Inflection

inflectedinflectional morphologyinflectionalinflectinflexioninflectionsparadigmAccidenceinflectinginflective
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.wikipedia
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Grammatical gender

genderfemininemasculine
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.
Grammatical gender manifests itself when words related to a noun like determiners, pronouns or adjectives change their form (inflect) according to the gender of noun they refer to (agreement).

Grammatical conjugation

conjugationconjugatedconjugations
The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.
In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

Verb

verbssubject-verb agreementv.
The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.
In many languages, verbs are inflected (modified in form) to encode tense, aspect, mood, and voice.

Prefix

prefixesprefixationquasi-
An inflection expresses grammatical categories with affixation (such as prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix, and transfix), apophony (as Indo-European ablaut), or other modifications.
Prefixes, like other affixes, can be either inflectional, creating a new form of the word with the same basic meaning and same lexical category (but playing a different role in the sentence), or derivational, creating a new word with a new semantic meaning and sometimes also a different lexical category.

Declension

declinedcasecases
The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.
In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word, generally to express its syntactic function in the sentence, by way of some inflection.

Grammatical aspect

aspectaspectualaspects
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.
Grammatical aspect is a formal property of a language, distinguished through overt inflection, derivational affixes, or independent words that serve as grammatically required markers of those aspects.

Affix

suffixaffixesaffixation
An inflection expresses grammatical categories with affixation (such as prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix, and transfix), apophony (as Indo-European ablaut), or other modifications.
Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed.

Apophony

ablautvowel alternationvowel gradation
An inflection expresses grammatical categories with affixation (such as prefix, suffix, infix, circumfix, and transfix), apophony (as Indo-European ablaut), or other modifications.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).

Voice (grammar)

voicegrammatical voicevoices
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.
In other languages, such as Latin, the passive voice is simply marked on the verb by inflection: librum legit "He reads the book"; liber legitur "The book is read".

Adjective

adjectivesadjectivalattributive adjective
The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.
In the grammatical tradition of Latin and Greek, because adjectives were inflected for gender, number, and case like nouns (a process called declension), they were considered a type of noun.

Synthetic language

syntheticsyntheticallysynthesis
Languages that have some degree of inflection are synthetic languages.
A synthetic language uses inflection or agglutination to express syntactic relationships within a sentence.

Agreement (linguistics)

agreementagreegrammatical agreement
Requiring the forms or inflections of more than one word in a sentence to be compatible with each other according to the rules of the language is known as concord or agreement.
It is an instance of inflection, and usually involves making the value of some grammatical category (such as gender or person) "agree" between varied words or parts of the sentence.

Infinitive

infinitivesinfinitivalto''-infinitive
In contrast, in the English clause "I will lead", the word lead is not inflected for any of person, number, or tense; it is simply the bare form of a verb.
In many other languages the infinitive is a single word, often with a characteristic inflective ending, like morir ("(to) die") in Spanish, manger ("(to) eat") in French, portare ("(to) carry") in Latin, lieben ("(to) love") in German, etc. However, some languages have no infinitive forms.

Analytic language

analyticanalytic languagesanalytical
Languages that seldom make use of inflection, such as Standard Chinese, are said to be analytic or isolating.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).

Polysynthetic language

polysyntheticpolysynthesispolysynthetic languages
Languages that are so inflected that a sentence can consist of a single highly inflected word (such as many American Indian languages) are called polysynthetic languages.
They are very highly inflected languages.

Inflected preposition

inflectedprepositional pronounsconjugated prepositions
The inflection of verbs is called conjugation, and one can refer to the inflection of nouns, adjectives, adverbs, pronouns, determiners, participles, prepositions and postpositions, numerals, articles etc., as declension.
Historically, inflected prepositions can develop from the contraction of a preposition with a personal pronoun; however, they are commonly reanalysed as inflected words by native speakers and by traditional grammar.

Grammatical number

numbersingularnumbers
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.
Usually, the singular is the unmarked form of a word, and the plural is obtained by inflecting the singular.

English plurals

English pluralpluralplurals
For details, see English plural, English verbs, and English irregular verbs.
English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural.

English modal verbs

modal verbsshallwould
Words that are never subject to inflection are said to be invariant; for example, the English verb must is an invariant item: it never takes a suffix or changes form to signify a different grammatical category.

Finnish language

FinnishFinnish-languagefi
Languages in which each inflection conveys only a single grammatical category, such as Finnish, are known as agglutinative languages, while languages in which a single inflection can convey multiple grammatical roles (such as both nominative case and plural, as in Latin and German) are called fusional.
It modifies and inflects nouns, adjectives, pronouns, numerals and verbs, depending on their roles in the sentence.

English verbs

English-edEnglish verb
For details, see English plural, English verbs, and English irregular verbs.
Like other types of words in the language, English verbs are not heavily inflected.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
These can be highly inflected (such as Latin, Greek, Biblical Hebrew, and Sanskrit), or weakly inflected (such as English).
Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax.

Isolating language

isolatinganalyticisolating languages
Languages that seldom make use of inflection, such as Standard Chinese, are said to be analytic or isolating.
An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.

English irregular verbs

irregular verbsirregularEnglish (irregular)
For details, see English plural, English verbs, and English irregular verbs.
The other inflected parts of the verb—the third person singular present indicative in -[e]s, and the present participle and gerund form in -ing—are formed regularly in most cases.

Grammatical tense

tensetensesverb tense
In linguistic morphology, inflection (or inflexion) is a process of word formation, in which a word is modified to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, mood, animacy, and definiteness.
Tense is normally indicated by the use of a particular verb form – either an inflected form of the main verb, or a multi-word construction, or both in combination.