Intel 8080

8080i80808080AIntel 8080-based hardwareIntel 8080A8080 A8080 microprocessor8080-familyIntel 8080 CPUIntel i8080A
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.wikipedia
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8-bit

8-bit computereight-bit8
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
The first widely adopted 8-bit microprocessor was the Intel 8080, being used in many hobbyist computers of the late 1970s and early 1980s, often running the CP/M operating system; it had 8-bit data words and 16-bit addresses.

Altair 8800

MITS AltairMITS Altair 8800Altair
It became the engine of the Altair 8800, and subsequent S-100 bus personal computers, until it was replaced by the Z80 in this role, and was the original target CPU for CP/M operating systems developed by Gary Kildall. The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later).
The Altair 8800 is a microcomputer designed in 1974 by MITS and based on the Intel 8080 CPU.

CP/M

CP/M-80CP/M operating systemBDOS
It became the engine of the Altair 8800, and subsequent S-100 bus personal computers, until it was replaced by the Z80 in this role, and was the original target CPU for CP/M operating systems developed by Gary Kildall. The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later).
CP/M, originally standing for Control Program/Monitor and later Control Program for Microcomputers, (or Control Program/Micro ) is a mass-market operating system created in 1974 for Intel 8080/85-based microcomputers by Gary Kildall of Digital Research, Inc.

Zilog Z80

Z80Z80AZ-80
It became the engine of the Altair 8800, and subsequent S-100 bus personal computers, until it was replaced by the Z80 in this role, and was the original target CPU for CP/M operating systems developed by Gary Kildall. The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later). Zilog introduced the Z80, which has a compatible machine language instruction set and initially used the same assembly language as the 8080, but for legal reasons, Zilog developed a syntactically-different (but code compatible) alternative assembly language for the Z80.
The Zilog Z80 was a software-compatible extension and enhancement of the Intel 8080 and, like it, was mainly aimed at embedded systems.

Instructions per second

MIPSmillion instructions per secondprocessing speed
The initial specified clock rate or frequency limit was 2 MHz, and with common instructions using 4, 5, 7, 10, or 11 cycles this meant that it operated at a typical speed of a few hundred thousand instructions per second.

X86

x86 architectureIntel x8680x86
The 8080 was successful enough that compatibility at the assembly language level became a design requirement for the Intel 8086 when its design began in 1976, and led to the 8080 directly influencing all later variants of the ubiquitous 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architectures. The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later).
The 8086 was introduced in 1978 as a fully 16-bit extension of Intel's 8-bit 8080 microprocessor, with memory segmentation as a solution for addressing more memory than can be covered by a plain 16-bit address.

Intel 8086

808680C86Intel-8086
The 8080 was successful enough that compatibility at the assembly language level became a design requirement for the Intel 8086 when its design began in 1976, and led to the 8080 directly influencing all later variants of the ubiquitous 32-bit and 64-bit x86 architectures.
Two years later, Intel launched the 8080, employing the new 40-pin DIL packages originally developed for calculator ICs to enable a separate address bus.

S-100 bus

S-100IEEE-696S100 bus
It became the engine of the Altair 8800, and subsequent S-100 bus personal computers, until it was replaced by the Z80 in this role, and was the original target CPU for CP/M operating systems developed by Gary Kildall.
The bus signal definitions closely follow those of an 8080 microprocessor system, since the Intel 8080 microprocessor was the first microprocessor hosted on the S-100 bus.

Intel 8008

8008MCS-88008 processor
It is an extended and enhanced variant of the earlier 8008 design, although without binary compatibility.
This was followed by the Intel 8080, and then the hugely successful Intel x86 family.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessors
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
The 8008 was the precursor to the successful Intel 8080 (1974), which offered improved performance over the 8008 and required fewer support chips.

Intel

Intel CorporationIntel Corp.Intel Inside
The Intel 8080 ("eighty-eighty") was the second 8-bit microprocessor designed and manufactured by Intel and was released in April 1974.
Despite the ultimate importance of the microprocessor, the 4004 and its successors the 8008 and the 8080 were never major revenue contributors at Intel.

Gary Kildall

KnowledgeSetDorothy KildallComputer Connections: People, Places, and Events in the Evolution of the Personal Computer Industry
It became the engine of the Altair 8800, and subsequent S-100 bus personal computers, until it was replaced by the Z80 in this role, and was the original target CPU for CP/M operating systems developed by Gary Kildall.
Intel lent him systems using the 8008 and 8080 processors, and in 1973, he developed the first high-level programming language for microprocessors, called PL/M.

Half-carry flag

Auxiliary carryH
A half-carry flag (also known as an auxiliary flag or decimal adjust flag) is a condition flag bit in the status register of many CPU families, such as the Intel 8080, Zilog Z80, the x86, and the Atmel AVR series, among others.

Intel 8253

82538254Intel 8254
The 825x family was primarily designed for the Intel 8080/8085-processors, but later used in x86 compatible systems.

Processor register

registersregistergeneral purpose register
It uses the same basic instruction set and register model as the 8008 (developed by Computer Terminal Corporation), even though it is not source code compatible nor binary code compatible with its predecessor.

Intel 8255

82558255 PIO8255A
The Intel 8255 (or i8255) Programmable Peripheral Interface (PPI) chip was developed and manufactured by Intel in the first half of the 1970s for the Intel 8080 microprocessor.

Sol-20

Processor Technology Sol-20
The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later).
The design was a combination of an Intel 8080-based backplane, a VDM-1 graphics card, the 3P+S I/O card to drive a keyboard, and circuitry to connect to a cassette deck for program storage.

Radio-86RK

For simple systems, where the interrupts are not used, it is possible to find cases where this pin is used as an additional single-bit output port (the popular Radio-86RK computer made in the Soviet Union, for instance).

IMSAI 8080

IMSAI Series Two4 IMSAI 8080sImsai
The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later).
The IMSAI 8080 was an early microcomputer released in late 1975, based on the Intel 8080 and later 8085 and S-100 bus.

DOS

COM1AUX:LPT1
The 8080 is used in many early microcomputers, such as the MITS Altair 8800 Computer, Processor Technology SOL-20 Terminal Computer and IMSAI 8080 Microcomputer, forming the basis for machines running the CP/M operating system (the later, almost fully compatible and more able, Zilog Z80 processor would capitalize on this, with Z80 & CP/M becoming the dominant CPU and OS combination of the period circa 1976 to 1983 much as did the x86 & DOS for the PC a decade later).
IBM PC DOS (and the separately sold MS-DOS) and its predecessor, 86-DOS, was based on Digital Research's CP/M—the dominant disk operating system for 8-bit Intel 8080 and Zilog Z80 microcomputers—but instead ran on Intel 8086 16-bit processors.

Carry flag

Ccarrycarry bit
However, the later Intel 8080 (and Z80) did not include an explicit reset carry opcode as this could be done equally fast via one of the bitwise AND, OR or XOR instructions (which do not use the carry flag).

Zilog

Curtis J. CrawfordCurtis CrawfordZilog Incorporated
Zilog introduced the Z80, which has a compatible machine language instruction set and initially used the same assembly language as the 8080, but for legal reasons, Zilog developed a syntactically-different (but code compatible) alternative assembly language for the Z80.
Its most famous product is the Z80 series of 8-bit microprocessors that were compatible with the Intel 8080 but significantly cheaper.

Intel 8085

8085Intel 827580C85
At Intel, the 8080 was followed by the compatible and electrically more elegant 8085.
It is a software-binary compatible with the more-famous Intel 8080 with only two minor instructions added to support its added interrupt and serial input/output features.

Space Invaders

Space Invaders: The Original GameSpace InvaderINVADERS
Also, several early video arcade games were built around the 8080 microprocessor, including Space Invaders, one of the most popular arcade games ever made.
The game uses an Intel 8080 central processing unit (CPU), displays raster graphics on a CRT monitor, and uses monaural sound hosted by a combination of analog circuitry and a Texas Instruments SN76477 sound chip.

Single-board computer

single-board computersSBCsingle-board
The first single-board microcomputers, such as MYCRO-1 and the dyna-micro were based on the Intel 8080.
The first true single-board computer (see the May 1976 issue of Radio-Electronics) called the "dyna-micro" was based on the Intel C8080A, and also used Intel's first EPROM, the C1702A.