Infertility

infertilesterilesterilitybarrensubfertilitybarrennessfertility problemsunable to have childrenunable to conceivefertility
Infertility is the inability of a person, animal or plant to reproduce by natural means.wikipedia
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Assisted reproductive technology

assisted reproductionfertility treatmentassisted reproductive technologies
There are many causes of infertility, including some that medical intervention can treat.
Assisted reproductive technology (ART) includes medical procedures used primarily to address infertility.

Male infertility

impair male fertilityinfertilesterile
Male infertility is responsible for 20–30% of infertility cases, while 20–35% are due to female infertility, and 25–40% are due to combined problems in both parts.
In humans it accounts for 40–50% of infertility.

Female infertility

infertilitybarrenbarren woman
Male infertility is responsible for 20–30% of infertility cases, while 20–35% are due to female infertility, and 25–40% are due to combined problems in both parts.
Female infertility refers to infertility in women.

Fertility

fertilemale fertilityfemale fertility
Women who are fertile experience a natural period of fertility before and during ovulation, and they are naturally infertile for the rest of the menstrual cycle.
A lack of fertility is infertility while a lack of fecundity would be called sterility.

Semen quality

sperm qualityqualitysperm viability
Male infertility is most commonly due to deficiencies in the semen, and semen quality is used as a surrogate measure of male fecundity.

Eusociality

eusocialsocial insectssocial insect
It is usually not the natural state of a healthy adult, except notably among certain eusocial species (mostly haplodiploid insects).
The order Hymenoptera contains the largest group of eusocial insects, including ants, bees, and wasps—those with reproductive "queens" and more or less sterile "workers" and/or "soldiers" that perform specialized tasks.

Testicular cancer

testiculartesticular tumortesticular carcinoma
Risk factors for the formation of antisperm antibodies in men include the breakdown of the blood‑testis barrier, trauma and surgery, orchitis, varicocele, infections, prostatitis, testicular cancer, failure of immunosuppression and unprotected receptive anal or oral sex with men.
Treatment may result in infertility.

Reproductive endocrinology and infertility

reproductive endocrinologyreproductive physiologyreproductive endocrinologist
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.

Chlamydia

chlamydia infectionchlamydialChlamydial infection
Other diseases such as chlamydia, and gonorrhea can also cause infertility, due to internal scarring (fallopian tube obstruction).
The infection can spread to the upper genital tract in women causing pelvic inflammatory disease which may result in future infertility or ectopic pregnancy.

Hyperprolactinaemia

hyperprolactinemiaChiari-Frommel SyndromeChiari–Frommel syndrome
Hyperprolactinaemia may cause galactorrhea (production and spontaneous flow of breast milk), infertility, and disruptions in the normal menstrual period in women; and hypogonadism, infertility and erectile dysfunction in men.

Mycoplasma genitalium

M. genitalium
There is a consistent association of Mycoplasma genitalium infection and female reproductive tract syndromes.
Women may also experience bleeding after sex and it is also linked with tubal factor infertility.

Hypopituitarism

panhypopituitarismHypothalamic dysfunctionHypothalamic suppression
Women experience oligo- or amenorrhea (infrequent/light or absent menstrual periods respectively) and infertility.

Pelvic inflammatory disease

pelvic inflammationPelvic inflammatory disease (PID)pelvic inflammatory diseases
Untreated PID can result in long-term complications including infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain, and cancer.

Cystic fibrosis

CFCystic fibrosis of the pancreasdisease
Cystic fibrosis can lead to infertility in men.
Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males.

Endometriosis

Endomentriosisendometriosis,endometriotic
For example, endometriosis can cause infertility with the growth of endometrial tissue in the Fallopian tubes or around the ovaries.
About a third of women with infertility have endometriosis.

Clomifene

clomipheneclomiphene citrateClomid
Drugs used for both women and men include clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, aromatase inhibitors, and metformin.
Clomifene, also known as clomiphene, is a medication used to treat infertility in women who do not ovulate.

Fallopian tube obstruction

tubal obstructiontubal occlusionblocked fallopian tubes
Other diseases such as chlamydia, and gonorrhea can also cause infertility, due to internal scarring (fallopian tube obstruction).
While a full testing of tubal functions in patients with infertility is not possible, testing of tubal patency is feasible.

Menotropin

Pergonalhuman menopausal gonadotropinmenotropins
Drugs used for both women and men include clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, aromatase inhibitors, and metformin.
Menotropin (also called human menopausal gonadotropin or hMG) is a hormonally active medication for the treatment of fertility disturbances.

Azoospermia

azoospermicaspermatogenesisobstructive azoospermia
Affected individuals displayed more severe forms of infertility such as azoospermia and severe oligozoospermia.
Homozygous knockout mice [BRD7] are infertile and have higher levels of apoptosis and DNA damage in their germline cells.

Metformin

AvandametGlucophageFortamet
Drugs used for both women and men include clomiphene citrate, human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues, aromatase inhibitors, and metformin.
It is also used as a second line agent for infertility in those with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia

Kartagener syndromeKartagener's syndromeciliary dyskinesia-2
Infertility associated with viable, but immotile sperm may be caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia.
In males, immotility of sperm can lead to infertility, although conception remains possible through the use of in vitro fertilization, there also are reported cases where sperm were able to move.

In vitro fertilisation

IVFin vitro fertilizationin-vitro fertilization
Advances in assisted reproductive technologies, such as IVF, can offer hope to many couples where treatment is available, although barriers exist in terms of medical coverage and affordability.
IVF is a type of assisted reproductive technology used for infertility treatment and gestational surrogacy.

Embryo

embryosembryonalhuman embryos
In both men and women, ASA production are directed against surface antigens on sperm, which can interfere with sperm motility and transport through the female reproductive tract, inhibiting capacitation and acrosome reaction, impaired fertilization, influence on the implantation process, and impaired growth and development of the embryo.
This method may assist scientists to understand the very first moments of the process of the birth of a new life, which, in turn, can lead to the emergence of new effective methods to combat infertility and other genetic diseases.

Gonorrhea

gonorrhoeathe clapgonorhea
Other diseases such as chlamydia, and gonorrhea can also cause infertility, due to internal scarring (fallopian tube obstruction).
Other complications include inflammation of the tissue surrounding the liver, a rare complication associated with Fitz-Hugh–Curtis syndrome; septic arthritis in the fingers, wrists, toes, and ankles; septic abortion; chorioamnionitis during pregnancy; neonatal or adult blindness from conjunctivitis; and infertility.