Insomnia

sleeplessnesstrouble sleepingdifficulty sleepingsleep aidsleeping problemsinsomniacsleep aidsunable to sleepinsomniacslack of sleep
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.wikipedia
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Sleep disorder

sleep disorderssleep disturbancesleep disturbances
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
When a person suffers from difficulty falling asleep and/or staying asleep with no obvious cause, it is referred to as insomnia.

Sleep hygiene

careful daily sleep practices
Sleep hygiene and lifestyle changes are typically the first treatment for insomnia.
This recommendation was developed in the late 1970s as a method to help people with mild to moderate insomnia, but, the evidence for effectiveness of individual recommendations is "limited and inconclusive".

Caffeine

caffeinatedcaffeine pillscaffeine withdrawal
Conditions that can result in insomnia include psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, menopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake.
Some people experience sleep disruption or anxiety if they consume caffeine, but others show little disturbance.

Middle-of-the-night insomnia

nocturnal awakeningsmiddle-of-the-night awakeningsleep maintenance insomnia
Two-thirds of these patients wake up in the middle of the night, with more than half having trouble falling back to sleep after a middle-of-the-night awakening.
It is also called nocturnal awakenings, middle of the night awakenings, sleep maintenance insomnia, and middle insomnia. This kind of insomnia (sleeplessness) is different from initial or sleep-onset insomnia, which consists of having difficulty falling asleep at the beginning of sleep.

Delayed sleep phase disorder

delayed sleep phase syndromea delayDelayed sleep-wake phase disorder
Delayed sleep phase disorder can be misdiagnosed as insomnia, as sleep onset is delayed to much later than normal while awakening spills over into daylight hours.
It is responsible for 7–13% of patient complaints of chronic insomnia.

Nicotine

nicotine addictionnicotine sulfateaddicted to nicotine
Conditions that can result in insomnia include psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, menopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake.

MDMA

ecstasymethylenedioxymethamphetamineE
Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake.
Adverse effects include addiction, memory problems, paranoia, difficulty sleeping, teeth grinding, blurred vision, sweating, and a rapid heartbeat.

Sleep state misperception

are not aware of it
Some cases of insomnia are not really insomnia in the traditional sense, because people experiencing sleep state misperception often sleep for a normal amount of time.
While SSM is regarded a sub-type of insomnia, it is also established as a separate sleep-condition, with distinct pathophysiology.

Chronic pain

chronicpainchronic, often intermittent pain
Conditions that can result in insomnia include psychological stress, chronic pain, heart failure, hyperthyroidism, heartburn, restless leg syndrome, menopause, certain medications, and drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol.
Dopaminergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to act as a shared mechanism between chronic pain, insomnia and major depressive disorder.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapycognitive behavior therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy may be added to this.
CCBT was found to be equally effective as face-to-face CBT in adolescent anxiety and insomnia.

Sleep study

sleep studies
A sleep study may be done to look for underlying sleep disorders.
Problems sleeping at night (insomnia) : caused by stress, depression, hunger, physical discomfort, or other problem

Generalized anxiety disorder

general anxiety disordergeneralized anxietygeneralised anxiety disorder
Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, dementia, and ADHD.
Sleeping difficulties

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, dementia, and ADHD. Early morning awakening is often a characteristic of depression.
Insomnia is common among the depressed.

Methylphenidate

Ritalin(RS;SR)-Methylphenidatelevomethylphenidate
Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake.
The most commonly observed adverse effects with a frequency greater than placebo include appetite loss, dry mouth, anxiety/nervousness, nausea, and insomnia.

Shift work

shiftgraveyard shiftnight shift
Other risk factors include working night shifts and sleep apnea.
Shift work sleep disorder is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder characterized by insomnia, excessive sleepiness, or both.

Opioid use disorder

heroin addictionopioid addictionheroin addict
Use of or withdrawal from pain-relievers such as opioids.
Trouble sleeping

Fatal insomnia

fatal familial insomniafamilial fatal insomniainsomnia, fatal familial
A rare genetic condition can cause a prion-based, permanent and eventually fatal form of insomnia called fatal familial insomnia.
The main symptom is insomnia, but the disease can also cause a range of other symptoms, such as speech and physical coordination problems and dementia.

Amphetamine

speedbenzedrineamphetamines
Use of psychoactive drugs (such as stimulants), including certain medications, herbs, caffeine, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamines, methylphenidate, aripiprazole, MDMA, modafinil, or excessive alcohol intake.
At normal therapeutic doses, the most common psychological side effects of amphetamine include increased alertness, apprehension, concentration, initiative, self-confidence, and sociability, mood swings (elated mood followed by mildly depressed mood), insomnia or wakefulness, and decreased sense of fatigue.

Bipolar disorder

bipolarmanic depressionmanic depressive
Mental disorders such as bipolar disorder, clinical depression, generalized anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, schizophrenia, obsessive compulsive disorder, dementia, and ADHD.
Symptoms of the depressive phase of bipolar disorder include persistent feelings of sadness, irritability or anger, loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities, excessive or inappropriate guilt, hopelessness, sleeping too much or not enough, changes in appetite and/or weight, fatigue, problems concentrating, self-loathing or feelings of worthlessness, and thoughts of death or suicide.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.
It is used to treat anxiety disorders, trouble sleeping, active seizures including status epilepticus, alcohol withdrawal, and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Diazepam

valiumCANAdiazapam
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.
It is commonly used to treat a range of conditions including anxiety, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome, muscle spasms, seizures, trouble sleeping, and restless legs syndrome.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapines1,4-benzodiazepine
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines, such as alprazolam, clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam, are commonly used to treat insomnia in the short-term (both prescribed and self-medicated), but worsen sleep in the long-term.
These properties make benzodiazepines useful in treating anxiety, insomnia, agitation, seizures, muscle spasms, alcohol withdrawal and as a premedication for medical or dental procedures.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
Heart disease.
Sleep disorders such as [[Sleep and breathing#Sleep-disordered breathing (abnormal sleep and breathing or sleep-related breathing disorders)|sleep disordered breathing]] and insomnia, as well as particularly short duration of sleep or particularly long duration of sleep, have been found to be associated with a higher cardiometabolic risk.

Sleep

sleepingsleep architectureasleep
Insomnia, also known as sleeplessness, is a sleep disorder where people have trouble sleeping.
Humans may suffer from various sleep disorders, including dyssomnias such as insomnia, hypersomnia, narcolepsy, and sleep apnea; parasomnias such as sleepwalking and REM behavior disorder; bruxism; and circadian rhythm sleep disorders.

Depressant

depressantsdownerscentral depressant
Abuse of over-the counter or prescription sleep aids (sedative or depressant drugs) can produce rebound insomnia.
Insomnia