Industrial Revolution

industrialindustrialismindustrial eraindustrial historyIndustrial AgeindustrialisationindustrializationFirst Industrial RevolutionThe Industrial RevolutionBritish Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution, now also known as the First Industrial Revolution, was the transition to new manufacturing processes in Europe and the United States, in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.wikipedia
4,292 Related Articles

Factory system

early industrial revolution factoriesfactoriesfactory labor
This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system.
The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the late 18th century and later spread around the world.

Second Industrial Revolution

Industrial RevolutionTechnological RevolutionGerman industrialism
Rapid economic growth began to occur after 1870, springing from a new group of innovations in what has been called the Second Industrial Revolution.
The First Industrial Revolution, which ended in the middle of 19th century, was punctuated by a slowdown in important inventions before the Second Industrial Revolution in 1870.

Proto-industrialization

proto-industrializedproto-industrialproto-industrialisation
By the mid-18th century Britain was the world's leading commercial nation, controlling a global trading empire with colonies in North America and the Caribbean, and with major military and political hegemony on the Indian subcontinent, particularly with the proto-industrialised Mughal Bengal, through the activities of the East India Company. Economic historians and authors such as Mendels, Pomeranz and Kridte argue that the proto-industrialization in parts of Europe, Islamic world, Mughal India, and China created the social and economic conditions that led to the Industrial Revolution, thus emerging the Great Divergence.
The term was introduced in the early 1970s by economic historians who argued that such developments in parts of Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries created the social and economic conditions that led to the Industrial Revolution.

Capitalism

capitalistcapitalistscapitalistic
GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.
Modern capitalist societies—marked by a universalization of money-based social relations, a consistently large and system-wide class of workers who must work for wages, and a capitalist class which owns the means of production—developed in Western Europe in a process that led to the Industrial Revolution.

History of the world

modern historymodern erahuman history
Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals and plants.
By the 18th century, the accumulation of knowledge and technology had reached a critical mass that brought about the Industrial Revolution and began the Late Modern Period, which started around 1800 and has continued through the present.

Lancashire

Lancashire, EnglandCounty Palatine of LancasterLancaster
Wages in Lancashire, a core region for cottage industry and later factory spinning and weaving, were about six times those in India in 1770, when overall productivity in Britain was about three times higher than in India.
Lancashire emerged as a major commercial and industrial region during the Industrial Revolution.

Hot blast

Hothot blast furnacehot blast iron smelting
Innovations developed late in the period, such as the increasing adoption of locomotives, steamboats and steamships, hot blast iron smelting and new technologies, such as the electrical telegraph, widely introduced in the 1840s and 1850s, were not powerful enough to drive high rates of growth.
As this considerably reduced the fuel consumed, hot blast was one of the most important technologies developed during the Industrial Revolution.

Economic growth

growthGDP growthgrowth rate
GDP per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern capitalist economy, while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita economic growth in capitalist economies.
The rapid economic growth that occurred during the Industrial Revolution was remarkable because it was in excess of population growth, providing an escape from the Malthusian trap.

Colonialism

colonialcolonial powerscolonialist
The Age of Discovery was followed by a period of colonialism beginning around the 16th century.
Historian Philip Hoffman calculated that by 1800, before the Industrial Revolution, Europeans already controlled at least 35% of the globe, and by 1914, they had gained control of 84% of the globe.

Industrialisation

industrializationindustrializedindustrialised
Rapid industrialization first began in Britain, starting with mechanized spinning in the 1780s, with high rates of growth in steam power and iron production occurring after 1800.
After the last stage of the Proto-industrialization, the first transformation from an agricultural to an industrial economy is known as the Industrial Revolution and took place from the mid-18th to early 19th century in certain areas in Europe and North America; starting in Great Britain, followed by Belgium, Switzerland, Germany, and France.

Assembly line

assemblyassembly linesassembly-line
These new innovations included new steel making process es, mass-production, assembly lines, electrical grid systems, the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the use of increasingly advanced machinery in steam-powered factories.
Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufactured products were made individually by hand.

Power loom

power loomspowerloompower-loom
Realising that the expiration of the Arkwright patent would greatly increase the supply of spun cotton and led to a shortage of weavers, Edmund Cartwright developed a vertical power loom which he patented in 1785.
A power loom is a mechanized loom, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.

Great Divergence

European miracledecisive technological advancesdelayed development
Economic historians and authors such as Mendels, Pomeranz and Kridte argue that the proto-industrialization in parts of Europe, Islamic world, Mughal India, and China created the social and economic conditions that led to the Industrial Revolution, thus emerging the Great Divergence.
Yet the largest jump in the divergence happened in the 19th century with the Industrial Revolution and Technological Revolution.

Birmingham

Birmingham, United KingdomBirmingham, EnglandCity of Birmingham
The technology was developed with the help of John Wyatt of Birmingham.
A market town in the medieval period, Birmingham grew in the 18th-century Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw advances in science, technology, and economic development, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society.

John Kay (flying shuttle)

John KayKayJohn Kay's invention of the flying shuttle
The flying shuttle, patented in 1733 by John Kay, with a number of subsequent improvements including an important one in 1747, doubled the output of a weaver, worsening the imbalance between spinning and weaving.
John Kay (17 June 1704 – c. 1779) was the inventor of the flying shuttle, which was a key contribution to the Industrial Revolution.

Steam engine

steam powertriple expansion enginetriple expansion
This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system.
By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution.

Spinning wheel

charkhacharkawheel
Using the spinning wheel, it took anywhere from four to eight spinners to supply one hand loom weaver.
It was fundamental to the cotton textile industry prior to the Industrial Revolution.

Richard Arkwright

ArkwrightSir Richard ArkwrightArkwright, Sir Richard
Lewis's invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright in his water frame and Samuel Crompton in his spinning mule.
Sir Richard Arkwright (23 December 1732 – 3 August 1792) was an English inventor and a leading entrepreneur during the early Industrial Revolution.

Cotton mill

cotton spinning millcotton millsmill
Based on two sets of rollers that travelled at different speeds, it was later used in the first cotton spinning mill.
A cotton mill is a building housing spinning or weaving machinery for the production of yarn or cloth from cotton, an important product during the Industrial Revolution in the development of the factory system.

Spinning frame

spinning machinesArkwright machineframes
Lewis Paul patented the roller spinning frame and the flyer-and-bobbin system for drawing wool to a more even thickness.
The spinning frame is an Industrial Revolution invention for spinning thread or yarn from fibres such as wool or cotton in a mechanized way.

Machine

machinerymechanicalmachines
This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, the increasing use of steam power and water power, the development of machine tools and the rise of the mechanized factory system.
The spinning wheel was also a precursor to the spinning jenny, which was a key development during the early Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.

Eli Whitney

WhitneyEli Whitney, Jr.Eli Whitney II
Eli Whitney responded to the challenge by inventing the inexpensive cotton gin.
This was one of the key inventions of the Industrial Revolution and shaped the economy of the Antebellum South.

Watt steam engine

Watt enginesteam engineBoulton and Watt steam engine
Before long steam power was applied to drive textile machinery.
The Watt steam engine, alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine, was an early steam engine and was one of the driving forces of the industrial revolution.

Derby

Derby, EnglandCity of DerbyDerby, Derbyshire
Arguably the first highly mechanised factory was John Lombe's water-powered silk mill at Derby, operational by 1721.
Home to Lombe's Mill, an early British factory, Derby has a claim to be one of the birthplaces of the Industrial Revolution.

Spinning jenny

jenniescotton-jenniesspinning jennies
In 1764 in the village of Stanhill, Lancashire, James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which he patented in 1770.
The spinning jenny is a multi-spindle spinning frame, and was one of the key developments in the industrialization of weaving during the early Industrial Revolution.