Indus Valley Civilisation

Indus Valley CivilizationHarappanIndus ValleyHarappan civilizationIndus CivilizationLate HarappanHarappan CivilisationIndusHarappan cultureMature Harappan
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.wikipedia
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Pakistan

Islamic Republic of PakistanPAKPakistani
Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
The ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs.

India

IndianRepublic of IndiaIND
Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
Settled life emerged on the subcontinent in the western margins of the Indus river basin 9,000 years ago, evolving gradually into the Indus Valley Civilisation of the third millennium BCE.

Afghanistan

AfghanIslamic Republic of AfghanistanAfghans
Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, and the early city of Mundigak (near Kandahar in the south of the country) may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization.

Mesopotamia

MesopotamianMesopotamiansAncient Iraq
Along with ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia it was one of three early civilisations of the region comprising North Africa, West Asia and South Asia, and of the three, the most widespread, its sites spanning an area stretching from northeast Afghanistan, through much of Pakistan, and into western and northwestern India.
The region was one of the four riverine civilizations where writing was invented, along with the Nile valley in Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization in the Indian subcontinent, and the Yellow River in China.

Harappan language

HarappanIndus Valley languageIndus Valley letters
The Harappan language is not directly attested, and its affiliation is uncertain since the Indus script is still undeciphered.
The Harappan language is the unknown language or languages of the Bronze Age (2nd millennium BC) Harappan civilization (Indus Valley Civilization, or IVC).

Ganweriwal

GaneriwalaGanweriwala
By 2002, over 1,000 Mature Harappan cities and settlements had been reported, of which just under a hundred had been excavated, However, there are only 5 major urban sites: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan, and Rakhigarhi.
Ganweriwala (undefined undefined) is an Indus Valley Civilization site in Punjab, Pakistan.

South Asia

SouthSouth AsianSouthern Asia
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation in the northwestern regions of South Asia, lasting from 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, and in its mature form from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE.
The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of South Asia from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Pakistan, India and Afghanistan, was the first major civilization in South Asia.

Harappa

HarrappaHarrapaHarappan
The large cities of Mohenjo-daro and Harappa very likely grew to containing between 30,000 and 60,000 individuals, and the civilisation itself during its florescence may have contained between one and five million individuals.
The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilization centred in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture.

Gujarat

Gujarat StateGujarat, IndiaGujrat
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) extended from Pakistan's Balochistan in the west to India's western Uttar Pradesh in the east, from northeastern Afghanistan in the north to India's Gujarat state in the south. The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
The state encompasses some sites of the ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, such as Lothal, Dholavira and Gola Dhoro.

Rakhigarhi

Rakhi GarhiRakhigarhi granary
By 2002, over 1,000 Mature Harappan cities and settlements had been reported, of which just under a hundred had been excavated, However, there are only 5 major urban sites: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan, and Rakhigarhi.
It is the site of a pre-Indus Valley Civilisation settlement going back to about 6500 BCE.

Lothal

Archaeological remains of Lothal
Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat.
Lothal was one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited c.

Rajasthan

Rajasthan, IndiaRajasthan StateRajastan
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Kalibanga and Balathal; the Dilwara Temples, a Jain pilgrimage site at Rajasthan's only hill station, Mount Abu, in the ancient Aravalli mountain range; and, in eastern Rajasthan, the Keoladeo National Park near Bharatpur, a World Heritage Site known for its bird life.

Punjab, Pakistan

PunjabPunjab ProvincePunjab (Pakistan)
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
The Indus Valley Civilization, dating to 2600 BCE, was first discovered at Harappa.

Haryana

HarayanaHaryana StateHaryana, India
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
Among the world's oldest and largest ancient civilizations, the Indus Valley Civilization sites at Rakhigarhi village in Hisar district and Bhirrana in Fatehabad district are 9,000 years old.

Punjab, India

PunjabIndian PunjabPunjab state
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
The Indus Valley Civilization flourished in antiquity before recorded history until their decline around 1900 BCE.

Sutkagan Dor

Coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor in Western Baluchistan to Lothal in Gujarat.
Sutkagan Dor (or Sutkagen Dor) is the westernmost known archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Sindh

Sindh ProvinceSindSindh, Pakistan
The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
This culture blossomed over several millennia and gave rise to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BC.

Sarasvati River

Saraswati RiverSarasvatiSaraswati
A section of scholars use the terms "Sarasvati culture", the "Sarasvati Civilisation", the "Indus-Sarasvati Civilisation" or the "Sindhu-Saraswati Civilisation", because they consider the Ghaggar-Hakra river to be the same as the Sarasvati, a river mentioned several times in the Rig Veda, a collection of ancient Sanskrit hymns composed in the second millennium BCE.
Scholars have observed that major Indus Valley Civilization sites at Kalibangan (Rajasthan), Banawali and Rakhigarhi (Haryana), Dholavira and Lothal (Gujarat) also lay along this course.

Dholavira

DolaviraDholavira SignboardDholavira: A Harappan City
By 2002, over 1,000 Mature Harappan cities and settlements had been reported, of which just under a hundred had been excavated, However, there are only 5 major urban sites: Harappa, Mohenjo-daro (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Dholavira, Ganeriwala in Cholistan, and Rakhigarhi.
Also known locally as Kotada timba, the site contains ruins of an ancient Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan city.

Uttar Pradesh

UPUttar Pradesh, IndiaU.P.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC) extended from Pakistan's Balochistan in the west to India's western Uttar Pradesh in the east, from northeastern Afghanistan in the north to India's Gujarat state in the south. The largest number of sites are in Gujarat, Haryana, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir states in India, and Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan provinces in Pakistan.
Villages with domesticated cattle, sheep, and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, and gradually developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age.

Alamgirpur

An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda, Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
Alamgirpur is an archaeological site of the Indus Valley Civilization that thrived along Yamuna River (c.

Shortugai

Shortughai
An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan, in the Gomal River valley in northwestern Pakistan, at Manda, Jammu on the Beas River near Jammu, India, and at Alamgirpur on the Hindon River, only 28 km from Delhi.
Shortugai (Shortughai) was an Indus Valley Civilization trading colony established around 2000 BC on the Oxus river (Amu Darya) near the lapis lazuli mines in northern Afghanistan.

Multan

MooltanMultan, PakistanMultan City
Some 100 miles of railway track between Multan and Lahore, laid in the mid 1850s, was supported by Harappan bricks.
The region is home to numerous archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation, dating from 3300 BCE until 2800 BCE.

Archaeological Survey of India

ASIArcheological Survey of IndiaArchaeology Survey of India
The discovery of Harappa and soon afterwards Mohenjo-Daro was the culmination of work beginning in 1861 with the founding of the Archaeological Survey of India during the British Raj.
The most significant event of his tenure was, however, the discovery of the Indus Valley Civilization at Harappa and Mohenjodaro in 1921.

Elamo-Dravidian languages

Elamo-DravidianElamo-Dravidian hypothesisDravidian
A relationship with the Dravidian or Elamo-Dravidian language family is favoured by a section of scholars.
According to McAlpin, the long-extinct Harappan language (the language or languages of the Indus Valley Civilization) might also have been part of this family.