Initiative

ballot initiativepopular initiativeinitiated state statuteinitiativescitizen initiativecitizens' initiativeballot initiativescitizen's initiativeinitiative petitionballot measure
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a public vote in parliament in what is called indirect initiative, or under direct initiative, the proposition is immediately put to a plebiscite or referendum, in what is called a Popular initiated Referendum or citizen-initiated referendum.wikipedia
807 Related Articles

Constitutional amendment

amendmentamendmentsconstitutional reform
The vote may be on a proposed federal level, statute, constitutional amendment, charter amendment or local ordinance, or to simply oblige the executive or legislature to consider the subject by submitting it to the order of the day.
A referendum to amend the constitution may also be triggered in some jurisdictions by popular initiative.

Direct democracy

direct democraticdirectdirect legislation
It is a form of direct democracy.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.

Petition

petitionsmemorialpetitioned
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a public vote in parliament in what is called indirect initiative, or under direct initiative, the proposition is immediately put to a plebiscite or referendum, in what is called a Popular initiated Referendum or citizen-initiated referendum.
In jurisdictions whose laws allow for ballot initiatives, the gathering of a sufficient number of voter signatures qualifies a proposed initiative to be placed on the ballot.

1991 British Columbia recall and initiative referendum

1991 referenduma referendumput to voters in a referendum
The original proposal was put to voters in a referendum held in October 1991 and was supported by over 83% of voters.
They were on whether elected officials should be able to be recalled and whether voters should be given a citizen's initiative.

Suffrage

right to votevoting rightsfranchise
Since 1 March 2012, groups of at least 50,000 Finnish citizens with suffrage have had the constitutional right to send a citizens' initiative (Finnish: kansalaisaloite, Swedish: medborgarinitiativ) to the Parliament of Finland.
However, suffrage applies equally to referenda and initiatives.

Switzerland

SwissSwiss ConfederationSWI
Through referendums, citizens may challenge any law passed by parliament and through initiatives, introduce amendments to the federal constitution, thus making Switzerland a direct democracy.

Yellow vests movement

Gilets JaunesYellow vest movementYellow Vests
A citizens' initiative referendum was proposed by the yellow vests movement.
One of the goals of the yellow jackets is to obtain the right to direct initiative, in other words the right to petition the government at any time to propose or repeal a law, to amend the constitution or remove a public official from office.

Referendum

plebiscitereferendareferendums
Article 48 of the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State gave a right of initiative: if more than 50,000 voters demanded a change in law, the Oireachtas had two years to enact it, failing which 75,000 voters could petition for a referendum.
The word, 'referendum' is often a catchall, used for both legislative referrals and initiatives.

Swiss Federal Constitution

constitutionSwiss Constitutionfederal constitution
The federal popular initiative was included in the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1891, permitting a certain number of citizens (currently 100,000 signatures within 18 months ) to make a request to amend a constitutional article, or even to introduce a new article into the constitution.
Vaud introduced the legislative popular initiative in 1846.

Initiatives and referendums in the United States

ballot measureinitiated constitutional amendmentinitiative and referendum
The modern system of initiative and referendum originated in the state of South Dakota, which adopted initiative and referendum in 1898 by a popular vote of 23,816 to 16,483.
In the politics of the United States, the process of initiatives and referendums allow citizens of many U.S. states to place new legislation on a popular ballot, or to place legislation that has recently been passed by a legislature on a ballot for a popular vote.

Referendums in New Zealand

referendumCitizens Initiated Referendumcitizens initiated referendums
In New Zealand a vote initiated by the public is called a citizen initiated referendum.
The Citizens Initiated Referenda Act 1993 allows for citizens to propose a referendum.

Recall election

recallrecalledrecall referendum
The possibility of recall referendums (together with the popular election of executives, the initiative and the legislative referendum) was introduced into several cantonal constitutions after the 1860s in the course of a broad movement for democratic reform.

Popular referendum

veto referendumpeople's vetopopular referenda
Unlike an initiative or legislative referendum that allows voters to suggest new legislation, a popular referendum allows them to suggest repealing existing legislation.

Constitutional Convention (Ireland)

Constitutional ConventionConvention on the ConstitutionIrish Constitutional Convention
In May–June 2013, when the Constitutional Convention considered Dáil electoral reform, members voted 83:16 in favour of allowing "citizens' initiatives" in general, 80:19 to allow them specifically for legislation, and 78:17 to allow them for constitutional amendments.

Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe

European ConstitutionEU Constitutionproposed Constitution
The rejected [[Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe#Parliamentary power and transparency|Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe]] (TCE) included a limited indirect initiative right (Article I-46(4)).

Legislative referral

legislatively referredreferredadded to the ballot by the California Legislature
A Legislative referral (or legislative referendum) is a form of referendum in which a legislature puts proposed legislation up for popular vote (either voluntarily or, in the case of a constitutional amendment, as a necessary part of the procedure), rather than through the initiative or referendum process.

Oregon

ORState of OregonOregon, USA
Oregon was the second state to adopt and did so in 1902, when the Oregon Legislative Assembly adopted it by an overwhelming majority.
In 1902, Oregon introduced direct legislation by the state's citizens through initiatives and referenda, known as the Oregon System.

Constitution of the Irish Free State

1922 ConstitutionFree State constitutionIrish Free State Constitution
Article 48 of the 1922 Constitution of the Irish Free State gave a right of initiative: if more than 50,000 voters demanded a change in law, the Oireachtas had two years to enact it, failing which 75,000 voters could petition for a referendum.

Citizens' initiative referendum (France)

citizens' initiative referendumCitizens' initiative referendums
A citizens' initiative referendum was proposed by the yellow vests movement.

Mike Gravel

GravelFormer Alaska Senator Mike GravelMaurice R. "Mike" Gravel
Senator Mike Gravel was part of that effort.
While that was originally done as a prerequisite to a failed 1980 Alaskan ballot initiative that would have paid dividends to Alaskan citizens for pipeline-related revenue, it also turned out to be significant in the development of binary economics.

Popular initiative (Switzerland)

popular initiativefederal popular initiativepopular initiatives
The federal popular initiative was included in the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1891, permitting a certain number of citizens (currently 100,000 signatures within 18 months ) to make a request to amend a constitutional article, or even to introduce a new article into the constitution.

Progressive Era

ProgressiveProgressive movementProgressives
The "Oregon System," as it was at first known, subsequently spread to many other states, and became one of the signature reforms of the Progressive Era (1890s-1920s).
Thanks to the efforts of Oregon State Representative William S. U'Ren and his Direct Legislation League, voters in Oregon overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum processes for citizens to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution, making Oregon the first state to adopt such a system.

Political science

political scientistPolitical Sciencespolitical analyst
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a public vote in parliament in what is called indirect initiative, or under direct initiative, the proposition is immediately put to a plebiscite or referendum, in what is called a Popular initiated Referendum or citizen-initiated referendum.

Voter registration

apply for votingregistered votersregistered
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a public vote in parliament in what is called indirect initiative, or under direct initiative, the proposition is immediately put to a plebiscite or referendum, in what is called a Popular initiated Referendum or citizen-initiated referendum.

Parliament

parliamentary governmentparliamentslegislative assembly
In political science, an initiative (also known as a popular or citizens' initiative) is a means by which a petition signed by a certain minimum number of registered voters can force a government to choose to either enact a law or hold a public vote in parliament in what is called indirect initiative, or under direct initiative, the proposition is immediately put to a plebiscite or referendum, in what is called a Popular initiated Referendum or citizen-initiated referendum.