Informationwikipedia

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
informativeinputintelligenceMinister of Information and National GuidanceInputsinput sizesignalinformInformaticsnews
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Uncertainty

uncertainuncertaintiesstandard uncertainty
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Uncertainty is a situation which involves imperfect or unknown information.

Knowledge

knowhuman knowledgesituated knowledge
It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. Thus the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

Observation

observerobservationsobserved
Information is conveyed either as the content of a message or through direct or indirect observation.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

Perception

perceptualsensoryperceive
That which is perceived can be construed as a message in its own right, and in that sense, information is always conveyed as the content of a message. Thus the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.

Code

encodingencodedencode
Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a signal).
In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium.

Data

statistical datascientific datadatum
It is thus related to data and knowledge, as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts. Thus the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.
Data and information are often used interchangeably; however, the extent to which a set of data is informative to someone depends on the extent to which it is unexpected by that person.

Signal

signalselectrical signalelectrical signals
Information can be encoded into various forms for transmission and interpretation (for example, information may be encoded into a sequence of signs, or transmitted via a signal).
In communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering, a signal is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

Bit

binary digitbitsbinary digits
The bit is a typical unit of information, but other units such as the nat may be used.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

Nat (unit)

natnatsnatural unit of information
The bit is a typical unit of information, but other units such as the nat may be used.
The natural unit of information (symbol: nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of e, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms, which define the bit.

Entropy (information theory)

entropyinformation entropyShannon entropy
Thus the concept of information becomes closely related to notions of constraint, communication, control, data, form, education, knowledge, meaning, understanding, mental stimuli, pattern, perception, representation, and entropy.
Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.

Units of information

unit of informationdecletunit of digital information
The bit is a typical unit of information, but other units such as the nat may be used.
In information theory, units of information are also used to measure the entropy of random variables and information contained in messages.

Information theory

information theoristinformationinformation-theoretic
In information theory, information is taken as an ordered sequence of symbols from an alphabet, say an input alphabet χ, and an output alphabet ϒ. These fields deal with those processes and techniques pertaining to information capture (through sensors) and generation (through computation, formulation or composition), processing (including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (including all telecommunication methods), presentation (including visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, including holographic methods), etc. Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory, see lossy compression; in physics, the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle).
Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

Cognitive science

cognitive scientistcognitive sciencescognitive
The cognitive scientist and applied mathematician Ronaldo Vigo argues that information is a concept that requires at least two related entities to make quantitative sense.
Cognitive scientists study intelligence and behavior, with a focus on how nervous systems represent, process, and transform information.

Media (communication)

mediamediumcommunication media
When Marshall McLuhan speaks of media and their effects on human cultures, he refers to the structure of artifacts that in turn shape our behaviors and mindsets.
Media is the collective communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data.

DNA

double-stranded DNAdsDNAsingle-stranded DNA
Consider, for example, DNA.
Both strands of double-stranded DNA store the same biological information.

Digital physics

pancomputationalismcomputation-based universecriticism of digital physics
In 2003 J. D. Bekenstein claimed that a growing trend in physics was to define the physical world as being made up of information itself (and thus information is defined in this way) (see Digital physics).
In physics and cosmology, digital physics is a collection of theoretical perspectives based on the premise that the universe is describable by information.

Information system

information systemscomputer information systemssystems
The information cycle (addressed as a whole or in its distinct components) is of great concern to information technology, information systems, as well as information science.
Information systems (IS) are formal, sociotechnical, organizational systems designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information.

Information science

information sciencesinformationInformation Studies
The information cycle (addressed as a whole or in its distinct components) is of great concern to information technology, information systems, as well as information science.
Information science is a field primarily concerned with the analysis, collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval, movement, dissemination, and protection of information.

Information technology

ITinformation technologiesIT services
The information cycle (addressed as a whole or in its distinct components) is of great concern to information technology, information systems, as well as information science.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

Telecommunication

telecommunicationscommunicationstelecom
These fields deal with those processes and techniques pertaining to information capture (through sensors) and generation (through computation, formulation or composition), processing (including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (including all telecommunication methods), presentation (including visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, including holographic methods), etc. Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory, see lossy compression; in physics, the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle).
Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology.

Information processing

processingprocessprocessing of information
These fields deal with those processes and techniques pertaining to information capture (through sensors) and generation (through computation, formulation or composition), processing (including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (including all telecommunication methods), presentation (including visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, including holographic methods), etc. Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory, see lossy compression; in physics, the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle).
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.

Display device

displayvideo monitorbezel
These fields deal with those processes and techniques pertaining to information capture (through sensors) and generation (through computation, formulation or composition), processing (including encoding, encryption, compression, packaging), transmission (including all telecommunication methods), presentation (including visualization / display methods), storage (such as magnetic or optical, including holographic methods), etc. Information does not cease to exist, it may only get scrambled beyond any possibility of retrieval (within information theory, see lossy compression; in physics, the black hole information paradox gets solved with the aid of the holographic principle).
A display device is an output device for presentation of information in visual or tactile form (the latter used for example in tactile electronic displays for blind people).

Information security

securitymessage integrityINFOSEC
Information security (shortened as InfoSec) is the ongoing process of exercising due diligence to protect information, and information systems, from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, destruction, modification, disruption or distribution, through algorithms and procedures focused on monitoring and detection, as well as incident response and repair.nalysis is the process of inspecting, transforming, and modelling information, by converting raw data into actionable knowledge, in support of the decision-making process.
Information security, sometimes shortened to InfoSec, is the practice of preventing unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, inspection, recording or destruction of information.

Shannon–Hartley theorem

Shannon limitAWGN channel capacitychannel capacity
Among other things, the framework aims to overcome the limitations of Shannon-Weaver information when attempting to characterize and measure subjective information.
The theorem establishes Shannon's channel capacity for such a communication link, a bound on the maximum amount of error-free information per time unit that can be transmitted with a specified bandwidth in the presence of the noise interference, assuming that the signal power is bounded, and that the Gaussian noise process is characterized by a known power or power spectral density.

Records management

record keepingrecordkeepingrecords
Sound records management ensures that the integrity of records is preserved for as long as they are required.
The ISO 15489-1: 2001 standard ("ISO 15489-1:2001") defines records management as "[the] field of management responsible for the efficient and systematic control of the creation, receipt, maintenance, use and disposition of records, including the processes for capturing and maintaining evidence of and information about business activities and transactions in the form of records".