A report on LightInfrared and Light-emitting diode

A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) are separated.
A pseudocolor image of two people taken in long-wavelength infrared (body-temperature thermal) radiation.
Blue, green, and red LEDs in 5 mm diffused cases
The electromagnetic spectrum, with the visible portion highlighted
This false-color infrared space telescope image has blue, green and red corresponding to 3.4, 4.6, and 12 μm wavelengths, respectively.
Parts of a conventional LED. The flat bottom surfaces of the anvil and post embedded inside the epoxy act as anchors, to prevent the conductors from being forcefully pulled out via mechanical strain or vibration.
Plot of atmospheric transmittance in part of the infrared region
Close-up image of a surface mount LED
Beam of sun light inside the cavity of Rocca ill'Abissu at Fondachelli-Fantina, Sicily
Materials with higher emissivity appear closer to their true temperature than materials that reflect more of their different-temperature surroundings. In this thermal image, the more reflective ceramic cylinder, reflecting the cooler surroundings, appears to be colder than its cubic container (made of more emissive silicon carbide), while in fact, they have the same temperature.
A bulb-shaped modern retrofit LED lamp with aluminum heat sink, a light diffusing dome and E27 screw base, using a built-in power supply working on mains voltage
Due to refraction, the straw dipped in water appears bent and the ruler scale compressed when viewed from a shallow angle.
Active-infrared night vision: the camera illuminates the scene at infrared wavelengths invisible to the human eye. Despite a dark back-lit scene, active-infrared night vision delivers identifying details, as seen on the display monitor.
Green electroluminescence from a point contact on a crystal of SiC recreates Round's original experiment from 1907.
Hong Kong illuminated by colourful artificial lighting.
Thermography helped to determine the temperature profile of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system during re-entry.
A 1962 Texas Instruments SNX-100 GaAs LED contained in a TO-18 transistor metal case
Pierre Gassendi.
Hyperspectral thermal infrared emission measurement, an outdoor scan in winter conditions, ambient temperature −15 °C, image produced with a Specim LWIR hyperspectral imager. Relative radiance spectra from various targets in the image are shown with arrows. The infrared spectra of the different objects such as the watch clasp have clearly distinctive characteristics. The contrast level indicates the temperature of the object.
LED display of a TI-30 scientific calculator (ca. 1978), which uses plastic lenses to increase the visible digit size
Christiaan Huygens.
Infrared light from the LED of a remote control as recorded by a digital camera
X-Ray of a 1970s 8-digit LED calculator display
Thomas Young's sketch of a double-slit experiment showing diffraction. Young's experiments supported the theory that light consists of waves.
Reflected light photograph in various infrared spectra to illustrate the appearance as the wavelength of light changes.
Illustration of Haitz's law, showing improvement in light output per LED over time, with a logarithmic scale on the vertical axis
Infrared hair dryer for hair salons, c. 2010s
Blue LEDs
IR satellite picture of cumulonimbus clouds over the Great Plains of the United States.
Combined spectral curves for blue, yellow-green, and high-brightness red solid-state semiconductor LEDs. FWHM spectral bandwidth is approximately 24–27 nm for all three colors.
The greenhouse effect with molecules of methane, water, and carbon dioxide re-radiating solar heat
Beta Pictoris with its planet Beta Pictoris b, the light-blue dot off-center, as seen in infrared. It combines two images, the inner disc is at 3.6 μm.
Spectrum of a white LED showing blue light directly emitted by the GaN-based LED (peak at about 465 nm) and the more broadband Stokes-shifted light emitted by the Ce3+:YAG phosphor, which emits at roughly 500–700 nm
An infrared reflectogram of Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci
LEDs are produced in a variety of shapes and sizes. The color of the plastic lens is often the same as the actual color of light emitted, but not always. For instance, purple plastic is often used for infrared LEDs, and most blue devices have colorless housings. Modern high-power LEDs such as those used for lighting and backlighting are generally found in surface-mount technology (SMT) packages (not shown).
Image of miniature surface mount LEDs in most common sizes. They can be much smaller than a traditional 5mm lamp type LED, shown on the upper left corner.
Thermographic image of a snake eating a mouse
Very small (1.6×1.6×0.35mm) red, green, and blue surface mount miniature LED package with gold wire bonding details.
Infrared radiation was discovered in 1800 by William Herschel.
High-power light-emitting diodes attached to an LED star base (Luxeon, Lumileds)
Infrared hair dryer for hair salons, c. 2010s
Composite image of an 11 × 44 LED matrix lapel name tag display using 1608/0603-type SMD LEDs. Top: A little over half of the 21 × 86 mm display. Center: Close-up of LEDs in ambient light. Bottom: LEDs in their own red light.
Simple LED circuit with resistor for current limiting
Daytime running light LEDs of an automobile
Red and green LED traffic signals
LED for miners, to increase visibility inside mines
Los Angeles Vincent Thomas Bridge illuminated with blue LEDs
LED costume for stage performers
LED wallpaper by Meystyle
A large LED display behind a disc jockey
Seven-segment display that can display four digits and points
LED panel light source used in an experiment on plant growth. The findings of such experiments may be used to grow food in space on long duration missions.

Infrared (IR), sometimes called infrared light, is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with wavelengths longer than those of visible light.

- Infrared

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source that emits light when current flows through it.

- Light-emitting diode

Visible light is usually defined as having wavelengths in the range of 400–700 nanometres (nm), corresponding to frequencies of 750–420 terahertz, between the infrared (with longer wavelengths) and the ultraviolet (with shorter wavelengths).

- Light

Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, the earliest LEDs emitted low-intensity infrared (IR) light.

- Light-emitting diode

Emission can be spontaneous, as in light-emitting diodes, gas discharge lamps (such as neon lamps and neon signs, mercury-vapor lamps, etc.) and flames (light from the hot gas itself—so, for example, sodium in a gas flame emits characteristic yellow light).

- Light

Remote controls and IrDA devices use infrared light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to emit infrared radiation that may be concentrated by a lens into a beam that the user aims at the detector.

- Infrared
A triangular prism dispersing a beam of white light. The longer wavelengths (red) and the shorter wavelengths (blue) are separated.

2 related topics with Alpha


Red (660 & 635 nm), green (532 & 520 nm) and blue-violet (445 & 405 nm) lasers


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Red (660 & 635 nm), green (532 & 520 nm) and blue-violet (445 & 405 nm) lasers
A laser beam used for welding
A helium–neon laser demonstration. The glow running through the center of the tube is an electric discharge. This glowing plasma is the gain medium for the laser. The laser produces a tiny, intense spot on the screen to the right. The center of the spot appears white because the image is overexposed there.
Spectrum of a helium–neon laser. The actual bandwidth is much narrower than shown; the spectrum is limited by the measuring apparatus.
Lidar measurements of lunar topography made by Clementine mission.
Laserlink point to point optical wireless network
Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) of the MESSENGER spacecraft
Aleksandr Prokhorov
Charles H. Townes
LASER notebook: First page of the notebook wherein Gordon Gould coined the acronym LASER, and described the elements required to construct one. Manuscript text: "Some rough calculations on the feasibility / of a LASER: Light Amplification by Stimulated / Emission of Radiation. /
Conceive a tube terminated by optically flat / [Sketch of a tube] / partially reflecting parallel mirrors..."
Graph showing the history of maximum laser pulse intensity throughout the past 40 years.
Wavelengths of commercially available lasers. Laser types with distinct laser lines are shown above the wavelength bar, while below are shown lasers that can emit in a wavelength range. The color codifies the type of laser material (see the figure description for more details).
A 50 W FASOR, based on a Nd:YAG laser, used at the Starfire Optical Range
A 5.6 mm 'closed can' commercial laser diode, such as those used in a CD or DVD player
Close-up of a table-top dye laser based on Rhodamine 6G
The free-electron laser FELIX at the FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein
Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other high energy density physics experiments.
The US–Israeli Tactical High Energy weapon has been used to shoot down rockets and artillery shells.
Laser application in astronomical adaptive optics imaging

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

Semiconductor lasers in the blue to near-UV have also been used in place of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to excite fluorescence as a white light source.

As ideas developed, they abandoned infrared radiation to instead concentrate on visible light.

Levels of ozone at various altitudes (DU/km) and blocking of different bands of ultraviolet radiation: In essence, all UVC is blocked by diatomic oxygen (100–200 nm) or by ozone (triatomic oxygen) (200–280 nm) in the atmosphere. The ozone layer then blocks most UVB. Meanwhile, UVA is hardly affected by ozone, and most of it reaches the ground. UVA makes up almost all UV light that penetrates the Earth's atmosphere.


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Levels of ozone at various altitudes (DU/km) and blocking of different bands of ultraviolet radiation: In essence, all UVC is blocked by diatomic oxygen (100–200 nm) or by ozone (triatomic oxygen) (200–280 nm) in the atmosphere. The ozone layer then blocks most UVB. Meanwhile, UVA is hardly affected by ozone, and most of it reaches the ground. UVA makes up almost all UV light that penetrates the Earth's atmosphere.
A 380 nanometer UV LED makes some common household items fluoresce.
Ultraviolet photons harm the DNA molecules of living organisms in different ways. In one common damage event, adjacent thymine bases bond with each other, instead of across the "ladder". This "thymine dimer" makes a bulge, and the distorted DNA molecule does not function properly.
Sunburn effect (as measured by the UV index) is the product of the sunlight spectrum (radiation intensity) and the erythemal action spectrum (skin sensitivity) across the range of UV wavelengths. Sunburn production per milliwatt of radiation intensity is increased by nearly a factor of 100 between the near UV‑B wavelengths of 315–295 nm
Demonstration of the effect of sunscreen. The man's face has sunscreen on his right side only. The left image is a regular photograph of his face; the right image is of reflected UV light. The side of the face with sunscreen is darker because the sunscreen absorbs the UV light.
Signs are often used to warn of the hazard of strong UV sources.
UV damaged polypropylene rope (left) and new rope (right)
IR spectrum showing carbonyl absorption due to UV degradation of polyethylene
A portrait taken using only UV light between the wavelengths of 335 and 365 nanometers.
Aurora at Jupiter's north pole as seen in ultraviolet light by the Hubble Space Telescope.
A bird appears on many Visa credit cards when they are held under a UV light source
After a training exercise involving fake body fluids, a healthcare worker's personal protective equipment is checked with ultraviolet light to find invisible drops of fluids. These fluids could contain deadly viruses or other contamination.
A collection of mineral samples brilliantly fluorescing at various wavelengths as seen while being irradiated by UV light.
Effects of UV on finished surfaces in 0, 20 and 43 hours.
A low-pressure mercury vapor discharge tube floods the inside of a hood with shortwave UV light when not in use, sterilizing microbiological contaminants from irradiated surfaces.
Entomologist using a UV light for collecting beetles in Chaco, Paraguay.

Ultraviolet (UV) is a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelength from 10 nm (with a corresponding frequency around 30 PHz) to 400 nm (750 THz), shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays.

He called them "(de-)oxidizing rays" (de-oxidierende Strahlen) to emphasize chemical reactivity and to distinguish them from "heat rays", discovered the previous year at the other end of the visible spectrum.

UV sources for UV curing applications include UV lamps, UV LEDs, and excimer flash lamps.