Integrated pest management

IPMgreen pesticideeconomic levelsIntegrated pest management (IPM)ecologicalgreen pest managementbiologic pesticides and herbicidesintegrative pest managementintegrated managementextracts of plants
Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC) is a broad-based approach that integrates practices for economic control of pests.wikipedia
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Biological pest control

biological controlbiocontrolbiological control agents
Biological controls—Natural biological processes and materials can provide control, with acceptable environmental impact, and often at lower cost. The main approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from naturally occurring microorganisms (e.g.—Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes), also fall in this category. Further 'biology-based' or 'ecological' techniques are under evaluation.
It can be an important component of integrated pest management (IPM) programs.

Perry Adkisson

Perry L. Adkisson
Perry Adkisson and Ray F. Smith received the 1997 World Food Prize for encouraging the use of IPM.
His academic work is known for his research on integrated pest management methods which allowed for a 50% reduction of insectiside use in U.S. agriculture.

Biopesticide

biological pesticidebiological insecticidebiological pesticides
Biological controls—Natural biological processes and materials can provide control, with acceptable environmental impact, and often at lower cost. The main approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from naturally occurring microorganisms (e.g.—Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes), also fall in this category. Further 'biology-based' or 'ecological' techniques are under evaluation.
They are often important components of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes, and have received much practical attention as substitutes to synthetic chemical plant protection products (PPPs).

Food and Agriculture Organization

FAOFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsUnited Nations Food and Agriculture Organization
The UN's Food and Agriculture Organization defines IPM as "the careful consideration of all available pest control techniques and subsequent integration of appropriate measures that discourage the development of pest populations and keep pesticides and other interventions to levels that are economically justified and reduce or minimize risks to human health and the environment. IPM emphasizes the growth of a healthy crop with the least possible disruption to agro-ecosystems and encourages natural pest control mechanisms."
During the 1990s, FAO took a leading role in the promotion of integrated pest management for rice production in Asia.

Beneficial insects

beneficial insectbeneficialgood, predatory ones
Biological controls—Natural biological processes and materials can provide control, with acceptable environmental impact, and often at lower cost. The main approach is to promote beneficial insects that eat or parasitize target pests. Biological insecticides, derived from naturally occurring microorganisms (e.g.—Bt, entomopathogenic fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes), also fall in this category. Further 'biology-based' or 'ecological' techniques are under evaluation.
Encouraging beneficial insects, by providing suitable living conditions, is a pest control strategy, often used in organic farming, organic gardening or integrated pest management.

Agriculture

farmingagriculturalagriculturist
IPM is used in agriculture, horticulture, forestry, human habitations, preventive conservation and general pest control, including structural pest management, turf pest management and ornamental pest management.
The growth of organic farming has renewed research in alternative technologies such as integrated pest management, selective breeding, and controlled-environment agriculture.

Organic farming

organicorganic agricultureorganic farm
Reliance on knowledge, experience, observation and integration of multiple techniques makes IPM appropriate for organic farming (excluding synthetic pesticides).
For example, Integrated Pest Management is a multifaceted strategy that uses various organic methods of pest control whenever possible, but in conventional farming could include synthetic pesticides only as a last resort.

World Food Prize

World Food Prize FoundationWorld Food Prize LaureateThe World Food Prize Foundation
Perry Adkisson and Ray F. Smith received the 1997 World Food Prize for encouraging the use of IPM.

Ray F. Smith

Perry Adkisson and Ray F. Smith received the 1997 World Food Prize for encouraging the use of IPM.
It was through this endeavor that Dr. Smith met and developed breakthrough techniques of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) with Dr. Perry L. Adkisson.

Pesticide resistance

resistanceherbicide resistanceresistant
Acceptable pest levels—The emphasis is on control, not eradication. IPM holds that wiping out an entire pest population is often impossible, and the attempt can be expensive and unsafe. IPM programmes first work to establish acceptable pest levels, called action thresholds, and apply controls if those thresholds are crossed. These thresholds are pest and site specific, meaning that it may be acceptable at one site to have a weed such as white clover, but not at another site. Allowing a pest population to survive at a reasonable threshold reduces selection pressure. This lowers the rate at which a pest develops resistance to a control, because if almost all pests are killed then those that have resistance will provide the genetic basis of the future population. Retaining a significant number of unresistant specimens dilutes the prevalence of any resistant genes that appear. Similarly, the repeated use of a single class of controls will create pest populations that are more resistant to that class, whereas alternating among classes helps prevent this.
Integrated pest management (IPM) approach provides a balanced approach to minimizing resistance.

Lawn

GrassturfgrassGrass pitch
Although originally developed for agricultural pest management, IPM programmes are now developed to encompass diseases, weeds and other pests that interfere with management objectives for sites such as residential and commercial structures, lawn and turf areas, and home and community gardens.
The Integrated Pest Management approach is a coordinated low impact approach.

Insecticide

insecticidesinsecticidalsystemic
Shortly after World War II, when synthetic insecticides became widely available, entomologists in California developed the concept of "supervised insect control".
Integrated pest management

Pesticide

pesticidescrop sprayingchemical pesticides
Responsible use—Synthetic pesticides are used as required and often only at specific times in a pest's life cycle. Many newer pesticides are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.—nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues), but the toxophore or active component may be altered to provide increased biological activity or stability. Applications of pesticides must reach their intended targets. Matching the application technique to the crop, the pest, and the pesticide is critical. The use of low-volume spray equipment reduces overall pesticide use and labor cost.
The term "push-pull" was established in 1987 as an approach for integrated pest management (IPM).

Fungicide

fungicidesantifungalfungicidal
Preventive cultural practices—Selecting varieties best for local growing conditions and maintaining healthy crops is the first line of defense. Plant quarantine and 'cultural techniques' such as crop sanitation are next, e.g., removal of diseased plants, and cleaning pruning shears to prevent spread of infections. Beneficial fungi and bacteria are added to the potting media of horticultural crops vulnerable to root diseases, greatly reducing the need for fungicides.
It is better to use an integrative pest management approach to disease control rather than relying on fungicides alone.

Pesticide application

applicationsprayingResponsible use
Responsible use—Synthetic pesticides are used as required and often only at specific times in a pest's life cycle. Many newer pesticides are derived from plants or naturally occurring substances (e.g.—nicotine, pyrethrum and insect juvenile hormone analogues), but the toxophore or active component may be altered to provide increased biological activity or stability. Applications of pesticides must reach their intended targets. Matching the application technique to the crop, the pest, and the pesticide is critical. The use of low-volume spray equipment reduces overall pesticide use and labor cost.
Integrated pest management (IPM)

Organic horticulture

organic gardeningorganicorganic gardener
These may or may not include materials listed on the Organic Materials Review Institute (OMRI) Although the pesticides and particularly insecticides used in organic farming and organic gardening are generally safer than synthetic pesticides, they are not always more safe or environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides and can cause harm.
Organic pest control and biological pest control can be used as part of integrated pest management (IPM).

Rodent

rodentsRodentiaRodentia indet.
Mechanical/physical controls include picking pests off plants, or using netting or other material to exclude pests such as birds from grapes or rodents from structures.
More recently, integrated pest management attempts to improve control with a combination of surveys to determine the size and distribution of the pest population, the establishment of tolerance limits (levels of pest activity at which to intervene), interventions, and evaluation of effectiveness based on repeated surveys.

Pest control

exterminatorpest managementexterminators
Pest control measures may be performed as part of an integrated pest management strategy.

Farmer Field School

The Farmer Field School (FFS) is a group-based learning process that has been used by a number of governments, NGOs and international agencies to promote Integrated Pest Management (IPM).

Museum integrated pest management

Integrated Pest Managementintegrated pest management systempest
Museum IPM is a sub specialty of Integrated pest management that focuses specifically on the application in museums and cultural institutions.

Helicoverpa zea

corn earwormcorn earworm mothtomato fruitworm
It has become resistant to many pesticides, but can be controlled with integrated pest management techniques including deep ploughing, trap crops, chemical control using mineral oil, and biological controls.

Aphid

aphidsplant licegreenfly
An integrated pest management strategy using biological pest control can work, but is difficult to achieve except in enclosed environments such as glasshouses.

Novaluron

The US Environmental Protection Agency and the Canadian Pest Management Regulatory Agency consider novaluron to pose low risk to the environment and non-target organisms, and value it an important option for integrated pest management that should decrease reliance on organophosphorus, carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides.

Herbicide

herbicidesherbicidalweed killer
Integrated pest management may use herbicides alongside other pest control methods.

Persian powder

Keating's powder
Persian powder is a green pesticide that has been used for centuries for the biological pest extermination of household insects, s, and agricultural pests.