A report on Inner Mongolia

Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Inner Mongolian steppes
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
Theater in Hohhot
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Ulaanbutan grassland
Inner Mongolian grassland
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

- Inner Mongolia

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Overall

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.

Northern Yuan

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Dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

Dynastic regime ruled by the Mongol Borjigin clan based in the Mongolian Plateau.

Ming dynasty and the Northern Yuan in the early 15th century. The Mongols lost some lands in China proper after the Ming defeated Tögüs Temür in 1388.
Location of the Oirats
The tumens of the Mongolian Plateau and relict states of the Mongol Empire by 1500
Realm of Altan Khan in 1571
Temple at Erdene Zuu monastery established by Abtai Khan in the Khalkha heartland in the 16th century.
The White House of Tsogt Taij (White Castle) was built in 1601.
Major Mongol and Jurchen rulers prior to the Jurchen unification
Chahar-Jurchen War, 1619–1634
The various regimes on the Mongolian Plateau after the proclamation of Qing dynasty
Dzungar–Qing Wars, 1687–1757

1333–1370), the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu (located in present-day Inner Mongolia) from Dadu upon the approach of Ming forces.

Khitan people

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Area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

Area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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Khitan Chinese painting by Chen Juzhong (fl. 1195-1224)
Liao dynasty tomb relief of Khitans and their baggage cart
Liao dynasty in 1025
Khitan falconers in a painting by Chen Juzhong, early 13th c.
Khitan women, painted on wood
The Liao dynasty in 1111 AD.
The Qara Khitai empire in 1169 at its greatest extent
Khitan inscription dated 1058 (清寧四年) found in Dornogovi. Written in Khitan large script.
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built in 1056.
Yelü Bei
Horsemen
Horsemen at rest
Khitans holding wrapped up banners, maces, and drums
Khitan mace man
Halahaicheng tomb mural
Halahaicheng tomb mural
Halahaicheng tomb mural
Cooks
Hairstyle
Hunters
Boys and girls
Women
Women
Woman
Liao dynasty funerary mask and crown
Liao funerary mask and crown
Liao funerary mask and crown
Liao funerary mask and crown
Ming dynasty depiction of a Khitan

The man came from the Tu River (Lao Ha river in modern-day Jilin, Manchuria) and the woman from the Huang River (modern day Xar Moron river in Inner Mongolia).

The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling

Great Wall of China

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Series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

Series of fortifications that were built across the historical northern borders of ancient Chinese states and Imperial China as protection against various nomadic groups from the Eurasian Steppe.

The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
The Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
Huayi tu, a 1136 map of China with the Great Wall depicted on the northern edge of the country
The Great Wall of the Qin stretches from Lintao to Liaodong
The Great Wall of the Han is the longest of all walls, from Mamitu near Yumenguan to Liaodong
The extent of the Ming Empire and its walls
Part of the Great Wall of China (April 1853, X, p. 41)
The Great Wall in 1907
A more rural portion of the Great Wall that stretches through the mountains, here seen in slight disrepair
Identical satellite images of a section of the Great Wall in northern Shanxi, running diagonally from lower left to upper right and not to be confused with the more prominent river running from upper left to lower right. In the image on the right, the Great Wall has been outlined in red. The region pictured is 12 x.
Great Wall of Han dynasty near Yumenguan.
Ming dynasty Great Wall at Jinshanling
thumb|Remains of Beacon tower near Yumenguan, 2011
"The First Mound" – at Jiayu Pass, the western terminus of the Ming wall
The Great Wall near Jiayu Pass
Ming Great Wall remnant near Yinchuan
The Great Wall remnant at Yulin
The Great Wall at Badaling
The Juyongguan area of the Great Wall accepts numerous tourists each day
Gateway of Gubeikou Fortress
Environmental protection sign near Great Wall, 2011
Ming Great Wall at Simatai, overlooking the gorge
Mutianyu Great Wall. This is atop the wall on a section that has not been restored
The Old Dragon Head, the Great Wall where it meets the sea in the vicinity of Shanhai Pass
The Great Wall at dawn
Inside the watchtower
Badaling Great Wall during winter

Dynasties founded by non-Han ethnic groups also built their border walls: the Xianbei-ruled Northern Wei, the Khitan-ruled Liao, Jurchen-led Jin and the Tangut-established Western Xia, who ruled vast territories over Northern China throughout centuries, all constructed defensive walls but those were located much to the north of the other Great Walls as we know it, within China's autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and in modern-day Mongolia itself.

Qing dynasty

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Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

Manchu-led conquest dynasty and the last imperial dynasty of China.

The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
The Qing dynasty in 1890. Territory under its control shown in dark green; territory claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green.
Italian 1682 map showing the "Kingdom of the Nüzhen" or the "Jin Tartars"
Manchu cavalry charging Ming infantry battle of Sarhu in 1619
Sura han ni chiha (Coins of Tiancong Khan) in Manchu alphabet
Dorgon (1612–1650)
Qing Empire in 1636
The Qing conquest of the Ming and expansion of the empire
The Kangxi Emperor (r. 1662–1722)
Emperor with Manchu army in Khalkha 1688
Putuo Zongcheng Temple, Chengde, Qianlong reign; built on the model of Potala Palace, Lhasa
Campaign against the Dzungars in the Qing conquest of Xinjiang 1755–1758
Lord Macartney saluting the Qianlong Emperor
Commerce on the water, Prosperous Suzhou by Xu Yang, 1759
British Steamship destroying Chinese war junks (E. Duncan) (1843)
View of the Canton River, showing the Thirteen Factories in the background, 1850–1855
Government forces defeating Taiping armies
Yixin, Prince Gong
Empress Dowager Cixi (Oil painting by Hubert Vos c. 1905))
Britain, Germany, Russia, France, and Japan dividing China
Foreign armies in the Forbidden City 1900
Yuan Shikai
Qing China in 1911
Zaifeng, Prince Chun
A pitched battle between the imperial and revolutionary armies in 1911
A postage stamp from Yantai (Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty
A Qing dynasty mandarin
The emperor of China from The Universal Traveller
2000–cash Da-Qing Baochao banknote from 1859
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875
Qing China in 1832
The Qing dynasty in ca. 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange
Brush container symbol of elegant gentry culture
Chen Clan Ancestral Hall (陈家祠) built in 1894
Patriarchal family
Placard (right to left) in Manchu, Chinese, Tibetan, Mongolian Yonghe Lamasery, Beijing
Silver coin: 1 yuan/dollar Xuantong 3rd year - 1911 Chopmark
Xián Fēng Tōng Bǎo (咸豐通寶) 1850–1861 Qing dynasty copper (brass) cash coin
Puankhequa (1714–1788). Chinese merchant and member of a Cohong family.
Pine, Plum and Cranes, 1759, by Shen Quan (1682–1760).
A Daoguang period Peking glass vase. Colored in "Imperial Yellow", due to its association with the Qing.
Jade book of the Qianlong period on display at the British Museum
Landscape by Wang Gai, 1694
The Eighteen Provinces of China proper in 1875

Qing China reached its largest extent during the 18th century, when it ruled China proper (eighteen provinces) as well as the areas of present-day Northeast China, Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, at approximately 13 million km2 in size.

Baotou

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The Deer monument in central Baotou City, Inner Mongolia
Badekar Monastery
Saihantalah Grasslands Park, central Baotou
Northern Weapons Park
Trip home for lunch, area rebuilt after the earthquake
Aobao Shrine
Bridge over the Yellow River
Baotou chariot and Yurt
Main airport road, Baotou
Students at Baotou Foreign Languages School playing soccer in the snow

Baotou (Buɣutu qota, Бугат хот) is the largest city by urban population in Inner Mongolia, China.

Tongliao

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Local train from Dalian to Tongliaio (2002)
Zhurihe Grassland (Zhurihe Ranch)
Zhurihe Ranch in a festive mood of Naadam
Before the Horse race
Start of the horse race
Running of the horses

Tongliao ( Tüŋliyou qota, Mongolian Cyrillic: Байшинт хот) is a prefecture-level city in eastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

A map of the Western Han dynasty in 2 AD
Principalities and centrally-administered commanderies

Protectorate of the Western Regions (Tarim Basin)

Han dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China , established by Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) and ruled by the House of Liu.

Imperial dynasty of China , established by Liu Bang (Emperor Gao) and ruled by the House of Liu.

A map of the Western Han dynasty in 2 AD
Principalities and centrally-administered commanderies

Protectorate of the Western Regions (Tarim Basin)
Thirteen direct-controlled commanderies including the capital region (Yellow) and ten semi-autonomous kingdoms of the early periods, 195 BC
Belt Buckle with nomadic-inspired zoomorphic design, manufactured in China for the Xiongnu. Mercury-gilded bronze (a Chinese technique). North China, 3rd-2nd century BC.
Map showing the expansion of Han dynasty in the 2nd century BC
The ruins of a Han-dynasty watchtower made of rammed earth at Dunhuang, Gansu province, the eastern edge of the Silk Road.
These rammed earth ruins of a granary in Hecang Fortress, located ~11 km (7 miles) northeast of the Western-Han-era Yumen Pass, were built during the Western Han (202 BC – 9 AD) and significantly rebuilt during the Western Jin (280–316 AD).
Situation of warlords and peasant forces at the beginning of Eastern Han dynasty
Eastern Han inscriptions on a lead ingot, using barbarous Greek alphabet in the style of the Kushans, excavated in Shaanxi, 1st–2nd century AD
Preserved arrow, Western Han
A late Eastern Han (25–220 CE) Chinese tomb mural showing lively scenes of a banquet (yanyin 宴飲), dance and music (wuyue 舞樂), acrobatics (baixi 百戲), and wrestling (xiangbu 相撲), from the Dahuting Tomb, on the southern bank of the Siuhe River in Zhengzhou, Henan province (just west of Xi County)
A mural from an Eastern Han tomb at Zhucun (朱村), Luoyang, Henan province; the two figures in the foreground are playing liubo, with the playing mat between them, and the liubo game board to the side of the mat.
Brick Relief with Acrobatic Performance, Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE)
Detail of a mural showing two women wearing Hanfu silk robes, from the Dahuting Tomb of the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 CE), located in Zhengzhou, Henan
Han period inscribed bamboo-slips of Sun Bin's Art of War, unearthed in Yinque Mountain, Linyi, Shandong.
A fragment of the Xiping Stone Classics; these stone-carved Five Classics installed during Emperor Ling's reign along the roadside of the Imperial University (right outside Luoyang) were made at the instigation of Cai Yong (132–192 CE), who feared the Classics housed in the imperial library were being interpolated by University Academicians.
A silk banner from Mawangdui, Changsha, Hunan province. It was draped over the coffin of Lady Dai (d. 168 BCE), wife of the Marquess Li Cang (利蒼) (d. 186 BCE), chancellor for the Kingdom of Changsha.
A part of a Daoist manuscript, ink on silk, 2nd century BCE, Han Dynasty, unearthed from Mawangdui tomb 3rd, Changsha, Hunan Province.
An Eastern-Han bronze statuette of a mythical chimera (qilin), 1st century CE
A scene of historic paragons of filial piety conversing with one another, Chinese painted artwork on a lacquered basketwork box, excavated from an Eastern-Han tomb of what was the Chinese Lelang Commandery in Korean Peninsula.
A rubbing of a Han pictorial stone showing an ancestral worship hall (cítáng 祠堂)
Animalistic guardian spirits of day and night wearing Chinese robes, Han dynasty paintings on ceramic tile; Michael Loewe writes that the hybrid of man and beast in art and religious beliefs predated the Han and remained popular during the first half of Western Han and the Eastern Han.
The Gansu Flying Horse, depicted in full gallop, bronze sculpture, h 34.5 cm. Wuwei, Gansu, China, AD 25–220
A mural showing chariots and cavalry, from the Dahuting Tomb (Chinese: 打虎亭漢墓, Pinyin: Dahuting Han mu) of the late Eastern Han Dynasty (25–220 AD), located in Zhengzhou, Henan province, China
Gold coins of the Eastern Han dynasty
A Han-dynasty iron ji (polearm) and iron dagger
A gilded bronze oil lamp in the shape of a kneeling female servant, dated 2nd century BC, found in the tomb of Dou Wan, wife of Liu Sheng, King of Zhongshan; its sliding shutter allows for adjustments in the direction and brightness in light while it also traps smoke within the body.
An array of bronze bells, Western Han dynasty
Ornamental belt buckle, decorated with Chinese mythical creatures. Chiseled and hammered gold, late Han period.
The physical exercise chart; a painting on silk depicting the practice of Qigong Taiji; unearthed in 1973 in Hunan Province, China, from the 2nd-century BC Western Han burial site of Mawangdui, Tomb Number 3.
A pair of stone-carved que (闕) located at the temple of Mount Song in Dengfeng. (Eastern Han dynasty.)
A pair of Han period stone-carved que (闕) located at Babaoshan, Beijing.
A stone-carved pillar-gate, or que (闕), 6 m (20 ft) in total height, located at the tomb of Gao Yi in Ya'an. (Eastern Han dynasty.){{sfnp|Liu|2002|p=55}}
An Eastern-Han vaulted tomb chamber at Luoyang made of small bricks
A Han-dynasty pottery model of two men operating a winnowing machine with a crank handle and a tilt hammer used to pound grain.
A modern replica of Zhang Heng's seismometer
An early Western Han dynasty silk map found in tomb 3 of Mawangdui, depicting the Kingdom of Changsha and Kingdom of Nanyue in southern China (note: the south direction is oriented at the top).
An Eastern Han dynasty pottery boat model with a steering rudder at the stern and anchor at the bow.

The oldest known surviving piece of paper with writing on it was found in the ruins of a Han watchtower that had been abandoned in AD 110, in Inner Mongolia.

The Donghu were located to the northeast of Qin China in the 3rd century BCE.

Donghu people

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Tribal confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.

Tribal confederation of nomadic people that was first recorded from the 7th century BCE and was destroyed by the Xiongnu in 150 BCE.

The Donghu were located to the northeast of Qin China in the 3rd century BCE.
Lineage of the Donghu (Eastern Hu)
Donghu raided both Zhao and Yan in the 4th and 3rd centuries BC

They lived in northern Hebei, southeastern Inner Mongolia and the western part of Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang along the Yan Mountains and Greater Khingan Range.

Mengjiang

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Demchugdongrub (left)
Foundation ceremony of Mengjiang's government
One-yuan banknote issued by the Bank of Mengjiang, 1940
A 1943 postage stamp of Mengjiang
Mengjiang shrine in Zhangjiakou, Hebei, in the 1950s
Inner Mongolia in 1911
A map of the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government
The Reformed Government's territory in central China from 1937 until 1940 when all three states, Mengjiang, the Provisional Government of the ROC (not to be confused with the 1912 government of the same name and flag) and the Reformed Government of the ROC, merged into the Reorganized National Government of the ROC.
alt=A lecture with a map of Mengjiang|A lecture held in Japan in 1940 discussing Inner Mongolia and Mengjiang, note the map in the background featuring the state
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the Mongol Military Government (1936–1937) and the Mongol United Autonomous Government (1937–1939)
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the South Chahar Autonomous Government (1937–1939)
{{FIAV|historical}} Flag of the North Shanxi Autonomous Government (1937–1939)

Mengjiang, also known as Mengkiang or the Mongol Border Land, and governed as the Mengjiang United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, formed in 1939 as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, then from 1940 being under the nominal sovereignty of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (which was itself also a puppet state).

Map of China's prefectural level divisions

Administrative divisions of China

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The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China's large population and geographical area.

The administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times, due to China's large population and geographical area.

Map of China's prefectural level divisions
Map of China's county-level divisions
The Qing dynasty in 1820, with provinces in yellow, military governorates and protectorates in light yellow, tributary states in orange

The Constitution of China provides for five levels: the provincial (province, autonomous region, municipality, and special administrative region), the prefectural (prefecture-level city [officially "city with district-level divisions" (设区的市) and "city without district-level divisions" (不设区的市)], autonomous prefecture, prefecture [additional division] and league [the alternative name of “prefecture” which is used in Inner Mongolia]), county (district, county, county-level city [officially “city without district-level divisions”], autonomous county, banner [the alternative name of “county” which is used in Inner Mongolia], autonomous banner [the alternative name of “autonomous county” which is used in Inner Mongolia], special district [additional division], forestry area [additional division]) and township.