Innate immune system

innate immunityinnateinnate immune responseinnate immuneinnate immune cellsnatural immunityinnate immune defensecellular immune systemhost evasioninnate immune responses
The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune system).wikipedia
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Adaptive immune system

adaptive immunityadaptive immune responseadaptive
The innate immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the adaptive immune system).
The acquired immune system is one of the two main immunity strategies found in vertebrates (the other being the innate immune system).

Lysozyme

LYZmuramidaselysozymes
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase, is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
These cells present receptors contained on the surface or within the cell, named pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which recognize molecules that are broadly shared by pathogens but distinguishable from host molecules, collectively referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a crucial role in the proper function of the innate immune system.

Inflammation

inflammatoryinflammatory responseinflamed
Inflammation is one of the first responses of the immune system to infection or irritation.
Inflammation is a generic response, and therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, which is specific for each pathogen.

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
The process of acute inflammation is initiated by cells already present in all tissues, mainly resident macrophages, dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells, and mast cells. The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
Besides phagocytosis, they play a critical role in nonspecific defense (innate immunity) and also help initiate specific defense mechanisms (adaptive immunity) by recruiting other immune cells such as lymphocytes.

Complement system

complementcomplement cascadecomplement activation
The complement system, as discussed above, is a biochemical cascade of the immune system that helps clear pathogens from an organism, and exists in most forms of life.
It is part of the innate immune system, which is not adaptable and does not change during an individual's lifetime.

Natural killer cell

NK cellsnatural killer cellsNK cell
The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
Natural killer cells, or NK cells, are a type of cytotoxic lymphocyte critical to the innate immune system.

Neutrophil

neutrophilsneutrophil granulocyteneutrophilic
The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
They form an essential part of the innate immune system.

Mast cell

mast cellsanaphylactic degranulationMast cell disease
The process of acute inflammation is initiated by cells already present in all tissues, mainly resident macrophages, dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells, and mast cells. The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
Several lines of evidence suggest that mast cells may have a fairly fundamental role in innate immunity: They are capable of elaborating a vast array of important cytokines and other inflammatory mediators such as TNFa; they express multiple "pattern recognition receptors" thought to be involved in recognizing broad classes of pathogens; and mice without mast cells seem to be much more susceptible to a variety of infections.

Phagocytosis

phagocyticphagocytosedphagocytose
By helping to remove dead cells preceding growth and development of new healthy cells, phagocytosis is an important part of the healing process following tissue injury.
Phagocytosis is one of the main mechanisms of the innate immune defense.

Monocyte

monocytesmonocyticmononuclear
In tissues, organ-specific macrophages are differentiated from phagocytic cells present in the blood called monocytes.
As a part of the vertebrate innate immune system monocytes also influence the process of adaptive immunity.

Chemokine

chemokinesCC chemokineCC chemokines
When activated, mast cells rapidly release characteristic granules, rich in histamine and heparin, along with various hormonal mediators and chemokines, or chemotactic cytokines into the environment.
They are released by many different cell types and serve to guide cells of both innate immune system and adaptive immune system.

White blood cell

leukocyteleukocyteswhite blood cells
All white blood cells (WBCs) are known as leukocytes.

Cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway

The motor arc of the inflammatory reflex is termed the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.
The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway regulates the innate immune response to injury, pathogens, and tissue ischemia.

Opsonin

opsonizationopsonizedopsonisation
The complement system is a part of the innate immune response.

Phagosome

phagosomesphagocytic vacuolephagosomal
Once inside the cell, the invading pathogen is contained inside a phagosome, which merges with a lysosome.
It is part of the adaptive immune system, but it links to the innate response by recruiting macrophages to phagocytose pathogens.

Major histocompatibility complex

MHCmajor histocompatibility complex (MHC)HLA loci
This term describes cells with abnormally low levels of a cell-surface marker called MHC I (major histocompatibility complex) - a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells.
T cells, which act specifically, as well as NK cells, which act innately, interact with MHC.

Toll-like receptor

Toll-like receptorsTLRToll
Viral components are recognized by different receptors: Toll-like receptors are located in the endosomal membrane and recognize double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), MDA5 and RIG-I receptors are located in the cytoplasm and recognize long dsRNA and phosphate-containing dsRNA respectively.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
The process of acute inflammation is initiated by cells already present in all tissues, mainly resident macrophages, dendritic cells, histiocytes, Kupffer cells, and mast cells. The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
They act as messengers between the innate and the adaptive immune systems.

Coagulation

blood clottingblood coagulationclotting
The coagulation system overlaps with the immune system.
Also, some products of the coagulation system can contribute to the innate immune system by their ability to increase vascular permeability and act as chemotactic agents for phagocytic cells.

Antimicrobial peptides

antimicrobial peptidehost defense peptidesanti-microbial peptides
Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found among all classes of life and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life.

Phagocyte

phagocytesphagocytic cellsphagocytic
The innate leukocytes include: Natural killer cells, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils; and the phagocytic cells include macrophages, neutrophils, and dendritic cells, and function within the immune system by identifying and eliminating pathogens that might cause infection.
Phagocytes form part of the innate immune system, which animals, including humans, are born with.

Lactoferrin

lactotransferrinLTFRecombinant human lactoferrin
Also increased levels of lactoferrin and transferrin inhibit bacterial growth by binding iron, an essential nutrient for bacteria.
Lactoferrin belongs to the innate immune system.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
Antimicrobial peptides are an evolutionarily conserved component of the innate immune response found among all classes of life and represent the main form of invertebrate systemic immunity.
An immune system may contain innate and adaptive components.

Leishmania

antileishmanialcausative agentLeishmania donovani
Lipophosphoglycan is a trigger for toll-like receptor 2, a signalling receptor involved in triggering an innate immune response in mammals.