Inoculation

inoculuminoculatedinoculateinoculatinginoculantinoculainoculantscowpox inoculationinoculation techniqueInoculation, treatment of smallpox
The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.wikipedia
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Vaccination

vaccinationsvaccinatedvaccinating
The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Smallpox was most likely the first disease people tried to prevent by inoculation and was the first disease for which a vaccine was produced.

Variolation

inoculatedvaccineinoculation against smallpox
In English medicine, inoculation referred only to the practice of variolation until the very early 1800s. This generally produced a less severe infection than naturally-acquired smallpox, but still induced immunity to it. This first method for smallpox prevention, smallpox inoculation, is now also known as variolation. Variolation is documented in India from the eighteenth century, thanks to the 1767 account by J. Z. Holwell. Soon, to avoid confusion, smallpox inoculation continued to be referred to as variolation (from variola = smallpox) and cowpox inoculation was referred to as vaccination (from Jenner's use of variolae vaccinae = smallpox of the cow).
In 18th-century medical terminology, inoculation refers to smallpox inoculation.

Artificial induction of immunity

induced immunityinducing immunitydeliberate actions
The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
The earliest recorded artificial induction of immunity in humans was by variolation or inoculation, which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him or her immune to re-infection with the more lethal natural form, Variola Major.

Edward Jenner

JennerJenner, EdwardDr. Edward Jenner
When Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine in 1798, this was initially called cowpox inoculation or vaccine inoculation.
During this time, he was inoculated for smallpox, which had a lifelong effect upon his general health.

Immunization

immunisationimmunizationsimmunize
The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
Before the introduction of vaccines, people could only become immune to an infectious disease by contracting the disease and surviving it. Smallpox (variola) was prevented in this way by inoculation, which produced a milder effect than the natural disease.

Smallpox vaccine

smallpox vaccinationvaccinationsmallpox inoculation
When Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine in 1798, this was initially called cowpox inoculation or vaccine inoculation.
Two reports on the Chinese practice of inoculation were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfectious
The terms inoculation, vaccination, and immunization are often used synonymously to refer to artificial induction of immunity against various infectious diseases.
This process requires immune mechanisms to kill or inactivate the inoculum of the pathogen.

Vaccine

vaccinesvaccinatedvaccination
Then, in 1891, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms vaccine and vaccination should be extended to include the new protective procedures being developed.
Prior to the introduction of vaccination with material from cases of cowpox (heterotypic immunisation), smallpox could be prevented by deliberate inoculation of smallpox virus, later referred to as variolation to distinguish it from smallpox vaccination.

Immunity (medical)

immunityimmuneimmune response
This generally produced a less severe infection than naturally-acquired smallpox, but still induced immunity to it. This first method for smallpox prevention, smallpox inoculation, is now also known as variolation.
Around the fifteenth century in India, the Ottoman Empire, and east Africa, the practice of inoculation (poking the skin with powdered material derived from smallpox crusts) became quite common.

Petri dish

petri dishesPetri plateplates
These include the transfer of microorganisms into and from laboratory apparatus such as test tubes and petri dishes in research and diagnostic laboratories, and also in commercial applications such as brewing, baking, oenology (wine making), and the production of antibiotics.
Once the agar cools and solidifies, the dish is ready to be inoculated ("plated") with a microbe-laden sample.

Tetanus

lockjawanti-tetanuslock jaw
Immunization refers to the use of all vaccines but also extends to the use of antitoxin, which contains preformed antibody such as to diphtheria or tetanus exotoxins.
Nearly all of the cases in the United States occur in unimmunized individuals or individuals who have allowed their inoculations to lapse.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu

Mary Wortley MontaguLady Mary PierrepontLady Montagu
The practice was introduced to England by Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.
Aside from her writing, Lady Mary is also known for introducing and advocating for smallpox inoculation to Britain after her return from Turkey.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialantibacterials
These include the transfer of microorganisms into and from laboratory apparatus such as test tubes and petri dishes in research and diagnostic laboratories, and also in commercial applications such as brewing, baking, oenology (wine making), and the production of antibiotics.
He also observed that when he inoculated laboratory animals with lethal doses of typhoid bacilli together with Penicillium glaucum, the animals did not contract typhoid.

John Zephaniah Holwell

HolwellJ. Z. HolwellJohn Holwell
Variolation is documented in India from the eighteenth century, thanks to the 1767 account by J. Z. Holwell.
Holwell has also become an important source for modern historians of medicine, as a result of his description of the practice of smallpox variolation in eighteenth-century Bengal, An Account of the Manner of Inoculating for the Small Pox in the East Indies with Some Observations on the Practice and Mode of Treating that Disease in those Parts (London, 1767).

Charles Maitland (physician)

Charles Maitland
When a smallpox epidemic threatened England in 1721, she called on her physician, Charles Maitland, to inoculate her daughter.
Charles Maitland (1668–1748) was a Scottish surgeon who inoculated people against smallpox.

Cotton Mather

CottonMathergiving a speech on horseback
The practice is documented in America as early as 1721, when Zabdiel Boylston, at the urging of Cotton Mather, successfully inoculated two slaves and his own son.
He left a scientific legacy due to his hybridization experiments and his promotion of inoculation for disease prevention, though he is most frequently remembered today for his involvement in the Salem witch trials.

Onesimus (Boston slave)

Onesimus
A slave named Onesimus explained the inoculation procedure to Cotton Mather during the 18th century; he reported to have gotten the knowledge from Africa.
Onesimus (late 1600s–1700s ) was an African-born man held as a slave by Puritan minister Cotton Mather, who helped mitigate the impact of a smallpox outbreak in Boston by introducing Mather to the principle of inoculation.

Clopton Havers

Havers, Clopton
Two reports on the Chinese practice were received by the Royal Society in London in 1700; one by Dr. Martin Lister who received a report by an employee of the East India Company stationed in China and another by Clopton Havers.
In February 1700, Havers reported to the Royal Society on a Chinese practice of smallpox inoculation, which involved inhaling dried matter from a smallpox pustule.

Smallpox

small poxsmall-poxvariola
Soon, to avoid confusion, smallpox inoculation continued to be referred to as variolation (from variola = smallpox) and cowpox inoculation was referred to as vaccination (from Jenner's use of variolae vaccinae = smallpox of the cow).
The earliest procedure used to prevent smallpox was inoculation (known as variolation after the introduction of smallpox vaccine to avoid possible confusion), which likely occurred in India, Africa, and China well before the practice arrived in Europe.

Zabdiel Boylston

Dr. Zabdiel Boylston, FRS
The practice is documented in America as early as 1721, when Zabdiel Boylston, at the urging of Cotton Mather, successfully inoculated two slaves and his own son.
During a smallpox outbreak in 1721 in Boston, he inoculated about 248 people by applying pus from a smallpox sore to a small wound on the subjects, a method said to have been previously used in Africa.

Giacomo Pylarini

The Turkish practice was presented to the Royal Society in 1714 and 1716, when the physicians Emanuel Timoni and Giacomo Pylarini independently sent letters from Constantinople.

Joseph Omer Joly de Fleury

Joly de Fleurybanned by the ParlementOmer Joly de Fleury
In France, considerable opposition arose to the introduction of inoculation, and it was banned by the Parlement.
The practice of inoculation against smallpox was introduced to Paris by an Italian doctor named Gatti and by 1763 he had inoculated ninety-seven people.

Cowpox

cowpox virusCow Poxcow-pox
When Edward Jenner introduced smallpox vaccine in 1798, this was initially called cowpox inoculation or vaccine inoculation.

Louis Pasteur

PasteurPasteur, LouisPasteurian
Then, in 1891, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms vaccine and vaccination should be extended to include the new protective procedures being developed.

Antitoxin

antitoxinsantitoxicanti-toxin
Immunization refers to the use of all vaccines but also extends to the use of antitoxin, which contains preformed antibody such as to diphtheria or tetanus exotoxins.