A report on Inner Mongolia

Persian miniature depicting Genghis Khan entering Beijing
The Northern Yuan at its greatest extent
Mongolia plateau during early 17th century
Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia within the Qing dynasty, c. 1820
Mongols stand in front of a yurt, 1912
Delegates of Inner Mongolia People's Congress shouting slogans
Inner Mongolian steppes
Topography of Inner Mongolia in China
Winter in Ulanbutan Grassland, Hexigten Banner
Theater in Hohhot
Inner Mongolia Gymnasium
Muslim-themed Street in Hohhot
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital, with a bilingual street sign in Chinese and Mongolian
Inner Mongolian carpet c. 1870
Temple of the White Sulde of Genghis Khan in the town of Uxin in Inner Mongolia, in the Mu Us Desert. The worship of Genghis is shared by Chinese and Mongolian folk religion.
Sign of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center
Jade dragon of the Hongshan culture (4700 BC – 2900 BC) found in Ongniud, Chifeng
Ulaanbutan grassland
Inner Mongolian grassland
Honorary tomb of Wang Zhaojun (born c. 50BC) in Hohhot
Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Baoshan, Ar Horqin
Khitan people cooking. Fresco from the Liao dynasty (907–1125) tomb at Aohan
Remains of the city Khara-Khoto built in 1032. Located in Ejin Khoshuu, Alxa Aimag
Maidari Juu temple fortress ({{zh|labels=no |c=美岱召 |p=měidài zhào}}) built by Altan Khan in 1575 near Baotou
Newly built arch in front of the Maidari Juu temple fortress (1575)
Da Zhao temple (also called Ikh Zuu) built by Altan Khan in 1579
Badekar Monastery (1749) near Baotou, Inner Mongolia. Called Badgar Zuu in Mongolian
Five Pagoda temple (1727) in Hohhot
Badain Jaran temple (1868) in western Inner Mongolia
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Genghis Khan Mausoleum (1954)
Alshaa mountain scenery
Alxa Western Monastery (Alshaa Baruun Hiid) built in 1756

Landlocked autonomous region of the People's Republic of China.

- Inner Mongolia

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Autonomous regions of China

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The autonomous regions are the highest-level administrative divisions of China.

The autonomous regions are the highest-level administrative divisions of China.

Established in 1947, the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region became the first autonomous region in the Chinese liberated zone.

Zhao (state)

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One of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.

One of the seven major states during the Warring States period of ancient China.

Ruins of the city of Dai, Zhao's last capital
Massive tombs of the Kings of Zhao near Handan

Its territory included areas now in modern Inner Mongolia, Hebei, Shanxi and Shaanxi provinces.

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Zhangjiakou

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Expansion of Han dynasty. Wei Qing's campaigns against Xiongnu is shown in red arrows.
Battle of Yehuling of 1211, the decisive battle between Mongols and Jin dynasty, leading to the ultimate conquest of northern China.
Tumu Crisis
Zhangjiakoubu is the origin of today's Zhangjiakou City
View of Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in 1698
Two trains passing the Qinglongqiao Station on the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway
Dajingmen, a gate of Great Wall built around 1644
Map including Zhangjiakou (labeled as CHANG-CHIA-K'OU (KALGAN) 張家口) (AMS, 1963)
Rongchen Century Building in downtown Zhangjiakou
Location of the 2022 Winter Olympics clusters

Zhangjiakou (Mandarin pronunciation: ) also known as Kalgan and by several other names, is a prefecture-level city in northwestern Hebei province in Northern China, bordering Beijing to the southeast, Inner Mongolia to the north and west, and Shanxi to the southwest.

Ruins of Shangdu

Shangdu

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The summer capital of the Yuan dynasty of China before Kublai decided to move his throne to the former Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū , which was renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.

The summer capital of the Yuan dynasty of China before Kublai decided to move his throne to the former Jin dynasty capital of Zhōngdū , which was renamed Khanbaliq, present-day Beijing.

Ruins of Shangdu
Ruins of Shangdu
Shangdu (here spelled Ciandu, as Marco Polo spelled it) on the French map of Asia made by Sanson d'Abbeville, geographer of King Louis XIV, dated 1650. It also shows a Xandu east of Cambalu, where English maps placed it. Like some other European maps of the time, this map shows Cambalu and Pequin as two different cities, but they were in fact the same city, now called Beijing. When this map was made, Shangdu had been in ruins for almost three centuries.
Even though Matteo Ricci and Bento de Góis had already proven that Cathay is simply another name for China, the English cartographer John Speed in 1626 continued the tradition of showing "Cathaya, the Chief Kingdome of Great Cam" to the northeast of China. On his map, he placed Xandu east of the "Cathayan metropolis" Cambalu

Shangdu is located in the present-day Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia.

Demchugdongrub

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Demchugdongrub in his Japanese style uniform
Prince Demchugdongrub (left), Li Shouxin (center)

Demchugdongrub (, Demchigdonrob, Дэмчигдонров,, Chinese: 德穆楚克棟魯普, 8 February 1902– 23 May 1966), also known as Prince De (德王), courtesy name Xixian (希賢), was a Qing dynasty Mongol prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia.

Hailar District

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Hailar (labeled HU-LUN (HAILAR) 呼倫 (海拉爾)) (1951)
Hailar Railway Station
Hailar People's Congress

Hailar District, formerly a county-level city, is an urban district that serves as the seat of the prefecture-level city Hulunbuir in northeastern Inner Mongolia, China.

The Stele of Genghis Khan, with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.

Mongolian script

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The first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

The first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

The Stele of Genghis Khan, with the earliest known inscription in the Mongolian script.
Two examples of the two kinds of letter separation: with the suffix un ( Brush-written un-uen suffix 2.svg ) and the final vowel a ( Brush-written a-e suffix or seprated vowel 2.svg )
1925 logo of Buryat–Mongolian newspaper Buriyad Mongγolun ünen 'Buryat-Mongol truth' with the suffix undefined un.
A KFC in Hohhot, the capital of Inner Mongolia, China, with a bilingual sign in Chinese and Mongolian
From left to right : Phagspa, Lantsa, Tibetan, Mongolian, Chinese and Cyrillic
Example of word-breaking the name Oyirad 'Oirat', 1604 manuscript
Reed pens
Ink brushes
Writing implements of the Bogd Khan
Folded script style on the coat of arms of Govisümber Province {{Rp|427}}
Mongolian calligraphy of the 13th century work Оюун Түлхүүр (Key of Intelligence)
{{Ill|Mandukhai setsen khatan (film)|lt=|mn|Мандухай сэцэн хатан (кино)|WD=}} title screen, 1988
Stele for Queen Mandukhai the Wise
Cover page with printed hand-lettering in red, early 20th century
Postage stamp with words augmented with letters from the Manchu alphabet, 1932
1 Mongolian tögrög, 1925
Mongolian dollar with a long body of printed text, 1921
Imperial seal of the Bogd Khan, ca 1911.
Mixed Manchu–Mongolian text on a Paiza.
Poem composed and brush-written by Injinash, 19th century
Nogeoldae textbook in Korean and Mongolian, 18th century
Mongolian on the far left of a Yonghe Temple board in Beijing, 1722
Letter from the Il-Khan Öljaitü to King Philip IV of France, 1305
Silver dirham from the reign of the Il-Khan Arghun, 1297
Imperial seal of Güyük Khan in letter to Pope Innocent IV, 1246

Alphabets based on this classical vertical script are used in Mongolia and Inner Mongolia to this day to write Mongolian, Xibe and, experimentally, Evenki.

The word 'Mongolia' ('Mongol') in Cyrillic script

Mongolian Cyrillic alphabet

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Writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.

Writing system used for the standard dialect of the Mongolian language in the modern state of Mongolia.

The word 'Mongolia' ('Mongol') in Cyrillic script
Cyrillic Script Monument erected under a joint Bulgarian-Mongolian project in Antarctica

Cyrillic has not been adopted as the writing system in the Inner Mongolia region of China, which continues to use the traditional Mongolian script.

Sui provinces, ca. 610

Provinces of China

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The provincial level administrative divisions are the highest-level administrative divisions of China.

The provincial level administrative divisions are the highest-level administrative divisions of China.

Sui provinces, ca. 610
Tang circuits, ca. 660
Tang circuits, ca. 742
Song circuits, ca. 1111
Yuan provinces, ca. 1330
Ming provinces, ca. 1409
Map comparing political divisions as drawn by the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China.

The Republic of China, established in 1912, set up four more provinces in Inner Mongolia and two provinces in historic Tibet, bringing the total to 28.

A Buryat wrestling match during the Altargana Festival

Buryats

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The Buryats (Буриад) are a Mongolian people numbering at 516,476, comprising one of the two largest indigenous groups in Siberia, the other being the Yakuts.

The Buryats (Буриад) are a Mongolian people numbering at 516,476, comprising one of the two largest indigenous groups in Siberia, the other being the Yakuts.

A Buryat wrestling match during the Altargana Festival
Mongol Empire circa 1207
Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1925.
Buryat-Mongol ASSR in 1929.
Buryat Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1989
Map of autonomous Buryat territories (until 2008): Republic of Buryatia and autonomous okrugs of Aga Buryatia and Ust-Orda Buryatia
Traditional wooden hut of Buryatia
Traditional Buryat dress
Buryat shaman of Olkhon, Lake Baikal
Ivolginsky Datsan is a monastery complex consisting of seven Buddhist temples
Sagaalgan (from the Buryat language, meaning “White Month") is a Buddhist festival marking the beginning of the New Year and the coming of spring.
Buuz, a steamed meat dumpling, is probably the most iconic dish of Buryat cuisine
Buryat women
Mongol states in the 14th to 17th centuries.

Buryats also live in Ust-Orda Buryat Okrug (Irkutsk Oblast) to the west of Buryatia and Agin-Buryat Okrug (Zabaykalsky Krai) to the east of Buryatia as well as in northeastern Mongolia and in Inner Mongolia, China.