistan

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The black gravel of Karakoram mountains, as seen near Pakistan's Biafo Glacier


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The black gravel of Karakoram mountains, as seen near Pakistan's Biafo Glacier
Hunza Valley in the Gilgit-Baltistan region administered by Pakistan
Highest Karakoram peaks in the Baltoro region as seen from International Space Station
View of the Moon over Karakoram Range in Pakistan

The Karakoram is a mountain range in Kashmir spanning the borders of Pakistan, China, and India, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

The southern boundary of the Karakoram is formed, west to east, by the Gilgit, Indus and Shyok rivers, which separate the range from the northwestern end of the Himalaya range proper.

Arabian Sea

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Arabian Sea
17th century map depicting the locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
Arabian Sea as seen from space.
The aerial view of the Arabian Sea above Bombay/Mumbai, India
Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.
The Kochi Port located on the south-west coast of India is the nearest Indian port to the international shipping routes, as well as one of the largest and busiest ports serving the Arabian Sea. Seen here is the International Container Transshipment Terminal, the only such facility in India.
Landsat view of Socotra, an island of Yemen.
Phytoplankton bloom over the Arabian Sea in winter (NASA)
A horizontal Malabar Coast miniature, a reprint by Petrus Bertius, 1630
Persian Sea.
thumb|Asia. Sinus Persicus and the Mare Persicum
Erythraean Sea 1838.
1658 Jansson Map of the Indian Ocean (Erythraean Sea)
The western part of the Indian Ocean,1693.
The western part of the Indian Ocean, by Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, 1693 from his system of global gores the Makran coast
Palm and sunset in Minoo Island, Iran.
Critically endangered
Dugong mother and her offspring in shallow waters.
thumb|Makran coast
thumb|Makran sea .Makoran coast in Iran
thumb|Makran coast

The Arabian Sea (Arabic: اَلْبَحرْ ٱلْعَرَبِيُّ romanized: Al-Bahr al-ˁArabī) is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan, Iran and the Gulf of Oman, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, on the southeast by the Laccadive Sea and the Maldives, on the southwest by Somalia, and on the east by India.

The maximum width of the sea is approximately 2400 km, and its maximum depth is 4652 m. The biggest river flowing into the sea is the Indus River.

Location of the Iranian plateau near the boundaries between the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian/Indian plates

Iranian plateau

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Geological feature in Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.

Geological feature in Western Asia, Central Asia, and South Asia.

Location of the Iranian plateau near the boundaries between the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian/Indian plates

From the Caspian in the northwest to Balochistan in the southeast, the Iranian plateau extends for close to 2000 km. It encompasses a large part of Iran, all of Afghanistan, and the parts of Pakistan that are situated west of the Indus River; covering an area of some 3700000 km2.


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South Asia in 565 CE
The empire of Kyide Nyimagon divided among his three sons, c. 930 CE. The border between Ladakh/Maryul and Guge-Purang is shown in a thin dotted line, north of Gartok
Royal drinking scene at Alchi Monastery, Ladakh, circa 1200 CE. The king wears a decorated Qabā', of Turco-Persian style. It is similar to [[:File:Royal drinking scene at the entrance of the western monastery at Manguy, 11th to 13th century CE.jpg|another royal scene]] at nearby Mangyu Monastery.
Jama Masjid of Leh next to the Leh Palace
Thikse Monastery, Ladakh
The empire of kings Tsewang Namgyal and Jamyang Namgyal, about 1560–1600 CE
Cham dance during Dosmoche festival in Leh Palace
The disputed territory of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir: divided between Pakistan (green), India (blue) and China (yellow)
National Highway No 1
Ladakh (L) shown in the wider Kashmir region
Map of the central Ladakh region
The confluence of the Indus (flowing left-to-right) and Zanskar (coming in from top) rivers.
The Ladakh region has high altitude
View of Leh Town Along with Stok Kangri
Monthly average temperature in Leh
The black-necked crane comes to India every year for breeding. Photograph has been taken at Tso Kar, Ladakh.
Wild animals of Ladakh
Yaks in Ladakh
Banner of the Administration of Ladakh
Street market in Leh
Preparing apricots. Alchi Monastery.
A vehicle on the Himalaya Highway 3
Kushok Bakula Rimpochee Airport
Dancer in masked dance festival
Jabro Dance
Sul-ma, woman's woollen dress (detail), Ladakh, late 19th-early 20th century
First ever Khelo India Winter Games in Ladakh
Woman wearing traditional Ladakhi hat
Ladakhi Perak Headdress courtesy the Wovenosuls collection
Indian Astronomical Observatory near Leh
Ladakh horsemen, depicted in Alchi Monastery, circa 13th century CE
The nine stupas at Thiksey Monastery
Statue of Maitreya at Likir Monastery, Leh district
Likir Monastery, Ladakh
Phyang Gompa, Ladakh
Hemis Monastery in the 1870s
Pensi La
Shingo La
Shanti Stupa, Leh
Front of the Thiksey Monastery
Likir Monastery
Trees nestled in front of the Himalayas near Leh
Nubra Valley view with reflection
Carved stone tablets, each with the inscription "Om Mani Padme Hum" along the paths of Zanskar

Ladakh is a region administered by India as a union territory, which constitutes a part of the larger Kashmir region and has been the subject of dispute between India, Pakistan, and China since 1947.

The Leh district contains the Indus, Shyok and Nubra river valleys.

The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)

Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

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Ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

Ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
The entrance to one of the royal tombs at Vergina, a UNESCO World Heritage Site
The Kingdom of Macedonia in 336 BC (orange)
A silver octadrachm of Alexander I of Macedon ((r. 498 – 454)), minted c. 465–460 BC, showing an equestrian figure wearing a chlamys (short cloak) and petasos (head cap) while holding two spears and leading a horse
Macedon (orange) during the Peloponnesian War around 431BC, with Athens and the Delian League (yellow), Sparta and Peloponnesian League (red), independent states (blue), and the Persian Achaemenid Empire (purple)
A Macedonian didrachm minted during the reign of Archelaus I of Macedon ((r. 413 – 399))
A silver stater of Amyntas III of Macedon ((r. 393 – 370))
Map of the Kingdom of Macedon at the death of PhilipII in 336BC (light blue), with the original territory that existed in 431BC (red outline), and dependent states (yellow)
Alexander's empire and his route
The Stag Hunt Mosaic, c.300BC, from Pella; the figure on the right is possibly Alexander the Great due to the date of the mosaic along with the depicted upsweep of his centrally-parted hair (anastole); the figure on the left wielding a double-edged axe (associated with Hephaistos) is perhaps Hephaestion, one of Alexander's loyal companions.
A golden stater of Philip III Arrhidaeus ((r. 323 – 317)) bearing images of Athena (left) and Nike (right)
Paintings of Hellenistic-era military arms and armor from a tomb in ancient Mieza (modern-day Lefkadia), Imathia, Central Macedonia, Greece, 2nd centuryBC
The Temple of Apollo at Corinth, built c.540BC, with the Acrocorinth (i.e. the acropolis of Corinth that once held a Macedonian garrison) seen in the background
A tetradrachm minted during the reign of Antigonus III Doson ((r. 229 – 221)), possibly at Amphipolis, bearing the portrait image of Poseidon on the obverse and on the reverse a scene depicting Apollo sitting on the prow of a ship
The Kingdom of Macedonia (orange) under PhilipV ((r. 221 – 179)), with Macedonian dependent states (dark yellow), the Seleucid Empire (bright yellow), Roman protectorates (dark green), the Kingdom of Pergamon (light green), independent states (light purple), and possessions of the Ptolemaic Empire (violet purple)
A tetradrachm of Philip V of Macedon ((r. 221 – 179)), with the king's portrait on the obverse and Athena Alkidemos brandishing a thunderbolt on the reverse
Bronze bust of Eumenes II of Pergamon, a Roman copy of a Hellenistic Greek original, from the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum
The Vergina Sun, the 16-ray star covering the royal burial larnax of Philip II of Macedon ((r. 359 – 336)), discovered in the tomb of Vergina, formerly ancient Aigai
Hades abducting Persephone, fresco in the small Macedonian royal tomb at Vergina, Macedonia, Greece, c.340BC
Fresco of an ancient Macedonian soldier (thorakites) wearing chainmail armor and bearing a thureos shield, 3rd centuryBC, İstanbul Archaeology Museums
A mosaic of the Kasta Tomb in Amphipolis depicting the abduction of Persephone by Pluto, 4thcenturyBC
The Lion of Amphipolis in Amphipolis, northern Greece, a 4th-centuryBC marble tomb sculpture erected in honor of Laomedon of Mytilene, a general who served under Alexander the Great
Alexander (left), wearing a kausia and fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail); late 4th-centuryBC mosaic, Pella Museum.
Portrait bust of Aristotle, an Imperial Roman (1st or 2nd centuryAD) copy of a lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos
A fresco showing Hades and Persephone riding in a chariot, from the tomb of Queen Eurydice I of Macedon at Vergina, Greece, 4thcenturyBC
A banquet scene from a Macedonian tomb of Agios Athanasios, Thessaloniki, 4thcenturyBC; shown are six men reclining on couches, with food arranged on nearby tables, a male servant in attendance, and female musicians providing entertainment.
Ruins of the ancient theatre in Maroneia, Rhodope, East Macedonia and Thrace, Greece
Tetradrachms (above) and drachms (below) issued during the reign of Alexander the Great, now in the Numismatic Museum of Athens
The Alexander Mosaic, a Roman mosaic from Pompeii, Italy, c. 100 BC
Kingdoms of the diadochi c.301BC, after the Battle of Ipsus
Kingdom of Ptolemy I Soter
Kingdom of Cassander
Kingdom of Lysimachus
Kingdom of Seleucus I Nicator
Roman Republic
Greek States

During Alexander's subsequent campaign of conquest, he overthrew the Achaemenid Empire and conquered territory that stretched as far as the Indus River.

By the end of his reign and military career in 323BC, Alexander would rule over an empire consisting of mainland Greece, Asia Minor, the Levant, ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and much of Central and South Asia (i.e. modern Pakistan).

Indian subcontinent

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Physiographical region in Southern Asia.

Physiographical region in Southern Asia.

Due to plate tectonics, the Indian Plate split from Madagascar and collided (c. 55 Mya) with the Eurasian Plate, resulting in the formation of the Himalayas.
The Indus defines much of the ecosystem on the Indian subcontinent
The rocky interiors of the Himalayas

Geopolitically, it includes the countries of Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

The Himalayas (from Brahmaputra River in the east to Indus River in the west), Karakoram (from Indus River in the east to Yarkand River in the west) and the Hindu Kush mountains (from Yarkand River westwards) form its northern boundary.

Hyderabad, Sindh

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Pacco Qillo was built on a limestone outcropping known as Ganjo Takkar.
The tomb of Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro
The tomb of Mian Sarfraz Kalhoro.
The Tombs of Talpur Mirs date from the 18th century.
Hyderabad's Badshahi Bungalow was built as the palace of Prince Mir Hassan Ali Khan Talpur in 1863.
Hyderabad in the late 1800s. The triangular structures on the rooftops are wind catchers, funneling cool breezes into homes below.
A Sindhi woman on the banks of the River Indus in the outskirts of Hyderabad
Sunset over the Indus at Hyderabad.
Giddu Chowk Hyderabad
Not all buildings in Hyderabad are historic
Hyderabad Junction railway station serves as the city's main rail station.
Hasrat Mohani Library, a public library in Hyderabad

Hyderabad (Sindhi and ; ) is a city and capital of Hyderabad Division in the Sindh province of Pakistan.

The River Indus was changing course around 1757, resulting in periodic floods of the then capital of the Kalhora dynasty, Khudabad.

Sukkur is home of the Hindu Sadh Belo shrine.


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Sukkur is home of the Hindu Sadh Belo shrine.
Sukkur's Shrine of Masum Shah and adjacent minaret dates from 1607.
Completed in 1889, the Lansdowne Bridge displays elements of British military architecture.
The Sukkur Barrage, completed in 1932, forms part of one of the world's largest irrigation projects.
Boat at the door of Municipal Stadium Sukkur
Skyline of Sukkur City along the shores of the River Indus
The Sukkur IBA University is one of Pakistan's business schools.

Sukkur (سکر; ) is a city in the Pakistani province of Sindh along the western bank of the Indus River, directly across from the historic city of Rohri.

Indus river dolphin

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Species of toothed whale in the family Platanistidae.

Species of toothed whale in the family Platanistidae.

The long jaws and deep brain pan of the Indus river dolphin are visible from this skull cast. From the collection of The Children's Museum of Indianapolis.

It is endemic to the Indus River basin of India and Pakistan.

The Soan River cutting through Pothohar

Soan River

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The Soan River cutting through Pothohar
One of the many gorges of the Soan River

The Soan River, also referred to as the Swan, Sawan, or Sohan, is a river in Punjab, Pakistan.

After following a tortuous path along a big curve, the stream reaches Kalabagh proposed Dam Site close to Pirpiyahi where it falls into the Indus river.