Influenza A virus subtype H1N1

H1N1H1N1 virusH1N1 influenzaH1N1 fluA(H1N1)A/H1N1AH1N1Influenza A (H1N1)H1N1 flu virusH1N1 influenza virus
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu.wikipedia
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Swine influenza

swine fluH1N1 (Swine flu)swine
Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). This new strain appears to be a result of reassortment of human influenza and swine influenza viruses, in all four different strains of subtype H1N1.
As of 2009, the known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H2N1, H3N1, H3N2, and H2N3.

Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flu
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. This new strain appears to be a result of reassortment of human influenza and swine influenza viruses, in all four different strains of subtype H1N1.
The World Health Organization declared an outbreak of a new type of influenza A/H1N1 to be a pandemic in June 2009.

2009 flu pandemic

2009 swine flu outbreakswine fluswine flu outbreak
In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic.
The 2009 flu pandemic or swine flu was an influenza pandemic that lasted from early 2009 to late 2010, and the second of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus (the first of them being the 1918–1920 Spanish flu pandemic), albeit in a new version.

Orthomyxoviridae

influenza virusinfluenza virusesflu virus
It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase.

Influenza A virus

influenza AInfluenzavirus Abird flu
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu.
The annually updated, trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses.

Spanish flu

1918 flu pandemicSpanish influenzaSpanish flu pandemic
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu.
The 1918 influenza pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920; also known as Spanish flu) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.

Influenza A virus subtype H3N2

H3N2Hong Kong Flu1968 pandemic
The known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3.
Flu vaccines are based on predicting which "mutants" of H1N1, H3N2, H1N2, and influenza B will proliferate in the next season.

Pandemic

plaguepandemicsplagues
It is thought to be one of the deadliest pandemics in human history.
The most recent pandemics include the HIV pandemic as well as the 1918 and 2009 H1N1 pandemics.

Avian influenza

bird fluavian fluavian
Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza). (The current H5N1 bird flu, also an Influenza A virus, has a similar effect.) The Spanish flu virus infected lung cells, leading to overstimulation of the immune system via release of cytokines into the lung tissue.

Influenza A virus subtype H1N2

H1N2
The known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3.
H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 are the only known Influenza A virus subtypes currently circulating among humans.

Flu season

seasonal fluinfluenza epidemicseasonal influenza
Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza.
The annually updated trivalent influenza vaccine consists of hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein components from influenza H3N2, H1N1, and B influenza viruses.

Influenza A virus subtype H3N1

H3N1
The known SIV strains include influenza C and the subtypes of influenza A known as H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3.
The known subtypes of Influenza A virus that create influenza in pigs and are endemic in pigs are H1N1, H1N2, H3N1 and H3N2.

Neuraminidase

N2exo-a-sialidaseN
It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase.
Recent emergence of oseltamivir and zanamivir resistant human influenza A(H1N1) H274Y has emphasized the need for suitable expression systems to obtain large quantities of highly pure and stable, recombinant neuraminidase through two separate artificial tetramerization domains that facilitate the formation of catalytically active neuraminidase homotetramers from yeast and Staphylothermus marinus, which allow for secretion of FLAG-tagged proteins and further purification.

Pandemic H1N1/09 virus

H1N1new strainswine flu
In June 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the new strain of swine-origin H1N1 as a pandemic.
The Pandemic H1N1/09 virus is a swine origin Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 virus strain responsible for the 2009 flu pandemic.

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

H5N1bird fluavian flu
(The current H5N1 bird flu, also an Influenza A virus, has a similar effect.) The Spanish flu virus infected lung cells, leading to overstimulation of the immune system via release of cytokines into the lung tissue.

Reassortment

reassortedreassortReassortant
This new strain appears to be a result of reassortment of human influenza and swine influenza viruses, in all four different strains of subtype H1N1.
The 1957 and 1968 pandemic flu strains were caused by reassortment between an avian virus and a human virus, whereas the H1N1 virus responsible for the 2009 swine flu outbreak has an unusual mix of swine, avian and human influenza genetic sequences.

Replikins

The outbreak had been predicted a year earlier by noticing the increasing number of replikins, a type of peptide, found in the virus.
In particular, this group allowed the prediction of the A/H1N1 pandemic almost one year before onset.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDCCenters for Disease ControlCenter for Disease Control
In April 2009, an outbreak of influenza-like illness (ILI) occurred in Mexico and then in the United States; the CDC reported seven cases of novel A/H1N1 influenza and promptly shared the genetic sequences on the GISAID database.
The CDC has launched campaigns targeting the transmission of influenza, including the H1N1 swine flu, and launched websites to educate people in proper hygiene.

Andrew Miller (physician)

Andrew MillerAndrew Miller MD
The research team of Andrew Miller MD showed pregnant patients are at increased risk.
Andrew Miller is a physician and scientist noted for his work in H1N1.

Influenza vaccine

flu vaccineinfluenza vaccinationinfluenza
The virus was included in the 1978–1979 influenza vaccine.
Most swine flu vaccines include an H1N1 and an H3N2 strain.

Neuraminidase inhibitor

neuraminidase inhibitors
Oseltamivir (trade name Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) are two neuraminidase inhibitors (antiviral medications) currently recommended.
However, after the pandemic caused by H1N1 in 2009, the effectiveness of early treatment with neuraminidase inhibitors in reducing serious cases and deaths was reported in various countries.

Amantadine

Amantadine hydrochlorideSymmetrelSymadine
Both amantadine and rimantadine have been found to be teratogenic and embryotoxic (malformations and toxic effects on the embryo) when given at high doses in animal studies.
However, there is an increasing incidence of oseltamivir resistance in circulating influenza strains (e.g., H1N1), highlighting the serious need for the development of new anti-influenza therapies.

Hemagglutinin (influenza)

hemagglutininHAhaemagglutinin
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu.

Viral neuraminidase

neuraminidaseinfluenza virus neuraminidaseN1
Influenza (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish flu.

Hemagglutinin

haemagglutininhemagglutinins, viralphytohemaglutinins
It is an orthomyxovirus that contains the glycoproteins haemagglutinin and neuraminidase.