Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectionsinfectiouscommunicable diseasepestilencecommunicable diseasesinfectedcontagionsecondary infection
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.wikipedia
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Transmission (medicine)

transmissiondisease transmissiontransmissible disease
Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection.
In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.

Disease

morbidityillnessdiseases
Infectious disease, also known as transmissible disease or communicable disease, is illness resulting from an infection. Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries, disabilities, disorders, syndromes, infections, isolated symptoms, deviant behaviors, and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Mammalian hosts react to infections with an innate response, often involving inflammation, followed by an adaptive response.
Inflammation is not a synonym for infection.

Antiviral drug

antiviralantiretroviral therapyantivirals
Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics.
Most antivirals are considered relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
Hosts can fight infections using their immune system.
The immune system protects organisms from infection with layered defenses of increasing specificity.

Toxoplasma gondii

ToxoplasmaToxoplasma gondiT. gondii
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasitic one-celled eukaryote (specifically an apicomplexan) that causes the infectious disease toxoplasmosis.

Subclinical infection

subclinicalasymptomaticasymptomatically
Symptomatic infections are apparent and clinical, whereas an infection that is active but does not produce noticeable symptoms may be called inapparent, silent, subclinical, or occult.
A subclinical infection (sometimes called a preinfection) is an infection that, being subclinical, is nearly or completely asymptomatic (no signs or symptoms).

Ascomycota

Ascomycetesascomycetesac fungi
Penicillium species on cheeses and those producing antibiotics for treating bacterial infectious diseases are examples of ascomycetes.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
The branch of medicine that focuses on infections is referred to as infectious disease.

Herpesviridae

herpesvirusherpesvirusesherpes virus
Some viral infections can also be latent, examples of latent viral infections are any of those from the Herpesviridae family.
Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause infections and certain diseases in animals, including humans.

Pathogenic bacteria

bacterial infectionbacterial infectionsbacterial

Dermatophytosis

ringwormtineadermatophytoses
Infections on the body may give rise to typical enlarging raised red rings of ringworm.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
Childhood diseases include pertussis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, measles and tetanus.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.

Malaria

cerebral malariamalarial fevermalarial
The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria.
In those who have recently survived an infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms.

Tuberculosis

consumptionpulmonary tuberculosisTB
The top three single agent/disease killers are HIV/AIDS, TB and malaria. These postulates were first used in the discovery that Mycobacteria species cause tuberculosis.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteria.

Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flu
Infectious diseases are sometimes called contagious disease when they are easily transmitted by contact with an ill person or their secretions (e.g., influenza).
Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by an influenza virus.

Quarantine

quarantine stationquarantinedquarantining
Other types of infectious, transmissible, or communicable diseases with more specialized routes of infection, such as vector transmission or sexual transmission, are usually not regarded as "contagious", and often do not require medical isolation (sometimes loosely called quarantine) of victims.
It is often used in connection to disease and illness, preventing the movement of those who may have been exposed to a communicable disease, but do not have a confirmed medical diagnosis.

Urinary tract infection

cystitisurinary tract infectionsbladder infection
A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects part of the urinary tract.

Penetrating trauma

penetratingpuncture woundpenetrating injury
Penetrating trauma can be serious because it can damage internal organs and presents a risk of shock and infection.

Salpingitis

Salpingitis is an infection and inflammation in the Fallopian tubes.

Skin infection

skinbacterial skin infectioncutaneous
An infection of the skin and skin structure is an infection—generally in humans, but relevant to other animals as well—of the animal's skin and associated soft tissues (such as loose connective tissue and mucous membranes).

Respiratory tract infection

respiratory infectionrespiratory infectionsrespiratory tract infections
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.

Robert Koch

KochDr Robert KochKoch, Robert
One way of proving that a given disease is "infectious", is to satisfy Koch's postulates (first proposed by Robert Koch), which require that first, the infectious agent be identifiable only in patients who have the disease, and not in healthy controls, and second, that patients who contract the infectious agent also develop the disease.
As one of the main founders of modern bacteriology, he identified the specific causative agents of tuberculosis, cholera, and anthrax and gave experimental support for the concept of infectious disease, which included experiments on humans and other animals.

Microbiological culture

culturepure culturecultured
Conversely, even clearly infectious diseases do not always meet the infectious criteria; for example, Treponema pallidum, the causative spirochete of syphilis, cannot be cultured in vitro – however the organism can be cultured in rabbit testes.
It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium.

Endemic (epidemiology)

endemicendemic diseasecommon
Researchers also may assess whether a disease outbreak is sporadic, or just an occasional occurrence; endemic, with a steady level of regular cases occurring in a region; epidemic, with a fast arising, and unusually high number of cases in a region; or pandemic, which is a global epidemic.
In epidemiology, an infection is said to be endemic (from Greek ἐν en "in, within" and δῆμος demos "people") in a population when that infection is constantly maintained at a baseline level in a geographic area without external inputs.