A report on Inner Mongolia

Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Inner Mongolian steppes
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
Theater in Hohhot
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Ulaanbutan grassland
Inner Mongolian grassland
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

- Inner Mongolia

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The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.

Beijing

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Capital of the People's Republic of China.

Capital of the People's Republic of China.

The Tianning Pagoda, built around 1120 during the Liao dynasty.
One of the corner towers of the Forbidden City, built by the Yongle Emperor during the early Ming dynasty
Overlapping layout of Beijing during the Liao, Jin, Yuan and Ming dynasties
Summer Palace is one of the several palatial gardens built by Qing emperors in the northwest suburb area.
Chongwenmen, a gate to the inner walled city, c. 1906
A large portrait of Chiang Kai-shek was displayed above Tiananmen after WWII.
Mao Zedong proclaiming the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949
A scene from the opening ceremonies of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games.
Landsat 7 Satellite image of Beijing Municipality with the surrounding mountains in dark brown
1940s Nationalist Beijing with predominantly traditional architecture
The sign of Doujiao Hutong, one of the many traditional alleyways in the inner city
Beijing average annual temperatures from 1970 to 2019 during summer (June, July, and August) and winter (December, January, and February). Weather station data from ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/noaa/. For comparison the Global Surface Temperature Anomaly rose by approximately one degree over the same time period.
Heavy air pollution has resulted in widespread smog. These photographs, taken in August 2005, show the variations in Beijing's air quality.
Houhai Lake and Drum Tower at Shichahai, in the Xicheng District
Xidan is one of the oldest and busiest shopping areas in Beijing.
Beijing products treemap, 2020
The Taikoo Li Sanlitun shopping arcade is a destination for locals and visitors.
The skyline of Beijing CBD
Zhongguancun is a technology hub in Haidian District
The Beijing Ancient Observatory
Qianmen Avenue, a traditional commercial street outside Qianmen Gate along the southern Central Axis
Inside the Forbidden City
Beijing Acrobatic Performance (10553642935)
A Temple of the Goddess in Gubeikou
Fire God Temple in Di'anmen
The tomb pagodas at Tanzhe Temple
Yonghe Temple of Tibetan Buddhism
Niujie Mosque
Church of the Saviour, also known as the Xishiku Church, built in 1703
The China Central Television Headquarters building in CBD
Fireworks above Olympic venues during the opening ceremony of the 2008 Summer Olympics
Tai chi (Taijiquan) practitioners at the Fragrant Hills Park
Beijing Workers' Stadium at night as viewed from Sanlitun
Beijing railway station, one of several rail stations in the city
Badaling Expressway overpass near the Great Wall
Typical Beijing traffic signage found at intersections
Traffic jam in the Beijing CBD
Terminal 3 of the Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Daxing International Airport
Two Line 1 trains on the Beijing Subway, which is among the longest and busiest rapid transit systems in the world
An articulated Beijing bus
Bicyclists during rush hour at the Chang'an Avenue, 2009
KJ-2000 and J-10s started the flypast formation on the 70th anniversary of the People's Republic of China.

In 938, after the fall of the Tang, the Later Jin ceded the frontier territory including what is now Beijing to the Khitan Liao dynasty, which treated the city as Nanjing, or the "Southern Capital", one of four secondary capitals to complement its "Supreme Capital" Shangjing (modern Baarin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia).

Yellow River

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Second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5464 km. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province.

Second-longest river in China, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth-longest river system in the world at the estimated length of 5464 km. Originating in the Bayan Har Mountains in Qinghai province of Western China, it flows through nine provinces, and it empties into the Bohai Sea near the city of Dongying in Shandong province.

The Yellow River Breaches its Course by Ma Yuan (1160–1225, Song dynasty)
The Yellow River as depicted in a Qing dynasty illustrated map (sections)
Historical courses of the Yellow River
Historical courses of the Yellow River
Chinese Nationalist Army soldiers during the 1938 Yellow River flood.
Zoigê County, Sichuan.
Guide County, Qinghai in the Tibetan Plateau, upstream from the Loess Plateau.
Near Xunhua, Qinghai.
Liujiaxia, Gansu.
At Lanzhou, Gansu
At Shapotou, Ningxia
Qiankun bend in Yonghe County
At Luoyang, Henan
The mouth of the Daxia River (coming from bottom right), flowing into the Yellow River's Liujiaxia Reservoir in Linxia Prefecture, Gansu
Expansion of the Yellow River Delta from 1989 to 2009 in five-year intervals.
Yellow River Delta
Liujiaxia Dam, Gansu
Sanmenxia Dam, Henan
Major cities along the Yellow River
Pontoon bridge (Luokou Pontoon Bridge ) over the Yellow River in Jinan, Shandong
The paradise fish is well known in the aquarium hobby and it originates from East Asian river basins, including the Yellow River
The Chinese pond turtle (shown) and Chinese softshell turtle are both native to the Yellow River, but also farmed in large numbers
Qikou town along Yellow River in Shanxi Province

One of its older Mongolian names was the "Black River", because the river runs clear before it enters the Loess Plateau, but the current name of the river among Inner Mongolians is Ȟatan Gol (, "Queen River").

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.

Kublai Khan

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The founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

The founder of the Yuan dynasty of China and the fifth khagan-emperor of the Mongol Empire from 1260 to 1294, although after the division of the empire this was a nominal position.

Portrait by artist Araniko, sling drawn shortly after Kublai's death in 1294. His white robes reflect his desired symbolic role as a religious Mongol shaman.
Portrait of young Kublai by Araniko, a Nepali artist in Kublai's court
“The Emperor Kublai Khan in a tower carried by four elephants on the day of the battle“ French Engraving, 18th century.
Kublai Khan was chosen by his many supporters to become the next Great Khan at the Grand Kurultai in the year 1260. 
Kublai Khan and His Empress Enthroned, from a Jami al-Twarikh (or Chingiznama). Mughal dynasty, Reign of Akbar, 1596. Mughal Court. Opaque watercolor, ink, and gold on paper. India. Freer Gallery of Art. F1954.31
Painting of Kublai Khan on a hunting expedition, by Han Chinese court artist Liu Guandao, c. 1280.
Extract of the letter of Arghun to Philip IV of France, in the Mongolian script, dated 1289. French National Archives.
The Yuan Dynasty of China, c. 1294
Chinese opera flourished during Yuan China.
The "Muslim trebuchet" (or Huihui Pao) used to breach the walls of Fancheng and Xiangyang.
A Yuan dynasty hand cannon
Two dragons chasing a flaming pearl was a symbol associated with Goryeo.
The Gangnido reflects the Chinese geographical knowledge during the Mongol Empire about countries in the West.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.
Japanese samurai boarding Yuan ships in 1281.
Kublai gives financial support to the Polo family.
Rabban Bar Sauma, ambassador of Great Khan Kublai and Ilkhan Arghun, travelled from Dadu to Rome, Tuscany, Genoa, Paris, and Bordeaux to meet with European rulers in 1287–88.
The White Stupa of Dadu (or Khanbaliq; now Beijing).
A Yuan dynasty jade belt plaque featuring carved designs of the Azure Dragon, highly regarded as a symbol of Yuan China's maritime strength.
In Ilkhanate Persia, Ghazan converted to Islam and recognized Kublai Khan as his suzerain.
Chabi, Khatun of Kublai and Empress of the Mongol Empire
Longevity Hill in Beijing, where Kublai Khan wrote his poem.
Laborers transporting construction materials to Khanbaliq
Statue of Kublai Khan in Sükhbaatar Square, Ulaanbaatar. Together with Ögedei Khan's, and the much larger Genghis Khan's statues, it forms a statue complex dedicated to the Mongol Empire.
The Japanese samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. Mōko Shūrai Ekotoba (蒙古襲来絵詞), circa 1293.

Kublai received the viceroyalty over northern China and moved his ordo to central Inner Mongolia.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000

Liao dynasty

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Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Imperial dynasty of China that existed between 916 and 1125, ruled by the Yelü clan of the Khitan people.

Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
The location of Balhae in the year 900
Liao dynasty at its greatest extent, c. 1000
Khitan man in tomb painting in Aohan Banner, Inner Mongolia
Khitan tomb mural in Inner Mongolia – attendants holding a musical instrument, bow and arrows, boots, and a falcon
Liao or Jin dynasty (1115–1234) helmets and mask
Zhuoxie tu, a 10th-century painting of a rest stop for the khan
Khitan boys and girls
Khitan holding a mace
The King of Dongdan Goes Forth (東丹王出行圖), scroll, light colors on silk. 146.8 x 77.3 cm. National Palace Museum, Taipei. Attributed to Li Zanhua (李贊華 909–946), but possibly a later artist.
Khitans hunting with birds of prey, 9–10th centuries
Geyuan Temple Wenshu Hall built in 966 is the oldest extant Liao building
Liao silk boots
First conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 993
Khitan invasion of Song in 1004
Third conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, 1018
Liao phoenix and dragon crowns
Liao dynasty dragon crown
Liao dynasty crown – side
Liao dynasty crown – back
The Pagoda of Fogong Temple, built by Emperor Daozong of Liao in 1056 at the site of his grandmother's family home.
Liao dynasty gold wire phoenix crown
Liao funerary mask and crown (female)
Gilt silver crown, excavated in 1986 from the tomb of Princess of Chen and her husband in Tongliao, Inner Mongolia.
Gilt bronze statue of the six-tusked elephant holding the throne of Puxian (Samantabhadra), the Bodhisattva of Universal Virtue, c. 1000 Liao dynasty
Epitaph of Xiao Guanyin, the wife of Emperor Daozong of Liao, in Khitan small script
Collapse of the Liao dynasty (1117–1124)
Depiction of Xiongnu cavalry in the Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, commissioned by Emperor Gaozong of Song. While the subjects are the Xiongnu, the hairstyle depicted is distinctly Khitan, and likely based on northern steppe peoples contemporary to the Song.
Miniature model of a Khitan tent found in the Hadatu tomb in 1973
Fragment of a tomb mural showing a Khitan boy
Aguda, posthumously Emperor Taizu of Jin, founder of the Jurchen Jin dynasty
The Tianning Temple Pagoda, a Buddhist structure built at Liao Nanjing ("Southern Capital", modern Beijing) in 1120 during the last years of the Liao dynasty
The Qara Khitai empire in 1160
Liao paiza authorizing an imperial decree with the utmost urgency
Liao seal with the Chinese inscription 臨潢府軍器庫之印 "Seal of the Armoury of Linhuang Prefecture"
Horse and Archer, believed to have been painted by Yelü Bei.
Liao dynasty cavalry armour
Liao silver coin in Khitan large script translated as "天朝萬順" (Heavenly Dynasty — Myriad [affairs are] Favourable).
The only extant manuscript in the Khitan language, Folio 9 of manuscript codex Nova N 176
Female funerary mask and crown from the Liao dynasty
A Liao dynasty polychrome wood-carved statue depicting Guanyin in the Water Moon pose, which raises the right knee and rests the right arm on top of it, symbolizing the divinity of the Pure land, Guanyin's personal paradise, which Guanyin puts off going to until s/he has saved humanity.
One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans, sancai, early 12th century
Liao gold waist ornament
Khitan hunters in a painting by Chen Juzhong, 1196
A brick stupa in the Khitan city of Hedong (Bars-Hot)
Luohan statue, Liao dynasty, 11th century
Liao era bronze figure of Gautama Buddha
Bronze Guanyin statue from the Chinese section of the Supreme Capital
Liao era painted wooden statue of Guanyin
Bronze statue of Guanyin, Liao dynasty, 10th century
Rebellion of Li Jinzhong and Sun Wanrong against the Tang dynasty in 696-697
Khitan crown (female), silver
Liao tomb mural showing Khitan men with banners, drums, and maces
Liao burial dress made of metal wire

At its height, the Liao dynasty controlled what is now Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning, Jilin, Heilongjiang, and Inner Mongolia provinces in China, as well as northern portions of the Korean peninsula, portions of the Russian Far East, and much of the country of Mongolia.

Mongol Empire c. 1207, Khongirad and their neighbours

Khongirad

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One of the major divisions of the Mongol tribes.

One of the major divisions of the Mongol tribes.

Mongol Empire c. 1207, Khongirad and their neighbours
Empress Radnashiri was from the Khunggirad

Their homeland was located in the vicinity of Lake Hulun in Inner Mongolia and Khalkha River in Mongolia, where they maintained close ties with the ruling dynasties of northern China.

Pre-Proto-Mongolic's position on the chronological tree of Mongolic language

Mongolic languages

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The Mongolic languages are a language family spoken by the Mongolic peoples in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Asia and East Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas and in Kalmykia and Buryatia.

The Mongolic languages are a language family spoken by the Mongolic peoples in Eastern Europe, Central Asia, North Asia and East Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas and in Kalmykia and Buryatia.

Pre-Proto-Mongolic's position on the chronological tree of Mongolic language

The best-known member of this language family, Mongolian, is the primary language of most of the residents of Mongolia and the Mongol residents of Inner Mongolia, with an estimated 5.7+ million speakers.

Leagues of Inner Mongolia

Leagues of China

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Leagues of Inner Mongolia
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A league ( ayimaγ Aimag; historically, čiγulγan Qûûlgan; ) is an administrative unit of the autonomous region of Inner Mongolia in the People's Republic of China.

Chifeng

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The C-shaped jade dragon of the Hongshan Culture
Hongshan, the "Red Hill", from which Chifeng received its name.
Map including Chifeng (labeled as CH'IH-FENG 赤峰 (WU-LAN-HA-TA)) (AMS, 1951)
Chifeng Museum

Chifeng, also known as Ulanhad ( (Улаанхад хот), Ulaɣanqada qota, , "red cliff"), is a prefecture-level city in Southeastern Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.

North China

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Northern China (a much broader area named Beifang)

North China, or Huabei is a geographical region of China, consisting of the provinces of Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, Shanxi and Inner Mongolia.

Chahar Province

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Chahar (, Чахар; ), also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of Eastern Inner Mongolia.