Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flugrippehuman influenzala grippeviral feverflu-like symptomsinfluenza virusflu virus
"Flu" and "Grippe" redirect here.wikipedia
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Gastroenteritis

stomach flucholera morbusinfectious diarrhea
Diarrhea and vomiting occur more commonly in gastroenteritis, which is an unrelated disease and sometimes inaccurately referred to as "stomach flu" or the "24-hour flu".
It is not related to influenza, though it has erroneously been called the "stomach flu".

Influenza vaccine

flu vaccineinfluenza vaccinationinfluenza
Yearly vaccinations against influenza are recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for those at high risk, and by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for those six months of age and older.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by influenza viruses.

Flu season

seasonal fluinfluenza epidemicseasonal influenza
Influenza spreads around the world in yearly outbreaks, resulting in about three to five million cases of severe illness and about 290,000 to 650,000 deaths.
Flu season is an annually recurring time period characterized by the prevalence of outbreaks of influenza (flu).

Influenza pandemic

flu pandemicpandemicpandemic flu
In the 20th century, three influenza pandemics occurred: Spanish influenza in 1918 (40–50million deaths), Asian influenza in 1957 (two million deaths), and Hong Kong influenza in 1968 (one million deaths).
An influenza pandemic is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population.

Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
Larger outbreaks known as pandemics are less frequent.
As late as 1848–49, as many as 40,000 out of 150,000 Hawaiians are estimated to have died of measles, whooping cough and influenza.

Hand washing

handwashinghand hygienewashing hands
Frequent hand washing reduces the risk of viral spread.
As a general rule, hand washing protects people poorly or not at all from droplet and airborne diseases, such as measles, chickenpox, influenza, and tuberculosis.

Rapid influenza diagnostic test

rapid influenza testrapid tests
A number of rapid tests are available; however, people may still have the infection even if the results are negative.
A rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) tells whether a person has a current influenza infection by detecting the influenza viral nucleoprotein antigen.

Oseltamivir

TamifluFluviroseltamavir
Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, among others, have been used to treat influenza.
Oseltamivir is used for the prevention and treatment of influenza caused by influenza A and B viruses.

Hoarse voice

dysphoniahoarsenessvoice changes
Long-term hoarseness, or hoarseness that persists over three weeks, especially when not associated with a cold or flu should be assessed by a medical doctor.

Influenza A virus

influenza AInfluenzavirus Abird flu
The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which lasted from 1918 to 1919.
Influenza A virus causes influenza in birds and some mammals, and is the only species of the genus Alphainfluenzavirus of the virus family Orthomyxoviridae.

RNA virus

RNA virusesRNARNA genome
Notable human diseases caused by RNA viruses include Ebola virus disease, SARS, rabies, common cold, influenza, hepatitis C, hepatitis E, West Nile fever, polio and measles.

2009 flu pandemic

2009 swine flu outbreakswine fluswine flu outbreak
The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June 2009.
The symptoms of H1N1 flu are similar to those of other influenzas, and may include fever, cough (typically a "dry cough"), headache, muscle or joint pain, sore throat, chills, fatigue, and runny nose.

Common cold

coldcoldsnasopharyngitis
It can be difficult to distinguish between the common cold and influenza in the early stages of these infections.
In contrast, those affected by influenza can show similar symptoms as people with a cold, but symptoms are usually more severe.

Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

H1N1H1N1 virusH1N1 influenza
The most famous and lethal outbreak was the 1918 flu pandemic (Spanish flu pandemic) (type A influenza, H1N1 subtype), which lasted from 1918 to 1919. The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June 2009.
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu.

Influenza A virus subtype H3N2

H3N2Hong Kong Flu1968 pandemic
Measured resistance to amantadine and rimantadine in American isolates of H3N2 has increased to 91% in 2005.
Influenza A virus subtype H3N2 (A/H3N2) is a subtype of viruses that causes influenza (flu).

Fever

pyrexiafebrileague
The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pain, headache, coughing, and feeling tired.

Influenza D virus

Influenza DInfluenza virus DInfluenzavirus D
A fourth family of influenza viruses was identified in 2016 – Influenza D.
Influenza D virus is a species in the virus genus Influenzavirus D, in the family Orthomyxoviridae, that causes influenza.

Rhinorrhea

runny nosenasal dischargerhinorrhoea
The most common symptoms include: high fever, runny nose, sore throat, muscle and joint pain, headache, coughing, and feeling tired.
Rhinorrhea can be a symptom of other diseases, such as the common cold or influenza.

Influenza C virus

CInfluenzavirus Cinfluenza C
Influenza C virus is the species in the genus Influenzavirus C, in the virus family Orthomyxoviridae, which like other influenza viruses, causes influenza.

Croup

laryngotracheobronchitisobstructive laryngitiscynanche trachealis
These viruses are only distantly related to the human parainfluenza viruses, which are RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that are a common cause of respiratory infections in children such as croup, but can also cause a disease similar to influenza in adults.
Many cases of croup are preventable by immunization for influenza and diphtheria.

Antigenic shift

Viral shiftgenetic shiftsmajor genetic changes
This reduced rate of antigenic change, combined with its limited host range (inhibiting cross species antigenic shift), ensures that pandemics of influenza B do not occur.
The term is often applied specifically to influenza, as that is the best-known example, but the process is also known to occur with other viruses, such as visna virus in sheep.

Influenza A virus subtype H7N7

H7N7
H7N7 is a subtype of Influenza A virus, a genus of Orthomyxovirus, the viruses responsible for influenza.

Hemagglutinin (influenza)

hemagglutininHAhaemagglutinin
For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2.
Influenza hemagglutinin (HA) or haemagglutinin[[#Notes| [p] ]] (British English) is a homotrimeric glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza viruses and is integral to its infectivity.

M1 protein

M1
For example, the influenza A genome contains 11 genes on eight pieces of RNA, encoding for 11 proteins: hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), nucleoprotein (NP), M1 (matrix 1 protein), M2, NS1 (non-structural protein 1), NS2 (other name is NEP, nuclear export protein), PA, PB1 (polymerase basic 1), PB1-F2 and PB2.
The M1 protein is a matrix protein of the influenza virus.

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

H5N1bird fluavian flu
Diarrhea is not usually a symptom of influenza in adults, although it has been seen in some human cases of the H5N1 "bird flu" and can be a symptom in children.
In general, humans who catch a humanized influenza A virus (a human flu virus of type A) usually have symptoms that include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, conjunctivitis, and, in severe cases, breathing problems and pneumonia that may be fatal.