Cat scratches on an arm
Deaths from injuries per million persons in 2012
Deaths from intentional injuries per million persons in 2012

Damage to the body caused by an external force.

- Injury

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Wounds on a male torso
The patient has a deep wound at the knee, and radiography is used to ensure there are no hidden bone fractures.
Wound, sewn with four stitches
A surgeon placing a suture
Medieval treatment of wound with lance grittings
An open wound (an avulsion)
A laceration to the leg
An infected puncture wound to the bottom of the forefoot.
A puncture wound from playing darts.
An incision: a small cut in a finger.
Fresh incisional wound on the fingertip of the left ring finger.
Abrasion of the lower leg. Guinea-Bissau, 1974

A wound is a rapid onset of injury that involves lacerated or punctured skin (an open wound), or a contusion (a closed wound) from blunt force trauma or compression.


Second-degree burn of the hand
Three degrees of burns
Burn severity is determined through, among other things, the size of the skin affected. The image shows the makeup of different body parts, to help assess burn size.
Guillaume Dupuytren (1777–1835), who developed the degree classification of burns

A burn is a type of injury to skin, or other tissues, caused by heat, cold, electricity, chemicals, friction, or ultraviolet radiation (like sunburn).


Frostbitten toes two to three days after mountain climbing
Frostbite 12 days later
3 weeks after initial frostbite
Mountaineer Nigel Vardy in hospital after suffering frostbite when benighted on Denali in 1999. His nose, fingers and toes were subsequently amputated.

Frostbite is a skin injury that occurs when exposed to extreme low temperatures, causing the freezing of the skin or other tissues, commonly affecting the fingers, toes, nose, ears, cheeks and chin areas.


Unintended, normally unwanted event that was not directly caused by humans.

A memorial to the 96 victims of the Hillsborough disaster, a fatal accident resulting from police failure
Versailles rail accident in 1842
Incidence of accidents (of a severity of resulting in seeking medical care), sorted by activity (in Denmark in 2002).
Accident triangles have been proposed to model the number of minor problems vs. the number of serious incidents. These include Heinrich's triangle and Frank E. Bird's accident ratio triangle (proposed in 1966 and shown above).



Bruise on upper leg caused by a blunt object
A woman's bruising after a severe fall.
Bruise caused by a handrail, typical of extreme sports
Bruise caused by a sprained ankle
Black eye and subconjunctival hemorrhage after a punch to the face
Severe bruising resulting from yard work injury
Healing of a black eye over a 9-day period caused by a wisdom tooth extraction.
A bruise on back after a fall

A bruise, also known as a contusion, is a type of hematoma of tissue, the most common cause being capillaries damaged by trauma, causing localized bleeding that extravasates into the surrounding interstitial tissues.


A pathologist examines a tissue section for evidence of cancerous cells while a surgeon observes.
The advent of the microscope was one of the major developments in the history of pathology. Here researchers at the Centers for Disease Control in 1978 examine cultures containing Legionella pneumophila, the pathogen responsible for Legionnaire's disease.
A modern pathology lab at the Services Institute of Medical Sciences
A bone marrow smear from a case of erythroleukemia. The large cell in the top center is an abnormal erythroblast: it is multinucleated, with megaloblastoid nuclear chromatin This is diagnostic of erythroleukemia.
A malignant melanoma can often be suspected from sight, but confirmation of the diagnosis or outright removal requires an excisional biopsy.
Pathologist performing a human dissection of the abdominal and thoracic organs in an autopsy room
An instance of diagnosis via histopathology, this high-magnification micrograph of a section of cardiac tissue reveals advanced cardiac amyloidosis. This sample was attained through an autopsy.
This coronal cross-section of a brain reveals a significant arteriovenous malformation that occupies much of the parietal lobe.
This tissue cross-section demonstrates the gross pathology of polycystic kidneys.
Brain biopsy under stereotaxy. A small part of the tumor is taken via a needle with a vacuum system.
Clinical chemistry: an automated blood chemistry analyzer
Many conditions, such as this case of geographic tongue, can be diagnosed partly on gross examination, but may be confirmed with tissue pathology.
An anatomical pathology instructor uses a microscope with multiple eyepieces to instruct students in diagnostic microscopy.
This field post-mortem of a ewe has revealed lesions consistent with acute haemolytic pneumonia, possibly due to Pasteurella haemolytica.
A tobacco plant infected with the tobacco mosaic virus

Pathology is the study of the causes and effects of disease or injury.

Brain damage

Destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

A CT of the head years after a traumatic brain injury showing an empty space where the damage occurred, marked by the arrow
A Coup injury occurs under the site of impact with an object, and a contrecoup injury occurs on the side opposite the area that was hit.

A common category with the greatest number of injuries is traumatic brain injury (TBI) following physical trauma or head injury from an outside source, and the term acquired brain injury (ABI) is used in appropriate circles to differentiate brain injuries occurring after birth from injury, from a genetic disorder (GBI), or from a congenital disorder (CBI).

Bone fracture

Medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of a bone.

Internal and external views of an arm with a compound fracture, both before and after surgery
An old fracture with nonunion of the fracture fragments
Radiography to identify possible fractures after a knee injury
Compare healthy bone with different types of fractures: (a) closed fracture   (b) open fracture   (c) transverse fracture   (d) spiral fracture   (e) comminuted fracture   (f) impacted fracture   (g) greenstick fracture   (h) oblique fracture
Open ankle fracture with luxation
Periprosthetic fracture of left femur
X-ray showing the proximal portion of a fractured tibia with an intramedullary nail
The surgical treatment of mandibular angle fracture; fixation of the bone fragments by the plates, the principles of osteosynthesis are stability (immobility of the fragments that creates the conditions for bones coalescence) and functionality
Proximal femur nail with locking and stabilisation screws for treatment of femur fractures of left thigh

Traumatic fracture – a fracture due to sustained trauma. e.g., fractures caused by a fall, road traffic accident, fight, etc.

Spinal cord injury

Damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function.

MRI of fractured and dislocated neck vertebra that is compressing the spinal cord
Incomplete lesions of the spinal cord: Central cord syndrome (top), Anterior cord syndrome (middle), and Brown-Séquard syndrome (bottom).
Muscle mass is reduced as muscles atrophy with disuse.
Falling as a part of recreational activities can cause spinal cord injuries.
Spine motion restriction with a long spine board
An Orthopedic device like this also known as a drop foot orthosis has only one functional element for lifting the forefoot in order to compensate for a weakness in the dorsiflexors. If other muscle groups, such as the plantar flexors, are weak, additional functional elements must be taken into account. An ankle-foot orthoses (AFO) of the drop foot orthosis type is therefore not suitable for the care of patients with weakness in other muscle groups.
Patient after incomplete paraplegia (lesion height L3) with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with an integrated stance phase control knee joint.
Holly Koester incurred a spinal injury as a result of a motor vehicle collision and is now a wheelchair racer.
The ancient Egyptian Edwin Smith Papyrus is the earliest known description of SCI.
Human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells seen under phase contrast microscope (63 x magnification)

In the majority of cases the damage results from physical trauma such as car accidents, gunshot wounds, falls, or sports injuries, but it can also result from nontraumatic causes such as infection, insufficient blood flow, and tumors.

Nerve injury

Micrograph of a nerve with a decrease in myelinated nerve fibres (pink) and an abnormal increase in fibrous tissue (yellow), as may be seen in nerve injuries. HPS stain.
Nerve compression in neurapraxia
Guillain–Barré syndrome – nerve damage
Several signaling pathways are upregulated following a nerve injury.

Nerve injury is an injury to nervous tissue.