Intel

Andy Grove, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore in 1978
Federico Faggin, designer of the Intel 4004
The die from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip
An Intel mSATA SSD
Paul Otellini, Craig Barrett and Sean Maloney in 2006
Intel microprocessor facility in Costa Rica was responsible in 2006 for 20% of Costa Rican exports and 4.9% of the country's GDP.

American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California.

- Intel

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Modern surface-mount electronic components on a printed circuit board, with a large integrated circuit at the top.

Technology company

Electronics-based technological company, including, for example, business relating to digital electronics, software, and internet-related services, such as e-commerce services.

Electronics-based technological company, including, for example, business relating to digital electronics, software, and internet-related services, such as e-commerce services.

Modern surface-mount electronic components on a printed circuit board, with a large integrated circuit at the top.

The most profitable listed in 2020 are Apple Inc., Microsoft, Alphabet Inc., Intel, Meta Platforms, Samsung, and Tencent.

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Moore's law

Observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.

Observation that the number of transistors in a dense integrated circuit doubles about every two years.

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Gordon Moore in 2004
An Osborne Executive portable computer, from 1982, with a Zilog Z80 4 MHz CPU, and a 2007 Apple iPhone with a 412 MHz ARM11 CPU; the Executive has 100 times the weight, almost 500 times the volume, approximately 10 times the inflation adjusted cost, and 1/103rd the clock frequency of the smartphone.
The trend of MOSFET scaling for NAND flash memory allows the doubling of floating-gate MOSFET components manufactured in the same wafer area in less than 18 months.
A simulation of electron density as gate voltage (Vg) varies in a nanowire MOSFET. The threshold voltage is around 0.45 V. Nanowire MOSFETs lie toward the end of the ITRS road map for scaling devices below 10 nm gate lengths.
Scanning probe microscopy image of graphene in its hexagonal lattice structure
Intel transistor gate length trend – transistor scaling has slowed down significantly at advanced (smaller) nodes

The observation is named after Gordon Moore, the co-founder of Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel (and former CEO of the latter), who in 1965 posited a doubling every year in the number of components per integrated circuit, and projected this rate of growth would continue for at least another decade.

Robert Noyce

Noyce and Gordon Moore in front of the Intel SC1 building in Santa Clara in 1970.

Robert Norton Noyce (December 12, 1927 – June 3, 1990), nicknamed "the Mayor of Silicon Valley", was an American physicist and entrepreneur who co-founded Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957 and Intel Corporation in 1968.

An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)

Personal computer

Multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

Multi-purpose microcomputer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

An artist's depiction of a 2000s-era desktop-style personal computer, which includes a metal case with the computing components, a display monitor and a keyboard (mouse not shown)
Commodore PET in 1983 (at the American Museum of Science and Energy), an early example of a personal computer
The 8-bit architecture Pravetz 82 computer produced in Bulgaria from 1982, in school class in the Soviet Union
Altair 8800 computer
The three personal computers referred to by Byte Magazine as the "1977 Trinity" of home computing: The Commodore PET, the Apple II, and the TRS-80 Model I.
IBM 5150, released in 1981
The 8-bit PMD 85 personal computer produced in 1985–1990 by the Tesla company in the former socialist Czechoslovakia
Sun SPARCstation 1+ from the early 1990s, with a 25 MHz RISC processor
A Dell OptiPlex desktop computer
A portable computer Cambridge Z88 released in 1987
A laptop computer
An HP netbook
HP Compaq tablet PC with rotating/removable keyboard
The LG G4, a typical smartphone
A screenshot of the LibreOffice Writer software
A screenshot of Krita, which is a raster graphics editor.
Children being taught how to use a laptop computer in 2005. An older (1990s-era) desktop personal computer's CRT monitor is visible in the background.
Personal computers worldwide in million distinguished by developed and developing world

Since the early 1990s, Microsoft operating systems and Intel hardware dominated much of the personal computer market, first with MS-DOS and then with Microsoft Windows.

Moore in 2004

Gordon Moore

Moore in 2004

Gordon Earle Moore (born January 3, 1929) is an American businessman, engineer, and the co-founder and chairman emeritus of Intel Corporation.

Intel i945GC Northbridge with Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2220 2.40 GHz on a Intel D945GCCR motherboard (circa 2007)

Chipset

Set of electronic components in one or more integrated circuits known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.

Set of electronic components in one or more integrated circuits known as a "Data Flow Management System" that manages the data flow between the processor, memory and peripherals.

Intel i945GC Northbridge with Intel Pentium Dual-Core E2220 2.40 GHz on a Intel D945GCCR motherboard (circa 2007)
Diagram of Commodore Amiga's Original Chip Set
A part of an IBM T42 laptop motherboard. CPU: Central processing unit. NB: Northbridge. GPU: Graphics processing unit. SB: Southbridge.

, manufacturers of chipsets for x86 motherboards include AMD, Intel, VIA Technologies and Zhaoxin.

Advanced Micro Devices

American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara, California, that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets.

AMD's former headquarters in Sunnyvale, California (demolished in 2019)
AMD's campus in Markham, Ontario, Canada, formerly ATI headquarters
AMD's LEED-certified Lone Star campus in Austin, Texas
AMD Radeon memory
AMD processor with Intel logo

He later decided to leave to start his own semiconductor company, following the footsteps of Robert Noyce (developer of the first silicon integrated circuit at Fairchild in 1959) and Gordon Moore, who together founded the semiconductor company Intel in July 1968.

Grove in 1997

Andrew Grove

Grove in 1997
Andy Grove, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore (1978)
Grove School of Engineering-CCNY
UCSF Mission Bay campus

Andrew Stephen Grove (born András István Gróf; 2 September 1936 – 21 March 2016) was a Hungarian-American businessman, engineer, and CEO of Intel Corporation. He escaped from Communist-controlled Hungary at the age of 20 and moved to the United States, where he finished his education.

250 GB mSATA SSD with an external enclosure

Solid-state drive

Solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies to store data persistently, typically using flash memory, and functioning as secondary storage in the hierarchy of computer storage.

Solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies to store data persistently, typically using flash memory, and functioning as secondary storage in the hierarchy of computer storage.

250 GB mSATA SSD with an external enclosure
512 GB Samsung M.2 NVMe SSD
An Intel mSATA SSD
An M.2 (2242) solid-state-drive (SSD) connected into USB 3.0 adapter and connected to computer.
An SSD with 1.2 TB of MLC NAND, using PCI Express as the host interface
An SSD with a 2.5-inch HDD form factor, opened to show solid-state electronics. Empty spaces next to the NAND chips are for additional NAND chips, allowing the same circuit board design to be used on several drive models with different capacities; other drives may instead use a circuit board whose size increases along with drive capacity, leaving the rest of the drive empty
A 2 GB disk-on-a-module with PATA interface
SSD benchmark, showing about 230 MB/s reading speed (blue), 210 MB/s writing speed (red) and about 0.1 ms seek time (green), all independent from the accessed disk location.
CompactFlash card used as an SSD
An SSD that uses NVM Express as the logical device interface, in the form of a PCI Express 3.0 ×4 expansion card
Viking Technology SATA Cube and AMP SATA Bridge multi-layer SSDs
Viking Technology SATADIMM based SSD
MO-297 SATA drive-on-a-module (DOM) SSD form factor
A custom-connector SATA SSD

In addition, 3D XPoint memory (sold by Intel under the Optane brand) stores data by changing the electrical resistance of cells instead of storing electrical charges in cells, and SSDs made from RAM can be used for high speed, when data persistence after power loss is not required, or may use battery power to retain data when its usual power source is unavailable.

Xen running NetBSD and three Linux distributions

Xen

Type-1 hypervisor, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.

Type-1 hypervisor, providing services that allow multiple computer operating systems to execute on the same computer hardware concurrently.

Xen running NetBSD and three Linux distributions
Xen running NetBSD and three Linux distributions

originally developed by the University of Cambridge Computer Laboratory and is now being developed by the Linux Foundation with support from Intel, Citrix, Arm Ltd, Huawei, AWS, Alibaba Cloud, AMD, Bitdefender and epam.