A report on Inferior vena cava

Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate valid blood flow.
Branches of Inferior Vena Cava
Inferior vena cava
Inferior vena cava front view
Image of an inferior vena cava filter
Image showing an inferior vena cava filter in its position

Large vein that carries the deoxygenated blood from the lower and middle body into the right atrium of the heart.

- Inferior vena cava
Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate valid blood flow.

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Overall

Heart

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Muscular organ in most animals.

Muscular organ in most animals.

Human heart during an autopsy
Computer-generated animation of a beating human heart
The human heart is in the middle of the thorax, with its apex pointing to the left.
Heart being dissected showing right and left ventricles, from above
Frontal section showing papillary muscles attached to the tricuspid valve on the right and to the mitral valve on the left via chordae tendineae.
Layers of the heart wall, including visceral and parietal pericardium
The swirling pattern of myocardium helps the heart pump effectively
Arterial supply to the heart (red), with other areas labelled (blue).
Autonomic innervation of the heart
Development of the human heart during the first eight weeks (top) and the formation of the heart chambers (bottom). In this figure, the blue and red colors represent blood inflow and outflow (not venous and arterial blood). Initially, all venous blood flows from the tail/atria to the ventricles/head, a very different pattern from that of an adult.
Blood flow through the valves
The cardiac cycle as correlated to the ECG
The x-axis reflects time with a recording of the heart sounds. The y-axis represents pressure.
Transmission of a cardiac action potential through the heart's conduction system
Conduction system of the heart
The prepotential is due to a slow influx of sodium ions until the threshold is reached followed by a rapid depolarization and repolarization. The prepotential accounts for the membrane reaching threshold and initiates the spontaneous depolarization and contraction of the cell; there is no resting potential.
3D echocardiogram showing the mitral valve (right), tricuspid and mitral valves (top left) and aortic valve (top right).
The closure of the heart valves causes the heart sounds.
Cardiac cycle shown against ECG
Heart and its blood vessels, by Leonardo da Vinci, 15th century
Animated heart
Elize Ryd making a heart sign at a concert in 2018
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the diamond-shaped wing muscles (also green) and surrounded by pericardial cells (red). Blue depicts cell nuclei.
Basic arthropod body structure – heart shown in red
The human heart viewed from the front
The human heart viewed from behind
The coronary circulation
The human heart viewed from the front and from behind
Frontal section of the human heart
An anatomical specimen of the heart
Heart illustration with circulatory system
Animated Heart 3d Model Rendered in Computer

In humans, deoxygenated blood enters the heart through the right atrium from the superior and inferior venae cavae and passes it to the right ventricle.

Front view of heart showing the atria

Atrium (heart)

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One of two upper chambers in the heart that receives blood from the circulatory system.

One of two upper chambers in the heart that receives blood from the circulatory system.

Front view of heart showing the atria
Right heart anatomy
left atrial appendage shown at upper right
CT scan of the chest showing a thrombus in the left atrial appendage (left: axial plane, right: coronal plane)

The right atrium receives and holds deoxygenated blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, anterior cardiac veins, smallest cardiac veins and the coronary sinus, which it then sends down to the right ventricle (through the tricuspid valve), which in turn sends it to the pulmonary artery for pulmonary circulation.

The main veins in the human body

Vein

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Veins are blood vessels in humans, and most other animals that carry blood towards the heart.

Veins are blood vessels in humans, and most other animals that carry blood towards the heart.

The main veins in the human body
Branches of inferior vena cava
Video of venous valve in action
Venous valves prevent reverse blood flow.
Human anatomical chart of blood vessels, with heart, lungs, liver and kidneys included. Other organs are numbered and arranged around it. Before cutting out the figures on this page, Vesalius suggests that readers glue the page onto parchment and gives instructions on how to assemble the pieces and paste the multilayered figure onto a base "muscle man" illustration. "Epitome", fol.14a. HMD Collection, WZ 240 V575dhZ 1543.
Image of veins from William Harvey's Exercitatio Anatomica de Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus

The superior vena cava carries blood from the arms and head to the right atrium of the heart, while the inferior vena cava carries blood from the legs and abdomen to the heart.

The superior vena cava drains from the left and right brachiocephalic veins into the right atrium

Superior vena cava

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Superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

Superior of the two venae cavae, the great venous trunks that return deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation to the right atrium of the heart.

The superior vena cava drains from the left and right brachiocephalic veins into the right atrium
The superior vena cava drains from the left and right brachiocephalic veins into the right atrium
The thorax, viewed from the front, showing the superior vena cava between the heart and lungs.
Heart seen from above, with the valve-less entry of the superior vena cava visible on the right.
Superior vena cava in a cadaveric specimen.
Cross-section of the thorax showing the formation of the superior vena cava.

Venous return from the lower half, below the diaphragm, flows through the inferior vena cava.

Back (posterior) side of the heart, with coronary sinus (blue) labeled

Coronary sinus

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Collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle .

Collection of veins joined together to form a large vessel that collects blood from the heart muscle .

Back (posterior) side of the heart, with coronary sinus (blue) labeled
Diagram showing completion of development of the parietal veins.
Posterior view of coronary circulation

It delivers less-oxygenated blood to the right atrium, as do the superior and inferior venae cavae.

The human heart and nearby structures, with superior and inferior vena cava labeled at left side of image.

Venae cavae

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The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava" ) are two large veins (great vessels) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.

The venae cavae (from the Latin for "hollow veins", singular "vena cava" ) are two large veins (great vessels) that return deoxygenated blood from the body into the heart.

The human heart and nearby structures, with superior and inferior vena cava labeled at left side of image.

In humans they are the superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava, and both empty into the right atrium.

The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing the areas of contact of neighboring viscera.

Renal vein

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The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.

The renal veins are veins that drain the kidney.

The anterior surfaces of the kidneys, showing the areas of contact of neighboring viscera.
3D-rendered computed tomography, showing one renal vein (in red color) for each kidney
Frontal section through the kidney
Diagram showing completion of development of the parietal veins.
The venæ cavæ and azygos veins, with their tributaries.
Renal vein
Human kidneys viewed from behind with spine removed.
Kidney
Renal vein
Renal vein
Renal vein

They connect the kidney to the inferior vena cava.

A woman in the third trimester of pregnancy

Pregnancy

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Time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman's womb.

Time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman's womb.

A woman in the third trimester of pregnancy
William Hunter, Anatomia uteri humani gravidi tabulis illustrata, 1774
Melasma: pigment changes to the face due to pregnancy
In the later part of pregnancy the uterus takes up much of the abdomen
Timeline of pregnancy, including (from top to bottom): Trimesters, embryo/fetus development, gestational age in weeks and months, viability and maturity stages
Distribution of gestational age at childbirth among singleton live births, given both when gestational age is estimated by first trimester ultrasound and directly by last menstrual period. Roughly 80% of births occur between 37 and 41 weeks of gestational age.
Fertilization and implantation in humans
The initial stages of human embryogenesis
Breast changes as seen during pregnancy. The areolae are larger and darker.
The uterus as it changes in size over the duration of the trimesters
By the end of the second trimester, the expanding uterus has created a visible "baby bump". Although the breasts have been developing internally since the beginning of the pregnancy, most of the visible changes appear after this point.
Pregnant woman in third trimester of pregnancy (last month)
The uterus expands making up a larger and larger portion of the woman's abdomen. At left anterior view with months labeled, at right lateral view labeling the last 4 weeks. During the final stages of gestation before childbirth the fetus and uterus will drop to a lower position.
Linea nigra in a woman at 22 weeks pregnant.
CT scanning (volume rendered in this case) confers a radiation dose to the developing fetus.
A pregnant woman undergoing an ultrasound. Ultrasound is used to check on the growth and development of the fetus.
Giotto di Bondone Visitation, circa 1305
Embryo at 4 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 6 weeks)
Fetus at 8 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 10 weeks)
Fetus at 18 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 20 weeks)
Fetus at 38 weeks after fertilization (gestational age of 40 weeks)
Relative size in 1st month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 3rd month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 5th month (simplified illustration)
Relative size in 9th month (simplified illustration)
Anatomical model of a pregnant woman; Stephan Zick (1639–1715); 1700; Germanisches Nationalmuseum
Statue of a pregnant woman, Macedonia
Bronze figure of a pregnant naked woman by Danny Osborne, Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland
Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger Portrait of Susanna Temple, second wife of Sir Martin Lister, 1620
Octave Tassaert, The Waif aka L'abandonnée 1852, Musée Fabre, Montpellier
The Visitation: Mary, pregnant with Jesus, visiting pregnant Elizabeth, depicted as a statue at the Church of the Visitation in Ein Karem, Israel.
Venus of Willendorf, c. 25,000 BC, Austria
Taweret ancient Egyptian goddess of pregnancy.
Pottery figure from ancient Mexico
Picture of the tragic and gory story about the life of a travelling actress called Okume.<ref name="British Museum">{{cite web | title=Collections Online | website=British Museum | url=https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/term/BIOG177414 | access-date=2022-07-01}}</ref>
Gustav Klimt, 1903, Hoffnung I (Hope I)

Peripheral edema swelling of the lower limbs. Common complaint in advancing pregnancy. Can be caused by inferior vena cava syndrome resulting from compression of the inferior vena cava and pelvic veins by the uterus leading to increased hydrostatic pressure in lower extremities.

Veins of the abdomen and lower limb – inferior vena cava, common iliac vein, external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, femoral vein and their tributaries. The aorta and its bifurcation (unlabeled) appear in red.

Common iliac vein

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In human anatomy, the common iliac veins are formed by the external iliac veins and internal iliac veins.

In human anatomy, the common iliac veins are formed by the external iliac veins and internal iliac veins.

Veins of the abdomen and lower limb – inferior vena cava, common iliac vein, external iliac vein, internal iliac vein, femoral vein and their tributaries. The aorta and its bifurcation (unlabeled) appear in red.

The left and right common iliac veins come together in the abdomen at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, forming the inferior vena cava.

Respiratory system

Thoracic diaphragm

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Sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

Sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.

Respiratory system
Structure of diaphragm shown using a 3D medical animation still shot
Definition of diaphragm in Blount's 1707 Glossographia Anglicana Nova
Human diaphragm, transverse view from below, showing openings
X-ray of chest, showing top of diaphragm.
Diaphragm and pleural cavities in amphibian (left), bird (center), mammal (right). a, mandible; b, genio-hyoid; c, hyoid; d, sterno-hyoid; e, sternum; f, pericardium; g, septum transversum; h, rectus abdominis; i, abdominal cavity; j, pubis; k, esophagus; l, trachea; m, cervical limiting membrane of abdominal cavity; n, dorsal wall of body; o, lung; o', air-sac.

There are three large openings — one for the aorta, one for the esophagus, and one for the inferior vena cava (the caval opening), plus a series of smaller ones.