Institutions of the European Union

EU institutionsinstitutionsEuropean institutionsEuropean Union institutionsinstitutionEU institutionEU's institutional frameworkinstitution of the European Unioninstitutions of the EUEU structures
The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision-making bodies of the European Union (EU).wikipedia
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European Parliament

EU ParliamentEP constituencyMEP
The 2009 Lisbon Treaty brought nearly all policy areas (including the budget) under the co-decision procedure (renamed "ordinary legislative procedure"), hence increasing the power of the Parliament.
The European Parliament (EP) is the legislative branch of the European Union and one of its seven institutions.

Agencies of the European Union

agency of the European Unionagencyagencies
An agency of the European Union is a decentralised body of the European Union (EU), which is distinct from the institutions.

Council of the European Union

CouncilCouncil of MinistersEU Council
The Council of Ministers adopted more qualified majority voting and the European Council was made a distinct institution with a permanent president.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council, is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

European Commission

EU CommissionCommissionEC
This EU institution operates as a cabinet government, with 28 members of the Commission (informally known as "commissioners").

European Court of Auditors

Court of AuditorsMember of the European Court of AuditorsMichael Murphy
The European Court of Auditors (ECA) (French: Cour des comptes européenne) is the fifth institution of the European Union (EU).

European Central Bank

ECBThe European Central Bankmonetary policy
Established by the Treaty of Amsterdam, the ECB is one of the world's most important central banks and serves as one of seven institutions of the European Union, being enshrined in the Treaty on European Union (TEU).

Advisory bodies to the European Union

The advisory bodies to the European Union are organisations that are created in primary law by the treaties that constitute the EU but which lie outside the Union's main institutional structure.

European Economic Community

European CommunityEECCommon Market
Most EU institutions were created with the establishment of the European Community in 1958. In 1957 the Treaties of Rome established two similar communities, creating a common market (European Economic Community) and promoting atomic energy co-operation (Euratom).
It gained a common set of institutions along with the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) as one of the European Communities under the 1965 Merger Treaty (Treaty of Brussels).

Court of Justice of the European Union

CJEUCourt of JusticeCourt of Justice of the European Communities
Seated in the Kirchberg quarter of Luxembourg City, Luxembourg, this EU institution consists of two separate courts: the Court of Justice and the General Court.

European Council

CouncilEU Council2007 EU Summit
The Council of Ministers adopted more qualified majority voting and the European Council was made a distinct institution with a permanent president.
As such, the European Council had already existed before it gained the status as an institution of the European Union with the entering into force of the Treaty of Lisbon, but even after it had been mentioned in the treaties (since the Single European Act) it could only take political decisions, not formal legal acts.

Intergovernmentalism

intergovernmentalinter-governmentalIntergovernmental relations
The second was the Council of Ministers, pushed by the smaller states also to add an intergovernmental element and harmonise national policies with those of the authority.
Institutions of the EU include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European Council, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors, and the European Parliament.

European Atomic Energy Community

EuratomEAECEuropean Atomic Energy Commission
In 1957 the Treaties of Rome established two similar communities, creating a common market (European Economic Community) and promoting atomic energy co-operation (Euratom).
It is legally distinct from the European Union (EU), but has the same membership, and is governed by many of the EU's institutions but is the only remaining community organization that is independent from the European Union and therefore outside the regulatory control of the European Parliament.

Merger Treaty

merged1967,ECSC, EEC and Euratom merged
The three communities were later merged in 1967, by the Merger Treaty, into the European Communities.
The Merger Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Brussels, was a European treaty that unified the executive institutions of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) and the Economic Community (EEC).

European Union

EUEuropeanEurope
The President of the European Council is the person responsible for chairing and driving forward the work of the institution, which has been described as the highest political body of the European Union.

Treaty on European Union

TEUEuropean Treaty
Article 13 establishes the institutions in the following order and under the following names: the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Commission, the Court of Justice of the European Union, the European Central Bank and the Court of Auditors.

President of the European Council

Council PresidentPresidentPresidency of the European Council
The President of the European Council is the person responsible for chairing and driving forward the work of the institution, which has been described as the highest political body of the European Union.
This institution comprises the college of heads of state or government of EU member states as well as the President of the European Commission, and provides political direction to the European Union (EU).

Presidency of the Council of the European Union

PresidencyCouncil PresidencyEU presidency
Its Presidency rotates between the states every six months, but every three Presidencies now cooperate on a common programme.
The presidency's function is to chair meetings of the Council, determine its agendas, set a work programme and facilitate dialogue both at Council meetings and with other EU institutions.

Citizenship of the European Union

European Union citizensEuropean citizenscitizens of the European Union
They represent nearly 500 million citizens (the world's second largest democratic electorate) and form the only directly elected body in the Union.

Treaties of the European Union

Article 21 of the EU TreatyEU treatiestreaties
It also deals with the day-to-day running of the Union and has the duty of upholding the law and treaties (in this role it is known as the "Guardian of the Treaties").
They establish the various EU institutions together with their remit, procedures and objectives.

General Court (European Union)

General CourtCourt of First InstanceEuropean Court of First Instance
It comprises the main chamber: Court of Justice, the General Court and the Civil Service Tribunal.
It hears actions taken against the institutions of the European Union by individuals and member states, although certain matters are reserved for the European Court of Justice.

European Union law

EU lawEuropean lawlaw of the European Union
The body is responsible for drafting all law of the European Union and has the ability to propose new laws (bills).
Representing agreements between all member states, the TEU focuses more on principles of democracy, human rights, and summarises the institutions, while the TFEU expands on all principles and fields of policy in which the EU can legislate.

Maastricht Treaty

Treaty of MaastrichtMaastrichtTreaty on European Union
The Maastricht Treaty also gave further powers to the Council by giving it a key role in the two new pillars of the EU which were based on intergovernmental principles.
CoR is the European Union's (EU) assembly of local and regional representatives that provides sub-national authorities (i.e. regions, municipalities, cities, etc.) with a direct voice within the EU's institutional framework.

High Authority of the European Coal and Steel Community

High AuthorityHigh Authority of theHigh Authority of the ECSC
At its core was an independent executive called the "High Authority" with supranational powers over the Community.

Barroso Commission

Barroso II CommissionBarrosoBarroso I
However, the Commission is becoming more accountable to the Parliament: in 1999 it forced the resignation of the Santer Commission and forced a reshuffle of the proposed Barroso Commission in 2004.

Languages of the European Union

EU languagesofficial languages of the European UnionLanguages of the EU
Other parallels include the jealously guarded powers of states, the considerable level of translation and the choice of a lesser city as the capital.
The three procedural languages are those used in the day-to-day workings of the institutions of the EU.