Intellectual property

intellectual property rightsIPintellectual property lawintellectual propertiesintellectual property rightIPRintellectual property protectionintellectual-propertyrightsCriticism of intellectual property
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect.wikipedia
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Trademark

trademarkstrade marktrademarked
The most well-known types are copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
A trademark (also written trade mark or trade-mark ) is a type of intellectual property consisting of a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually called service marks.

Trade secret

trade secretsproprietarysecret
The most well-known types are copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors and customers.
A trade secret is a type of intellectual property in the form of a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, commercial method, or compilation of information that is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable by others, and by which a person or company can obtain an economic advantage over competitors.

Patent

patentspatent lawpatented
The most well-known types are copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets. The Statute of Monopolies (1624) and the British Statute of Anne (1710) are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright respectively, firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property.
A patent is a form of intellectual property that gives its owner the legal right to exclude others from making, using, selling and importing an invention for a limited period of years, in exchange for publishing an enabling public disclosure of the invention.

Property

propertiesproprietarypatrimony
Intellectual property (IP) is a category of property that includes intangible creations of the human intellect.
Important widely recognized types of property include real property (the combination of land and any improvements to or on the land), personal property (physical possessions belonging to a person), private property (property owned by legal persons, business entities or individual natural persons), public property (state owned or publicly owned and available possessions) and intellectual property (exclusive rights over artistic creations, inventions, etc.), although the last is not always as widely recognized or enforced.

Intangible property

intangibleincorporealdocumentary intangibles
The intangible nature of intellectual property presents difficulties when compared with traditional property like land or goods.
Intangible property, also known as incorporeal property, describes something which a person or corporation can have ownership of and can transfer ownership to another person or corporation, but has no physical substance, for example brand identity or knowledge/intellectual property.

Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property

Paris ConventionpriorityConvention
When the administrative secretariats established by the Paris Convention (1883) and the Berne Convention (1886) merged in 1893, they located in Berne, and also adopted the term intellectual property in their new combined title, the United International Bureaux for the Protection of Intellectual Property.
The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property, signed in Paris, France, on 20 March 1883, was one of the first intellectual property treaties.

Industrial design right

industrial design rightsregistered designdesigns
Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
An industrial design right is an intellectual property right that protects the visual design of objects that are not purely utilitarian.

Integrated circuit layout design protection

mask workintegrated circuit topographieschip masks automatically copyrighted
There are also more specialized or derived varieties of sui generis exclusive rights, such as circuit design rights (called mask work rights in the US) and supplementary protection certificates for pharmaceutical products (after expiry of a patent protecting them) and database rights (in European law).
Layout designs (topographies) of integrated circuits are a field in the protection of intellectual property.

Trade dress

cover designssimilartrade-dress
Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
Trade dress is a form of intellectual property.

United States Patent and Trademark Office

U.S. Patent and Trademark OfficeUSPTOU.S. Patent Office
In 2013 the United States Patent & Trademark Office approximated that the worth of intellectual property to the U.S. economy is more than US $5 trillion and creates employment for an estimated 18 million American people.
The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is an agency in the U.S. Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.

Sui generis

special casegenre-defyingintellectual theft
There are also more specialized or derived varieties of sui generis exclusive rights, such as circuit design rights (called mask work rights in the US) and supplementary protection certificates for pharmaceutical products (after expiry of a patent protecting them) and database rights (in European law).
Generally speaking, protection for intellectual property extends to intellectual creations in order to incentivize innovation, and depends upon the nature of the work and its characteristics.

David K. Levine

David Levine
In the United States Article I Section 8 Clause 8 of the Constitution, commonly called the Patent and Copyright Clause, reads; "[The Congress shall have power] 'To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.'" ”Some commentators, such as David Levine and Michele Boldrin, dispute this justification.
His research includes the study of intellectual property and endogenous growth in dynamic general equilibrium models, the endogenous formation of preferences, social norms and institutions, learning in games, and game theory applications to experimental economics.

Michele Boldrin

In the United States Article I Section 8 Clause 8 of the Constitution, commonly called the Patent and Copyright Clause, reads; "[The Congress shall have power] 'To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries.'" ”Some commentators, such as David Levine and Michele Boldrin, dispute this justification.
Michele Boldrin (20 August 1956) is an Italian-born economist, expert in economic growth, business cycles, technological progress and intellectual property.

World Intellectual Property Organization

WIPOWorld Intellectual Property OrganisationWorld Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
The organization subsequently relocated to Geneva in 1960, and was succeeded in 1967 with the establishment of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) by treaty as an agency of the United Nations.
WIPO was created in 1967 "to encourage creative activity, to promote the protection of intellectual property throughout the world".

Pension led funding

pension-led fundingsecured pension lending
In the UK, IP has become a recognised asset class for use in pension-led funding and other types of business finance.
The money can then be used for the provision of a secured commercial loan, the purchase of commercial property, *the purchase of intellectual property assets, or the purchase of share capital (ordinary and redeemable preference shares).

Business

for-profitenterprisefirm
A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors and customers.
Businesses often have important "intellectual property" that needs protection from competitors for the company to stay profitable.

Stephan Kinsella

N. Stephan KinsellaOthers
Stephan Kinsella has objected to intellectual property on the grounds that the word "property" implies scarcity, which may not be applicable to ideas.
Norman Stephan Kinsella (born 1965) is an American intellectual property lawyer, author, and deontological anarcho-capitalist.

Mark Lemley

Lemley, Mark A.Mark A. LemleyMark Lemley (Stanford University)
According to legal scholar Mark Lemley, it was only at this point that the term really began to be used in the United States (which had not been a party to the Berne Convention), and it did not enter popular usage there until passage of the Bayh-Dole Act in 1980.

Statute of Monopolies

Statute of Monopolies 1623statute forbidding such action1624 English Statute of Monopolies
The Statute of Monopolies (1624) and the British Statute of Anne (1710) are seen as the origins of patent law and copyright respectively, firmly establishing the concept of intellectual property.

Intellectual rights

author's rightsintellectual right
In civil law jurisdictions, intellectual property has often been referred to as intellectual rights, traditionally a somewhat broader concept that has included moral rights and other personal protections that cannot be bought or sold.
This notion is more commonly referred to as "intellectual property", though "intellectual rights" more aptly describes the nature of the protections afforded by most nations.

Geographical indication

Australian Geographical IndicationGeographical IndicationsAppellation of Origin
Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
By contrast, in the United States, the naming is generally considered to be a matter of intellectual property.

Artificial scarcity

artificially smallexcessiveexpensive because of its rarity
Other arguments along these lines claim that unlike the situation with tangible property, there is no natural scarcity of a particular idea or information: once it exists at all, it can be re-used and duplicated indefinitely without such re-use diminishing the original.
Even though ideas as illustrated above can be shared with less constraints than physical goods, they are often treated as unique, scarce, inventions or creative works, and thus allotted protection as intellectual properties in order to allow the original authors to potentially profit from their own work.

Exclusive right

franchiseexclusive rightsexclusive
A copyright gives the creator of an original work exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time.
These rights are sometimes spoken of under the umbrella term "intellectual property."

Sybaris

SybaritessybariticSybarite
In 500 BCE, the government of the Greek state of Sybaris offered one year's patent "to all who should discover any new refinement in luxury".
According to him they invented the chamber pot and pioneered the concept of intellectual property to ensure that cooks could exclusively profit from their signature dishes for a whole year.

Plant breeders' rights

plant variety rightsbreeders' rightsplant patent
Intellectual property rights include patents, copyright, industrial design rights, trademarks, plant variety rights, trade dress, geographical indications, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.
While the current legislature of the convention recognizes novel varieties of plants as intellectual property, laws were formed concerning the preservation of seeds for future plantation, such that the need to buy seeds to use in subsequent planting seasons would be significantly reduced, and even potentially eliminated altogether.