Informal logic

informal reasoninginformal
Informal logic, intuitively, refers to the principles of logic and logical thought outside of a formal setting.wikipedia
84 Related Articles

Logic

logicianlogicallogics
Informal logic, intuitively, refers to the principles of logic and logical thought outside of a formal setting. The naming of the field was preceded by the appearance of a number of textbooks that rejected the symbolic approach to logic on pedagogical grounds as inappropriate and unhelpful for introductory textbooks on logic for a general audience, for example Howard Kahane's Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, subtitled "The Use of Reason in Everyday Life", first published in 1971.
Informal logic is the study of natural language arguments. The study of fallacies is an important branch of informal logic. Since much informal argument is not strictly speaking deductive, on some conceptions of logic, informal logic is not logic at all. See 'Rival conceptions', below.

Ralph Johnson (philosopher)

Ralph H. JohnsonRalph Johnson
Ralph H. Johnson and J. Anthony Blair define informal logic as "a branch of logic whose task is to develop non-formal standards, criteria, procedures for the analysis, interpretation, evaluation, criticism and construction of argumentation." Kahane's textbook was described on the notice of his death in the Proceedings And Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (2002) as "a text in informal logic, [that] was intended to enable students to cope with the misleading rhetoric one frequently finds in the media and in political discourse. It was organized around a discussion of fallacies, and was meant to be a practical instrument for dealing with the problems of everyday life. [It has] ... gone through many editions; [it is] ... still in print; and the thousands upon thousands of students who have taken courses in which his text [was] ... used can thank Howard for contributing to their ability to dissect arguments and avoid the deceptions of deceitful rhetoric. He tried to put into practice the ideal of discourse that aims at truth rather than merely at persuasion. (Hausman et al. 2002)" Other textbooks from the era taking this approach were Michael Scriven's Reasoning (Edgepress, 1976) and Logical Self-Defense by Ralph Johnson and J. Anthony Blair, first published in 1977.
Johnson has been credited as one of the founding members of the informal logic movement in North America, along with J. Anthony Blair who co-published one of the movement's most influential texts, "Logical Self-Defense," with Johnson.

Howard Kahane

The naming of the field was preceded by the appearance of a number of textbooks that rejected the symbolic approach to logic on pedagogical grounds as inappropriate and unhelpful for introductory textbooks on logic for a general audience, for example Howard Kahane's Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, subtitled "The Use of Reason in Everyday Life", first published in 1971.
He was noted for promoting a popular, and non-mathematical, approach to logic, now known as informal logic.

J. Anthony Blair

Ralph H. Johnson and J. Anthony Blair define informal logic as "a branch of logic whose task is to develop non-formal standards, criteria, procedures for the analysis, interpretation, evaluation, criticism and construction of argumentation." Kahane's textbook was described on the notice of his death in the Proceedings And Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (2002) as "a text in informal logic, [that] was intended to enable students to cope with the misleading rhetoric one frequently finds in the media and in political discourse. It was organized around a discussion of fallacies, and was meant to be a practical instrument for dealing with the problems of everyday life. [It has] ... gone through many editions; [it is] ... still in print; and the thousands upon thousands of students who have taken courses in which his text [was] ... used can thank Howard for contributing to their ability to dissect arguments and avoid the deceptions of deceitful rhetoric. He tried to put into practice the ideal of discourse that aims at truth rather than merely at persuasion. (Hausman et al. 2002)" Other textbooks from the era taking this approach were Michael Scriven's Reasoning (Edgepress, 1976) and Logical Self-Defense by Ralph Johnson and J. Anthony Blair, first published in 1977.
Along with his colleague Ralph Johnson, he has been credited as one of the founding members of the informal logic movement in North America.

University of Windsor

WindsorAssumptionFaculty of Human Kinetics
Alongside the symposia, since 1983 the journal Informal Logic has been the publication of record of the field, with Blair and Johnson as initial editors, with the editorial board now including two other colleagues from the University of Windsor—Christopher Tindale and Hans V. Hansen.
The University of Windsor's philosophy department is known for its work in informal logic, and regularly hosts an international argumentation conference through the Ontario Society for the Study of Argumentation.

Argumentation theory

argumentationArgumentation theoristlegal argument
Informal logic is associated with (informal) fallacies, critical thinking, the thinking skills movement and the interdisciplinary inquiry known as argumentation theory.
These theories include informal logic, social epistemology, ethnomethodology, speech acts, the sociology of knowledge, the sociology of science, and social psychology.

Argument map

argument mappingAIFunstated assumption
Argument map
In informal logic and philosophy, an argument map or argument diagram is a visual representation of the structure of an argument.

Lemma (logic)

lemmaproposition
Lemma
In informal logic and argument mapping, a lemma is simultaneously a contention for premises below it and a premise for a contention above it. Transitivity: If one has proof that B follows from A and proof that C follows from B, then one has proof that C follows from A.

Inference objection

addressing the speaker's argument
Inference objection
In informal logic, an inference objection is an objection to an argument based not on any of its stated premises, but rather on the relationship between premise and contention.

Logical form

argument formschemaargument structure
Now validity has to do with the logical form of the statement that makes up the argument.
In argumentation theory or informal logic, an argument form is sometimes seen as a broader notion than the logical form.

Leo Groarke

Groarke, Leo
Groarke, Leo and Christopher Tindale, 2004. Good Reasoning Matters! (3rd edition). Toronto: Oxford University Press
Leo Groarke is a Canadian philosopher, known for his contributions to argumentation theory and informal logic.

Fallacy

informal fallacyfallaciesSophists
Informal fallacy
This history helps explain why measurement fallacies are informed by informal logic and argumentation theory.

Dialectic

dialecticsdialecticaldialectical method
Rather "we defend the thesis that verbal dialectics must have a certain form (i.e., must proceed according to certain rules) in order that one can speak of the discussion as being won or lost" (19).
One can include the communities of informal logic and paraconsistent logic.

Doug Walton

Douglas WaltonDouglas N. WaltonWalton, D. N.
Walton, D. N. (1990). What is reasoning? What is an argument? The Journal of Philosophy, 87, 399-419.
Douglas Neil Walton is a Canadian academic and author, known for his books and papers on argumentation, logical fallacies and informal logic.

List of fallacies

fallaciousLogical fallaciesReasoning errors
Informal logic is associated with (informal) fallacies, critical thinking, the thinking skills movement and the interdisciplinary inquiry known as argumentation theory.

Critical thinking

criticalcritical analysiscritical thought
Informal logic is associated with (informal) fallacies, critical thinking, the thinking skills movement and the interdisciplinary inquiry known as argumentation theory.

Frans H. van Eemeren

Frans H. van Eemeren writes that the label "informal logic" covers a "collection of normative approaches to the study of reasoning in ordinary language that remain closer to the practice of argumentation than formal logic."

Philosophy

philosophicalphilosopherhistory of philosophy
Informal logic as a distinguished enterprise under this name emerged roughly in the late 1970s as a sub-field of philosophy.

Mathematical logic

formal logicsymbolic logiclogic
Informal logic, intuitively, refers to the principles of logic and logical thought outside of a formal setting. The naming of the field was preceded by the appearance of a number of textbooks that rejected the symbolic approach to logic on pedagogical grounds as inappropriate and unhelpful for introductory textbooks on logic for a general audience, for example Howard Kahane's Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, subtitled "The Use of Reason in Everyday Life", first published in 1971.

Pedagogy

pedagoguepedagogicalpedagogic
The naming of the field was preceded by the appearance of a number of textbooks that rejected the symbolic approach to logic on pedagogical grounds as inappropriate and unhelpful for introductory textbooks on logic for a general audience, for example Howard Kahane's Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, subtitled "The Use of Reason in Everyday Life", first published in 1971.

Textbook

textbookstext bookschool textbooks
The naming of the field was preceded by the appearance of a number of textbooks that rejected the symbolic approach to logic on pedagogical grounds as inappropriate and unhelpful for introductory textbooks on logic for a general audience, for example Howard Kahane's Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric, subtitled "The Use of Reason in Everyday Life", first published in 1971.

American Philosophical Association

APAThe American Philosophical Association
Kahane's textbook was described on the notice of his death in the Proceedings And Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (2002) as "a text in informal logic, [that] was intended to enable students to cope with the misleading rhetoric one frequently finds in the media and in political discourse. It was organized around a discussion of fallacies, and was meant to be a practical instrument for dealing with the problems of everyday life. [It has] ... gone through many editions; [it is] ... still in print; and the thousands upon thousands of students who have taken courses in which his text [was] ... used can thank Howard for contributing to their ability to dissect arguments and avoid the deceptions of deceitful rhetoric. He tried to put into practice the ideal of discourse that aims at truth rather than merely at persuasion. (Hausman et al. 2002)" Other textbooks from the era taking this approach were Michael Scriven's Reasoning (Edgepress, 1976) and Logical Self-Defense by Ralph Johnson and J. Anthony Blair, first published in 1977.

Michael Scriven

Kahane's textbook was described on the notice of his death in the Proceedings And Addresses of the American Philosophical Association (2002) as "a text in informal logic, [that] was intended to enable students to cope with the misleading rhetoric one frequently finds in the media and in political discourse. It was organized around a discussion of fallacies, and was meant to be a practical instrument for dealing with the problems of everyday life. [It has] ... gone through many editions; [it is] ... still in print; and the thousands upon thousands of students who have taken courses in which his text [was] ... used can thank Howard for contributing to their ability to dissect arguments and avoid the deceptions of deceitful rhetoric. He tried to put into practice the ideal of discourse that aims at truth rather than merely at persuasion. (Hausman et al. 2002)" Other textbooks from the era taking this approach were Michael Scriven's Reasoning (Edgepress, 1976) and Logical Self-Defense by Ralph Johnson and J. Anthony Blair, first published in 1977.

Monroe Beardsley

Monroe Beardley
Earlier precursors in this tradition can be considered Monroe Beardsley's Practical Logic (1950) and Stephen Toulmin's The Uses of Argument (1958).

Stephen Toulmin

ToulminToulmin, Stephensix interrelated components for analyzing arguments
Earlier precursors in this tradition can be considered Monroe Beardsley's Practical Logic (1950) and Stephen Toulmin's The Uses of Argument (1958).