A report on Infant mortality

World map of infant mortality rates in 2017
Infant mortality rates are higher in countries with higher economic inequality
Countries by 2019 GDP (nominal) per capita.
Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Infant mortality rate by region
Life expectancy at birth by region
1906 headline imploring parents to attend to the cleanliness of their infants, and to expose them to the "clean air" outdoors.
Data indicating the IMR disparity between infants Non-Hispanic black mothers and infants of white or Hispanic mothers in the United States from 2000 to 2010.
This 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld depicts the death of Bathsheba's first child with David, who lamented, "I shall go to him, but he will not return to me"
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020. 
< 2,5%
< 5,0%
5,0–14,9%
15,0–24,9%
25,0–34,9%
> 35,0%
No data

Death of young children under the age of 1.

- Infant mortality
World map of infant mortality rates in 2017

19 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The Millennium Development Goals are a UN initiative.

Millennium Development Goals

4 links

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.

The Millennium Development Goals are a UN initiative.
A poster at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City, New York, United States, showing the Millennium Development Goals
The Hollywood actress Geena Davis in a speech at the MDG Countdown event at the Ford Foundation in New York, addressing gender roles and issues in film such as her organisation's work in combating inequality in Hollywood (24 September 2013)
Graph of global population living on under 1, 1.25 and 2 equivalent of 2005 US dollars a day (red) and as a proportion of world population (blue) from 1981 to 2008 based on data from The World Bank

Infant (under 1) mortality rate

An electron micrograph of rotavirus, the cause of nearly 40% of hospitalizations from diarrhea in children under five

Diarrhea

2 links

Condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day.

Condition of having at least three loose, liquid, or watery bowel movements each day.

An electron micrograph of rotavirus, the cause of nearly 40% of hospitalizations from diarrhea in children under five
Bristol stool chart
Diagram of the human gastrointestinal tract
Poverty often leads to unhygienic living conditions, as in this community in the Indian Himalayas. Such conditions promote contraction of diarrheal diseases, as a result of poor sanitation and hygiene.
A person consuming oral rehydration solution
Deaths due to diarrhoeal diseases per million persons in 2012
Disability-adjusted life year for diarrhea per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004 
no data
< 500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–3000
3000–3500
3500–4000
4000–4500
4500–5000
5000–6000
> 6000

In 2012, it was the second most common cause of deaths in children younger than five (0.76 million or 11%).

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell

Malaria

2 links

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

Mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals.

Malaria parasite connecting to a red blood cell
Main symptoms of malaria
The life cycle of malaria parasites. Sporozoites are introduced by a mosquito bite. They migrate to the liver, where they multiply into thousands of merozoites. The merozoites infect red blood cells and replicate, infecting more and more red blood cells. Some parasites form gametocytes, which are taken up by a mosquito, continuing the life cycle.
Micrograph of a placenta from a stillbirth due to maternal malaria. H&E stain. Red blood cells are anuclear; blue/black staining in bright red structures (red blood cells) indicate foreign nuclei from the parasites.
Electron micrograph of a Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cell (center), illustrating adhesion protein "knobs"
The blood film is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis.
Ring-forms and gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum in human blood
An Anopheles stephensi mosquito shortly after obtaining blood from a human (the droplet of blood is expelled as a surplus). This mosquito is a vector of malaria, and mosquito control is an effective way of reducing its incidence.
Man spraying kerosene oil in standing water, Panama Canal Zone, 1912
Walls where indoor residual spraying of DDT has been applied. The mosquitoes remain on the wall until they fall down dead on the floor.
A mosquito net in use.
An advertisement for quinine as a malaria treatment from 1927.
Deaths due to malaria per million persons in 2012
Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009
Ancient malaria oocysts preserved in Dominican amber
British doctor Ronald Ross received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1902 for his work on malaria.
Chinese medical researcher Tu Youyou received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 2015 for her work on the antimalarial drug artemisinin.
Artemisia annua, source of the antimalarial drug artemisinin
U.S. Marines with malaria in a field hospital on Guadalcanal, October 1942
Members of the Malaria Commission of the League of Nations collecting larvae on the Danube delta, 1929
1962 Pakistani postage stamp promoting malaria eradication program
Malaria clinic in Tanzania
Child with malaria in Ethiopia
World War II poster
Disability-adjusted life year for malaria per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004
no data
<10
0–100
100–500
500–1000
1000–1500
1500–2000
2000–2500
2500–2750
2750–3000
3000–3250
3250–3500
≥3500

Malaria in pregnant women is an important cause of stillbirths, infant mortality, miscarriage and low birth weight, particularly in P. falciparum infection, but also with P. vivax.

A malnourished child in an MSF treatment tent in Dolo Ado.

Malnutrition

2 links

Individual gets too few or too many nutrients, resulting in health problems.

Individual gets too few or too many nutrients, resulting in health problems.

A malnourished child in an MSF treatment tent in Dolo Ado.
Child in the United States with signs of kwashiorkor, a dietary protein deficiency.
Child of a sharecropper with malnutrition and rickets, 1935
Union Army soldier on his release from Confederate prison, around 1865
A child with extreme malnutrition
Chart showing a trend between obesity and diabetes over the years.
Irrigation canals have opened dry desert areas of Egypt to agriculture.
A soup kitchen in Montreal, Quebec, Canada in 1931.
A malnourished Afghan child being treated by a medical team.
A Somali boy receiving treatment for malnourishment at a health facility.
Baby suffering from protein malnutrition due to insufficient amount of nutrients
Examples of commercially available oral rehydration salts (Nepal on left, Peru on right).
Deaths from nutritional deficiencies per million persons in 2012
Malnourished children in Niger, during the 2005 famine.
Migrant Mother by Dorothea Lange (1936).
Starved girl
Essential nutrients are one of the main requirements of elderly care.
Percentage of population suffering from hunger, World Food Programme, 2020. 
< 2.5%
< 5.0%
5.0–14.9%
15.0–24.9%
25.0–34.9%
> 35.0%
No data

Over 800,000 neonatal deaths have occurred because of deficient growth of the fetus in the mother's womb.

A mother dies and is taken by angels as her new-born child is taken away, A grave from 1863 in Striesener Friedhof in Dresden.

Maternal death

2 links

Defined in slightly different ways by several different health organizations.

Defined in slightly different ways by several different health organizations.

A mother dies and is taken by angels as her new-born child is taken away, A grave from 1863 in Striesener Friedhof in Dresden.
Infographic - History of Maternal Mortality in India
SDG 3
In April 2010 Sierra Leone launched free healthcare for pregnant and breastfeeding women.
Maternal mortality ratio (with Sustainable Development Goal target) as of 2015

In most cases, high rates of maternal deaths occur in the same countries that have high rates of infant mortality.

Example of historical public health recommendations from 1918 in New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Public health

1 links

Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

Public health has been defined as "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".

Example of historical public health recommendations from 1918 in New Haven, Connecticut, United States
Community health workers
The WHO is the predominant agency associated with global health
Newspaper headlines from around the world about polio vaccine tests (13 April 1955)
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Program reading the news that smallpox had been globally eradicated, 1980
A village health worker in Zimbabwe conducting a pediatric examination
A community health worker in Korail Basti, a slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A malaria test in Kenya. Despite being preventable and curable, malaria is a leading cause of death in many developing nations.
A Cuban doctor performs an open air operation in Guinea-Bissau. Cuba sends more medical personnel to the developing world than all G8 countries combined.
Mass burials during the second plague pandemic (a.k.a. the Black Death; 1346–1353) intensified urban responses to disaster on the basis of earlier practices. Miniature from "The Chronicles of Gilles Li Muisis" (1272–1352). Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, MS 13076–77, f. 24v.
A depiction of Aztec smallpox victims
Sir Edwin Chadwick was a pivotal influence on the early public health campaign.
Early epidemiologist John Snow mapped clusters of cholera cases in London
Paul-Louis Simond injecting a plague vaccine in Karachi, 1898
The London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is the oldest school of public health in the Anglosphere
Ghanaian children receive insecticide-treated bed nets to prevent exposure to malaria transmitting mosquitos

Previous efforts in many developed countries had already led to dramatic reductions in the infant mortality rate using preventive methods.

Headquarters in Geneva

World Health Organization

2 links

Specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.

Specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health.

Headquarters in Geneva
Headquarters in Geneva
Alexey Yablokov (left) and Vassili Nesterenko (farthest right) protesting in front of the World Health Organization headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland in 2008.
Demonstration on Chernobyl disaster day near WHO in Geneva
Three former directors of the Global Smallpox Eradication Programme read the news that smallpox had been globally eradicated, 1980
Countries by World Health Organization membership status
Stairwell, 1969
Internal courtyard, 1969
Reflecting pool, 1969
Exterior, 1969
From Southwest, 2013
Entrance hall, 2013
Main conference room, 2013
Map of the WHO's regional offices and their respective operating regions.
Africa; HQ: Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo
Western Pacific; HQ: Manila, Philippines
Eastern Mediterranean; HQ: Cairo, Egypt
South East Asia; HQ: New Delhi, India
Europe; HQ: Copenhagen, Denmark
Americas; HQ: Washington, D.C., US

1998: WHO's director-general highlighted gains in child survival, reduced infant mortality, increased life expectancy and reduced rates of "scourges" such as smallpox and polio on the fiftieth anniversary of WHO's founding.

Combined oral contraceptives. Introduced in 1960, "the Pill" has played an instrumental role in family planning for decades.

Family planning

2 links

Achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility."

Achieved through use of contraceptive methods and the treatment of involuntary infertility."

Combined oral contraceptives. Introduced in 1960, "the Pill" has played an instrumental role in family planning for decades.
Family planning methods
Global maternal mortality rate per 100,000 live births (2010)
Placard showing negative effects of lack of family planning and having too many children and infants (Ethiopia)
Placard showing positive effects of family planning (Ethiopia)
Countries by 2019 GDP (nominal) per capita
Global carbon dioxide emissions by jurisdiction
Map of countries by fertility rate (2020), according to the Population Reference Bureau
Demand for Private Tutoring with and without access to family planning
Demand for family planning satisfied by modern methods as of 2017
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, "Trends in Contraceptive Use Worldwide 2015", New York: United Nations, 2015
A family planning facility in Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Map of population density by country, per square kilometer

Reducing infant mortality

26-week gestation, premature infant, weighing <990gm with ventilator

Neonatal infection

0 links

Neonatal infections are infections of the neonate (newborn) acquired during prenatal development or in the first four weeks of life (neonatal period).

Neonatal infections are infections of the neonate (newborn) acquired during prenatal development or in the first four weeks of life (neonatal period).

26-week gestation, premature infant, weighing <990gm with ventilator
Listeria monocytogenes
Chorioamnionitis
Disability-adjusted life year for neonatal infections and other (perinatal) conditions per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. Excludes prematurity and low birth weight, birth asphyxia and birth trauma which have their own maps/data. 
no data
less than 150
150–300
300–450
450–600
600–750
750–900
900–1050
1050–1200
1200–1350
1350–1500
1500–1850
more than 1850

Instead of relying solely on culturing techniques, pathogen identification has improved substantially with advancing technology; however, neonate mortality reduction has not kept pace and remains 20% to 50%.

Campaigns like Safe to Sleep prevent SIDS

SIDS

0 links

Sudden unexplained death of a child of less than one year of age.

Sudden unexplained death of a child of less than one year of age.

Campaigns like Safe to Sleep prevent SIDS
SIDS rate from 1988 to 2006
Arcutio, a device designed to prevent infant death by suffocation, Philosophical Transactions 422 (1732)
Rates of SIDS by race/ethnicity in the U.S., 2009, CDC, 2013

SIDS was the third leading cause of death in children less than one year old in the United States in 2011.