A report on Inner Mongolia

Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Inner Mongolian steppes
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
Theater in Hohhot
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Ulaanbutan grassland
Inner Mongolian grassland
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

- Inner Mongolia

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Alashan semi-desert plateau in wider context of South, Southeast and East Asia.

Helan Mountains

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Alashan semi-desert plateau in wider context of South, Southeast and East Asia.
Ethnolinguistic map 1967, centered on Helan mountains - which listed as falling within region where Oirat spoken (but see also Alasha dialect).
Landscape with modern pagoda in Helan uplands.
Petroglyph of a sun deity.
Helan mountain setting of Guangzong temple, Alxa league.
Guangzong temple, Alxa league.
Helan wildflower: scarlet-flowered Lilium species.
View from cable car, Helan Mountains, Ningxia.
Remains of Western Xia (Tangut Empire) mausoleum no. 3, foot of Helan Mountains, Ningxia.
Fierce, hag-like grave guardians sculpted on two stele bases, mausoleum no. 3, Western Xia mausoleums.

The Helan Mountains, frequently called Alashan Mountains in older sources, are an isolated desert mountain range forming the border of Inner Mongolia's Alxa League and Ningxia.

Josutu League

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The southernmost league of Inner Mongolia during Qing rule.

The southernmost league of Inner Mongolia during Qing rule.

It occupied land that forms part of the modern-day Chinese provinces of Liaoning, Hebei, and Chifeng in China's Inner Mongolia.

Gobi by NASA World Wind

Gobi Desert

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Large desert or brushland region in East Asia, and is the sixth largest desert in the world.

Large desert or brushland region in East Asia, and is the sixth largest desert in the world.

Gobi by NASA World Wind
Sand dunes in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China
Flaming Cliffs in Mongolia
Sacred ovoo in the Gobi Desert
The sand dunes of Khongoryn Els, Gurvansaikhan NP, Mongolia
Remains of the Great Wall of China in the Gobi Desert
Bactrian camels in the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia
A Khulan (Mongolian wild ass) on a hill in the eastern Gobi of Mongolia at sunset.
Alxa Left Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

Eastern Gobi desert steppe, the easternmost of the Gobi ecoregions, covering an area of 281800 km2. It extends from the Inner Mongolian Plateau in China northward into Mongolia. It includes the Yin Mountains and many low-lying areas with salt pans and small ponds. It is bounded by the Mongolian-Manchurian grassland to the north, the Yellow River Plain to the southeast, and the Alashan Plateau semi-desert to the southeast and east.

CIA's depiction of languages distribution in Inner Mongolia in 1967, Mongolian and "Northern Mandarin" (a term phased out after 1987, now referred separately as Jin language, Northeastern Mandarin and Lanzhou-Ningxia Mandarin)

2020 Inner Mongolia protests

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CIA's depiction of languages distribution in Inner Mongolia in 1967, Mongolian and "Northern Mandarin" (a term phased out after 1987, now referred separately as Jin language, Northeastern Mandarin and Lanzhou-Ningxia Mandarin)

The 2020 Inner Mongolia protests was a protest caused by a curriculum reform imposed on ethnic schools by China's Inner Mongolia Department of Education.

Inner Mongolian People's Republic

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The Inner Mongolian People's Republic was a state in Inner Mongolia founded shortly after the Second World War.

Xing'an Province

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Hsingan (or Xing'an) refers to a former province, which once occupied western Heilongjiang and part of northwest Jilin provinces of China.

Hsingan (or Xing'an) refers to a former province, which once occupied western Heilongjiang and part of northwest Jilin provinces of China.

However, under the administration of the People's Republic of China from 1949, the area was annexed to the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, and is now referred to as the Hulunbuir Prefecture-level city.

Tectonic elements surrounding the North China Craton. The North China Craton covers an area of around 1.7x106 km2 in northeastern China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea. Edited from Kusky, 2007 and Zhao et al., 2005

North China Craton

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Continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes.

Continental crustal block with one of Earth's most complete and complex records of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic processes.

Tectonic elements surrounding the North China Craton. The North China Craton covers an area of around 1.7x106 km2 in northeastern China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea. Edited from Kusky, 2007 and Zhao et al., 2005
The location of the North China Craton in Asia.
North China Craton consists of two blocks, the western and The Eastern Block, which are separated by a Trans-North China Orogen. The two blocks are of distinct characteristic.
A diagram of Columbia Supercontinent, which occurred in Precambrian time. The red part is the Eastern Block of the North China Craton, the purple part is the Western Block, the green part is the Trans-North China Orgen, and the blue part is other collision belts found in the North China Craton. Modified from Zhao et al., 2011 and Santosh, 2010.
A cross-sectional diagram of the 1.8 Ga amalgamation model (the second model). The amalgamation of the two blocks was caused by subduction. The subducted oceanic plate caused the hydration of the lithosphere, therefore producing magma plumes (denoted in green).  They later contributed to the formation of the Trans North China Orogen.  The 2 blocks further collided and amalgamated, forming the Khondalite belt, the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt and the Trans North China Orogen.  After the craton was formed, the Trans North China Orogen experienced exhumation, isostatic rebound, and erosion, changing the orientation of rocks in the orogen.  Modified from Zhao, 2000
A map view diagram showing the evolution of the North China Craton in the 1.85 Ga amalgamation model. 1) The craton began as 3 separate blocks, the Yinshan Block, the Ordos Block and the Eastern Block with oceans between them (2.2 billion years ago). 2) A rift system developed in the Eastern Block that further separated it into 2 blocks, the Longgang Nlock and the Langrim Block (2.2–1.95 billion years ago).  3) The Yinshan Block and the Ordos Block amalgamated 1.95 billion years ago, forming the Khondalite Belt in between.  4) The rift system between the Longgang Block and the Langrim Block stopped finally, causing the blocks to amalgamate into the Eastern Block again, forming the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt 1.9 billion years ago.  5) the Eastern and Western Blocks finally amalgamated 1.85 billion years ago, forming the Trans-North China Orogen in between.  Modified from Zhao, 2012.
This map view diagram shows how Zhao proposed the micro blocks would have been oriented and amalgamated into North China Craton. He derived the map based on the age of the greenstone belts found in the Craton. He suggested that the greenstone belt was formed by collision of some micro blocks. The green belt on the map shows a younger greenstone belt, formed 2.5 billion years ago, while the yellow one showed the greenstone belt formed 2.6–2.7 billion years ago. 
(QH: Qianhuai Block, Jiaoliao Block:JL, Jining Block:JL, Xuchang Block: XCH, Xuhuai Block: XH, Alashan Block: ALS) Modified from Zhai, 2011
This cross-section diagram shows how the North China Craton amalgamated in the Faure and Trap Model. They proposed that the Trans-North China Orogen that is mentioned in Zhao and Kusky's model is actually a separated block. There are 2 collision and amalgamation events as proposed by Faure and Trap. At 2.1 billion years ago, the Taiahng Ocean closed with the Eastern Block and Fuping Block amalgamated through Taihang Suture (THS).   At 1.9–1.8 billion years ago, the Lüliang Ocean closed and the Eastern and Western Blocks finally amalgamated forming the Trans-North China Suture (TNCS).  Modified from Trap and Faure, 2011.
This is a map showing the different tectonic elements near the North China Craton in the Phanerozoic. The elements includes the Solonker suture zone in the north, the Paleo-Pacific subduction zone in the east, and the Qinling Dabie Orogen in the south. Modified from Zhu, 2015
The green lines on this lithospheric thickness map are lithospheric depth contour lines, meaning that the lithosphere is of the depth specified in that position. A zone in the Eastern Block has especially thinned lithosphere. Modified from Windley, 2010,
This is a diagram showing an example of the subduction model by Kusky, 2007. 1) plates are subducted under the North China Craton near the margin in the Paleozoic with most part of the craton remained relatively stable. The subduction generated fluids which weakened the lower crust. At the same time, subduction increased the density of the lower lithosphere.  2) & 3) In the Mesozoic, the North China Craton begins to experience deformation.  The collisions in the north and south triggered the weakened lower lithosphere to detach.  Modified from Kusky, 2007
Trilobite fossil that can be possibly used for biostratigraphy and to understand evolution and extinction
Banded iron formation example from another part of the world
Production of REE around the world
Described the tectonic processes of The North China Craton northern margin in the Palaeozoic. The subduction and collision event caused minerals to deposited on the edge of the continental crust. The place where the Cu-Mo was deposited is indicated.  Edited from Zhai and Santos,2013 and Kusty et al., 2007

It is located in northeast China, Inner Mongolia, the Yellow Sea, and North Korea.

Location of Xilingol League (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange), where the majority of protests occurred

2011 Inner Mongolia unrest

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Location of Xilingol League (red) in Inner Mongolia (orange), where the majority of protests occurred

On the night of May 10, 2011 an ethnic Mongol herdsman was killed by a coal truck driver near Xilinhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

Baarin Mongolian

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Baarin (Mongolian Baγarin, Chinese 巴林 Bālín) is a dialect of Mongolian spoken mainly in Inner Mongolia.

Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia within the Qing dynasty.

Outer Mongolia

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Name of a historical territory that consists of the modern state of Mongolia, sometimes called "Outer Mongolia" in China today, and the Russian republic of Tuva.

Name of a historical territory that consists of the modern state of Mongolia, sometimes called "Outer Mongolia" in China today, and the Russian republic of Tuva.

Outer Mongolia and Inner Mongolia within the Qing dynasty.
Location of Mongolia Area in the Republic of China
Map of the Republic of China in 1914
After the Treaty of Kyakhta (North) Mongolia in 1915

The name "Outer Mongolia" is contrasted with Inner Mongolia, which corresponds to the region of Inner Mongolia in China.