Institution

institutionsinstitutionalsocial institutionssocial institutionsocial organisationgovernment institutioninstitutional structuresocial organizationagenciesdemocratic institution
Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior".wikipedia
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Society

societiessocialsocietal
The term "institution" commonly applies to both informal institutions such as customs, or behavior patterns important to a society, and to particular formal institutions created by entities such as the government and public services.
Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations) between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions; a given society may be described as the sum total of such relationships among its constituent of members.

Émile Durkheim

DurkheimEmile DurkheimDurkheimian
Institutions are a principal object of study in social sciences such as political science, anthropology, economics, and sociology (the latter described by Émile Durkheim as the "science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning").
Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity, an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, and in which new social institutions have come into being.

Sociology

sociologistsociologicalsociologists
Institutions are a principal object of study in social sciences such as political science, anthropology, economics, and sociology (the latter described by Émile Durkheim as the "science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning").
As all spheres of human activity are affected by the interplay between social structure and individual agency, sociology has gradually expanded its focus to other subjects, such as health, medical, economy, military and penal institutions, the Internet, education, social capital, and the role of social activity in the development of scientific knowledge.

Marriage

married couplesopposite-sex married couplesmarried
) Most important institutions, considered abstractly, have both objective and subjective aspects: examples include money and marriage.
Typically, it is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned.

Economic system

economyeconomic systemseconomic
It includes the combination of the various institutions, agencies, entities, decision-making processes and patterns of consumption that comprise the economic structure of a given community.

Economics

economiceconomisteconomic theory
Institutions are a principal object of study in social sciences such as political science, anthropology, economics, and sociology (the latter described by Émile Durkheim as the "science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning").
Economic systems is the branch of economics that studies the methods and institutions by which societies determine the ownership, direction, and allocation of economic resources.

Sociology of education

educational sociologyeducationeducation system
The sociology of education is the study of how public institutions and individual experiences affect education and its outcomes.

Medical sociology

medical sociologistsociology of medicinehealth-related behaviors
Medical sociology is the sociological analysis of medical organizations and institutions; the production of knowledge and selection of methods, the actions and interactions of healthcare professionals, and the social or cultural (rather than clinical or bodily) effects of medical practice.

Social science

social sciencessocial scientistsocial
Institutions are a principal object of study in social sciences such as political science, anthropology, economics, and sociology (the latter described by Émile Durkheim as the "science of institutions, their genesis and their functioning").
The field generally concerns the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life.

Culture

culturalculturesculturally
The concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology, architecture and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization (including practices of political organization and social institutions), mythology, philosophy, literature (both written and oral), and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society.

Religion

religiousreligionsreligious beliefs
Primary or meta-institutions are institutions that encompass many other institutions, both formal and informal (e.g. the family, government, the economy, education, and religion.
Sociological classifications of religious movements suggest that within any given religious group, a community can resemble various types of structures, including churches, denominations, sects, cults, and institutions.

Anarchism

anarchistanarchistsanarchistic
The Marxist view—which sees human nature as historically 'evolving' towards voluntary social cooperation, shared by some anarchists—is that supra-individual institutions such as the market and the state are incompatible with the individual liberty of a truly free society.
Hence, it might be true to say that anarchism is a cluster of political philosophies opposing authority and hierarchical organization (including the state, capitalism, nationalism and all associated institutions) in the conduct of all human relations in favour of a society based on voluntary association, on freedom and on decentralisation, but this definition has the same shortcomings as the definition based on etymology (which is simply a negation of a ruler), or based on anti-statism (anarchism is much more than that) or even the anti-authoritarian (which is an a posteriori conclusion).

Historical institutionalism

institutionalisminstitutionalistHI
Historical institutionalism (HI) is a new institutionalist social science method that uses institutions to find sequences of social, political, economic behavior and change across time.

Institutional economics

institutionalinstitutionalistinstitutional economist
Institutional economics focuses on understanding the role of the evolutionary process and the role of institutions in shaping economic behaviour.

Base and superstructure

superstructurebasesuperstructures
The base determines society's other relationships and ideas to comprise its superstructure, including its culture, institutions, political power structures, roles, rituals, and state.

Social constructionism

social constructionsocially constructedsocial constructionist
While institutions tend to appear to people in society as part of the natural, unchanging landscape of their lives, study of institutions by the social sciences tends to reveal the nature of institutions as social constructions, artifacts of a particular time, culture and society, produced by collective human choice, though not directly by individual intention.
Since this common sense knowledge is negotiated by people, human typifications, significations and institutions come to be presented as part of an objective reality, particularly for future generations who were not involved in the original process of negotiation.

List of oldest institutions in continuous operation

Inclusion in this list is determined by the date at which the entity met the traditional definition of an institution – may it be public, political, religious or educational – although it may have existed as a different kind of institution before that time.

Path dependence

path dependentpath dependencypath-dependent
Over time institutions develop rules that incentivize certain behaviors over others because they present less risk or induce lower cost, and establish path dependent outcomes.
Path dependence has primarily been used in comparative-historical analyses of the development and persistence of institutions, whether they be social, political, or cultural.

Douglass North

Douglass C. NorthDouglass Cecil NorthNorth
Douglass North argues, the very emergence of an institution reflects behavioral adaptations through his application of increasing returns.
His research included property rights, transaction costs, the institutional basis of markets, and economic organization in history as well as economic development in developing countries.

Institutionalist political economy

American Institutionalist Schoolinstitutional political economyinstitutionalism
Contemporary theorists further expand this definition by emphasizing the effects of the historical shift from the classical system of laissez-faire capitalism to contemporary or neoliberal capitalism in the current international economic society, in which various institutions are major actors.

Linkage institution

* Institution

Mechanism (sociology)

mechanismsmechanismsocial mechanism
Further, institutions can refer to mechanisms of m, which govern the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community.

Behavior

behaviourbehavioralbehaviors
Further, institutions can refer to mechanisms of m, which govern the behaviour of a set of individuals within a given community.